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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(73): 10880-10883, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435634

RESUMO

Using α-manganese dioxide (α-MnO2) nanowires as the air electrode, a K-O2 nanobattery is assembled in an aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscope. It is found that the α-MnO2 nanowires are reduced into Mn3O4 and MnO during discharge; meanwhile, KO2 is formed on the surface of the α-MnO2 nanowires.

2.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 2134-2138, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146602

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to explore the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2) gene and Parkinson's disease susceptibility, including IVS4 + 10A > C (rs72796353) and a missense mutation at exon 9 (c.2857A > G p.K953E). Methods: Rs72796353 and c.2857A > G p.K953E polymorphisms of NOD2 gene were genotyped via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 125 cases with PD and 120 healthy controls. Genotype and allele frequencies differences of gene polymorphisms between the case and control groups were analyzed by the Chi-square test. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to indicate the relative susceptibility to PD. Furthermore, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was evaluated by the χ2 test in controls. Results: Neither genotypes nor allele of rs72796353 was significantly different in cases and control groups (p > .05). Differently, AG/GG genotype of NOD2 2857 A > G polymorphism were associated with the increased risk of PD (OR = 2.486, 95%CI = 1.223-5.056), and G allele carriers were 2.563 times risk to suffer from PD (OR = 2.563, 95%CI = 1.310-5.013). Besides, AG genotype might be also a risk factor for PD. Conclusion: NOD2 c.2857A > G p.K953E polymorphism may be correlated with PD susceptibility in Chinese Han population, but not rs727796353. Further study should be conduct to certify this conclusion.

3.
J Exp Med ; 216(9): 1986-1998, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235509

RESUMO

IL-6 excess is central to the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory conditions and is targeted in clinical practice by immunotherapy that blocks the IL-6 receptor encoded by IL6R We describe two patients with homozygous mutations in IL6R who presented with recurrent infections, abnormal acute-phase responses, elevated IgE, eczema, and eosinophilia. This study identifies a novel primary immunodeficiency, clarifying the contribution of IL-6 to the phenotype of patients with mutations in IL6ST, STAT3, and ZNF341, genes encoding different components of the IL-6 signaling pathway, and alerts us to the potential toxicity of drugs targeting the IL-6R.

4.
Neurobiol Dis ; 130: 104492, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vincristine, a widely used antineoplastic agent, is known to be neurotoxic and to lead to chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which is characterized by nerve damage. Growing evidence suggests that disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis in peripheral neurons contributes largely to the pathological conditions of CIPN. Our previous study showed that forced expression of a peripheral nerve injury-induced small heat shock protein (Hsp), Hsp27, accelerates axon regeneration and functional recovery. In the current study, we examined whether neuronal expression of human Hsp27 (hHsp27) can prevent the inhibitory effects of vincristine in two mouse models of peripheral nerve injury, namely, sciatic nerve crush and CIPN. METHODS: The protective effects of hHsp27 against vincristine were examined in mouse models of both sciatic nerve crush and CIPN using multiple approaches, including animal behavioral tests, histology, electrophysiology, transmission electron microscopy and calcium imaging. RESULTS: Vincristine delayed functional recovery in littermate mice; however, hHsp27 Tg mice were unaffected after vincristine treatment and sciatic nerve crush. In CIPN mice, hHsp27 protected against vincristine-induced mechanical and cold allodynia by preventing axonal degeneration, demyelination, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. Strikingly, vincristine-induced calcium influx was markedly attenuated in sensory neurons of hHsp27 Tg mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that preserving myelin and mitochondrial integrity as well as maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis is beneficial for preventing CIPN, and these findings shed new light on the development of anti-CIPN drugs.

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(4): 401-413, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037583

RESUMO

MALT1 (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1) is an intracellular signaling protein that activates NFκB and is crucial for both the adaptive and innate immune responses. Only 6 patients with immune deficiencies secondary to inherited mutations in the MALT1 gene have been described. PURPOSE: To provide clinical and immunological insights from 2 patients diagnosed with MALT1 immunodeficiency syndrome due to a novel MALT1 mutation. METHODS: Two cousins with suspected combined immunodeficiency underwent immunological and genetic work-up, including lymphocyte phenotyping, lymphocyte activation by mitogen stimulation, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of T cell receptor gamma chain (TRG) repertoire. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify the underlying genetic defect. RESULTS: Clinical findings included recurrent infections, failure to thrive, lymphadenopathy, dermatitis, and autoimmunity. Immune work-up revealed lymphocytosis, low to normal levels of immunoglobulins, absence of regulatory T cells, and low Th17 cells. A normal proliferative response was induced by phytohemagglutinin and IL-2 but was diminished with anti-CD3. TRG repertoire was diverse with a clonal expansion pattern. Genetic analysis identified a novel autosomal recessive homozygous c.1799T>A; p. I600N missense mutation in MALT1. MALT1 protein expression was markedly reduced, and in vitro IL-2 production and NFκB signaling pathway were significantly impaired. CONCLUSIONS: Two patients harboring a novel MALT1 mutation presented with signs of immune deficiency and dysregulation and were found to have an abnormal T cell receptor repertoire. These findings reinforce the link between MALT1 deficiency and combined immunodeficiency. Early diagnosis is crucial, and curative treatment by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be warranted.

7.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(10): 1099-1104, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131747

RESUMO

Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a common disease that occurs frequently. Due to various etiologies, the blood supply directed to the femoral head is interrupted in patients with ONFH. This disease can result in degeneration and necrosis of the subchondral bone of the femoral head, which ultimately cause a collapse of the femoral head. Of note, ONFH can extremely affect the quality of living of patients with a high disability rate. Also, this disease often includes middle-aged and younger people. However, effective treatments of ONFH are still challenging in clinics. In recent years, stem cells have been profoundly studied and a relevant new technology has been developed rapidly and applied for regenerative medicine. A number of reports have demonstrated successful results of the treatment of ONFH by using stem cell transplantation. By the combination of minimally invasive hip decompression and injection of mesenchymal stem cells into the necrotic lesion, the retrospective analysis of patients treated revealed that significant pain relief was observed in 86% patients and they had no major complications after treatment. Thus, stem cell transplantation is anticipated to be applied as an innovative approach in the treatment of ONFH. This review will summarize results obtained from recent human and animal studies, which include the pathophysiological process of ONFH, current techniques and effects of using stem cells on the treatment of ONFH together with pharmacological aspects. Overall, the current evidence reveals the treatment of ONFH using stem cell technology as promising. Nonetheless, additional in-depth studies are necessary to better explore the application of this technology and seek more ideal approaches to minimize difficulties related to stem cells.

8.
Cell Res ; 29(6): 506, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110248

RESUMO

In the initial published version of this article, there was an error in the "MATERIALS AND METHODS" section. The catalog number of PEGMMA500 for preparing tB-PEG dehydration solution and BB-PEG clearing medium was listed as Sigma-Aldrich 409529. The correct catalog number should be Sigma-Aldrich 447943. The catalogue number for the same chemical provided in the Supplementary data S1 is correct. This correction does not affect the description of the results or the conclusions of this work.

9.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215208, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973934

RESUMO

SIRT1, a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, protects neurons in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative disease. We have previously described a neuroprotective effect by SIRT1 independent of its catalytic activity. To confirm this conclusion we tested a panel of SIRT1 deletion mutant constructs, designated Δ1-Δ10, in cerebellar granule neurons induced to undergo apoptosis by low potassium treatment. We find that deletions of its N-terminal, those lacking portions of the catalytic domain, as well as one that lacks the ESA (Essential for SIRT1 Activity) motif, are as protective as wild-type SIRT1. In contrast, deletion of the region spanning residues 542-609, construct Δ8, substantially reduced the neuroprotective activity of SIRT1. As observed with LK-induced apoptosis, all SIRT1 constructs except Δ8 protect neurons against mutant huntingtin toxicity. Although its own catalytic activity is not required, neuroprotection by SIRT1 is abolished by inhibitors of Class I HDACs as well as by knockdown of endogenous HDAC1. We find that SIRT1 interacts with HDAC1 and this interaction is greatly increased by deleting regions of SIRT1 necessary for its catalytic activity. However, SIRT1-mediated protection is not dependent on HDAC1 deacetylase activity. Although other studies have described that catalytic activity of SIRT1 mediates is neuroprotective effect, our study suggests that in cerebellar granule neurons its deacetylase activity is not important and that HDAC1 contributes to the neuroprotective effect of SIRT1.

10.
Gastroenterology ; 156(8): 2297-2312, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor contribute to the development of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). We investigated these signaling pathways and the involvement of G protein subunit alpha i1 (GNAI1), GNAI2, and GNAI3 in the development of CAC in mice and humans. METHODS: B6;129 wild-type (control) or mice with disruption of Gnai1, Gnai2, and/or Gnai3 or conditional disruption of Gnai2 in CD11c+ or epithelial cells were given dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis followed by azoxymethane (AOM) to induce carcinogenesis; some mice were given an antibody against IL6. Feces were collected from mice, and the compositions of microbiomes were analyzed by polymerase chain reactions. Dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) isolated from spleen and colon tissues were analyzed by flow cytometry. We performed immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses of colon tumor tissues, MDSCs, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts to study the expression levels of GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 and the interactions of GNAI1 and GNAI3 with proteins in the IL6 signaling pathway. We analyzed the expression of Gnai2 messenger RNA by CD11c+ cells in the colonic lamina propria by PrimeFlow, expression of IL6 in DCs by flow cytometry, and secretion of cytokines in sera and colon tissues by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We obtained colon tumor and matched nontumor tissues from 83 patients with colorectal cancer having surgery in China and 35 patients with CAC in the United States. Mouse and human colon tissues were analyzed by histology, immunoblot, immunohistochemistry, and/or RNA-sequencing analyses. RESULTS: GNAI1 and GNAI3 (GNAI1;3) double-knockout (DKO) mice developed more severe colitis after administration of DSS and significantly more colonic tumors than control mice after administration of AOM plus DSS. Development of increased tumors in DKO mice was not associated with changes in fecal microbiomes but was associated with activation of nuclear factor (NF) κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3; increased levels of GNAI2, nitric oxide synthase 2, and IL6; increased numbers of CD4+ DCs and MDSCs; and decreased numbers of CD8+ DCs. IL6 was mainly produced by CD4+/CD11b+, but not CD8+, DCs in DKO mice. Injection of DKO mice with a blocking antibody against IL6 reduced the expansion of MDSCs and the number of tumors that developed after CAC induction. Incubation of MDSCs or mouse embryonic fibroblasts with IL6 induced activation of either NF-κB by a JAK2-TRAF6-TAK1-CHUK/IKKB signaling pathway or STAT3 by JAK2. This activation resulted in expression of GNAI2, IL6 signal transducer (IL6ST, also called GP130) and nitric oxide synthase 2, and expansion of MDSCs; the expression levels of these proteins and expansion of MDSCs were further increased by the absence of GNAI1;3 in cells and mice. Conditional disruption of Gnai2 in CD11c+ cells of DKO mice prevented activation of NF-κB and STAT3 and changes in numbers of DCs and MDSCs. Colon tumor tissues from patients with CAC had reduced levels of GNAI1 and GNAI3 and increased levels of GNAI2 compared with normal tissues. Further analysis of a public human colorectal tumor DNA microarray database (GSE39582) showed that low Gani1 and Gnai3 messenger RNA expression and high Gnai2 messenger RNA expression were significantly associated with decreased relapse-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: GNAI1;3 suppresses DSS-plus-AOM-induced colon tumor development in mice, whereas expression of GNAI2 in CD11c+ cells and IL6 in CD4+/CD11b+ DCs appears to promote these effects. Strategies to induce GNAI1;3, or block GNAI2 and IL6, might be developed for the prevention or therapy of CAC in patients.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Colite/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha , Carcinogênese , Colite/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-16/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transdução de Sinais/genética
11.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 22(1): 49-58, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the current status of diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis (AA) in China. METHODS: Questionnaire survey was used to retrospectively collect data of hospitalized patients with AA from 43 medical centers nationwide in 2017 (Sort by number of cases provided: Jinling Hospital of Medical School of Nanjing University, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Lu'an People's Hospital, Tengzhou Central People's Hospital, Dalian Central Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Dongying People's Hospital, Jinjiang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Huangshan Shoukang Hospital, Xuyi People's Hospital, Nanjing Jiangbei People's Hospital, Lanzhou 940th Hospital of PLA, Heze Municipal Hospital, The First College of Clinical Medical Science of China Three Gorges University, Affiliated Jiujiang Hospital of Nanchang University, The Second People's Hospital of Hefei, Affiliated Central Hospital of Shandong Zaozhuang Mining Group, The Third People's Hospital of Kunshan City, Xuzhou First People's Hospital, The 81st Group Army Hospital of PLA, Linyi Central Hospital, The General Hospital of Huainan Eastern Hospital Group, The 908th Hospital of PLA, Liyang People's Hospital, The 901th Hospital of Joint Logistic Support Force, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, The Fourth Hospital of Jilin University, Harbin Acheng District People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Nanjing Luhe People's Hospital, Taixing Municipal People's Hospital, Baotou Central Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Linyi People's Hospital, The 72st Group Army Hospital of PLA, Zaozhuang Municipal Hospital, People's Hospital of Dayu County, Taixing City Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Suzhou Municipal Hospital, Beijing Guang'anmen Hospital, Langxi County Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanyang Central Hospital, The Affiliated People's Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University).The diagnosis and management of AA were analyzed through unified summary. Different centers collected and summarized their data in 2017 and sent back the questionnaires for summary. RESULTS: A total of 8 766 AA patients were enrolled from 43 medical centers, including 4 711 males (53.7%) with median age of 39 years and 958 (10.9%) patients over 65 years old. Of 8 776 patients, 5 677 cases (64.6%) received one or more imaging examinations, and the other 3 099 (35.4%) did not receive any imaging examination. A total of 1 858 (21.2%) cases received medical treatment, mainly a combination of nitroimidazoles (1 107 cases, 59.8%) doublet regimen, followed by a single-agent regimen of non-nitroimidazoles (451 cases, 24.4%), a nitroimidazole-free doublet regimen (134 cases, 7.2%), a triple regimen of combined nitroimidazoles (116 cases, 6.3%), nitroimidazole alone (39 cases, 2.1%) and nitroimidazole-free triple regimen (3 cases, 0.2%). Of the 6 908 patients (78.8%) who underwent surgery, 4 319 (62.5%) underwent laparoscopic appendectomy and 2589 (37.5%) underwent open surgery. Ratio of laparotomy was higher in those patients under 16 years old (392 cases) or over 65 years old (258 cases) [15.1%(392/2 589) and 10.0%(258/2 589), respectively, compared with 8.5%(367/4 316) and 8.0%(347/4 316) in the same age group for laparoscopic surgery, χ²=91.415, P<0.001; χ²=15.915,P<0.001]. Patients with complicated appendicitis had higher ratio of undergoing open surgery as compared to those undergoing laparoscopic surgery [26.7%(692/2 589) vs. 15.6%(672/4 316), χ²=125.726, P<0.001].The cure rates of laparoscopic and open surgery were 100.0% and 99.8%(2 585/2 589) respectively without significant difference (P=0.206). Postoperative complication rates were 4.5%(121/2 589) and 4.7%(196/4 316) respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (χ²=0.065, P=0.799). The incidence of surgical site infection was lower (0.6% vs. 1.7%, χ²=17.315, P<0.001), and hospital stay was shorter [6(4-7) days vs. 6(5-8) days, U=4 384 348.0, P<0.001] in the laparoscopic surgery group, while hospitalization cost was higher (median 12 527 yuan vs. 9 342 yuan, U=2 586 809.0, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of acute appendicitis is still clinically based, supplemented by imaging examination. Appendectomy is still the most effective treatment at present. Laparoscopic appendectomy has become the main treatment strategy, but anti-infective drugs are also very effective.


Assuntos
Apendicite/diagnóstico , Apendicite/terapia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Apendicectomia , China , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Nat Prod ; 82(2): 259-264, 2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30672698

RESUMO

The therapeutic potential of adiponectin regulation has received interest because of its association with diverse human disease conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Phenylethylchromone derivatives from Aquilaria malaccensis-derived agarwood promoted adiponectin secretion during adipogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, and 5,6-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (1) was identified as a new chromone derivative. A target identification study with the most potent adiponectin-secretion-promoting phenylethylchromones, 6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (3) and 7-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (4), showed that they are PPARγ partial agonists. Therefore, the diverse therapeutic effects of agarwood are associated with a PPARγ-mediated adiponectin-secretion-promoting mechanism.

13.
iScience ; 12: 66-75, 2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677740

RESUMO

Various in situ synthesis methods have been developed for the polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene monomers, such as electropolymerization, oxidative chemical vapor deposition, and vapor phase polymerization. Meeting industrial requirements through these techniques has, however, proven challenging. Here, we introduce an alternative method to fabricate highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films in situ by solution means. The process involves sequential deposition of oxidants (V2O5 in this case) and monomers. Excess reactants and by-products can be completely removed from the PEDOT film by MeOH rinsing. The obtained PEDOT films possess good crystallinity and high doping level, with carrier concentration three orders of magnitude higher than that of the commercial product (PH1000, Heraeus GmbH). The electrical conductivity of the as-cast PEDOT film reaches up to 1,420 S/cm. In addition, this method is fully compatible with large-scale printing techniques. These PEDOT conducting films enable the realization of flexible touch sensors, which demonstrate superior flexibility and sensitivity.

14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(3): 2230-2237, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The expression of follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) is closely associated with diseases of the musculoskeletal system. However, despite being a well characterized inflammatory mediator, the effects of FSTL1 on chondrocytes are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of FSTL1 on the expression of inflammatory and catabolic factors in rat chondrocytes. METHODS: Rat chondrocytes were treated directly with various concentrations of FSTL1 in vitro. The levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 were measured by polymerase chain reaction, ELISA and Western blotting. In addition, activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway was explored to identify potential regulatory mechanisms. RESULTS: Follistatin-like protein 1 directly increased the expression of MMP-1, MMP-13, iNOS, COX-2, IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6 at both gene and protein level in a dose-dependent manner. Activation of NF- κB and phosphorylation of p65 were also promoted by FSTL1 stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Follistatin-like protein 1 exerts pro-inflammatory and catabolic effects on cultured chondrocytes via activation of the NF-κB signalling pathway. FSTL1 may therefore be a target in the treatment of OA.

15.
Acta Biomater ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508657

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects hundreds of million people worldwide and the impaired bone healing is an important DM-related complication. Understanding how DM affects the activities of osteoclasts and the underlying mechanisms is crucial to the development of effective approaches for accelerating bone healing in DM condition. To date, however, the influence of DM on osteoclasts remains obscure and controversial. In this study, we established a type 2 DM (T2DM) alveolar bone defect model, which closely simulates the pathogenesis of human T2DM, to explore the diabetic osteoclast activity during bone regeneration. We found that a high glucose concentration diminished the formation of osteoclasts, and the differentiation and function of osteoclasts from T2DM rats were suppressed. The degradation of matrix by osteoclasts was significantly reduced at a high glucose concentration. In vivo experiments further indicated that T2DM inhibited osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity, and delayed the degradation of matrix during the alveolar bone regeneration in T2DM rats. Our work clarifies the influence of T2DM on osteoclasts, and provides valuable insights for the design of novel scaffolding materials that target on osteoclasts for T2DM bone regeneration. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Impaired bone healing is one of the diabetes mellitus (DM)-related complications. Understanding how DM affects osteoclast activity and scaffolding matrix degradation is pivotal to the development of effective approaches for accelerating bone healing in DM condition. Currently, the influences of DM on osteoclast activity and matrix degradation in bone defect areas, however, remain controversial and obscure. Herein, we established a type 2 DM (T2DM) alveolar bone defect model and our results show that T2DM inhibited osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity, and delayed the degradation of scaffolding matrix. Our work clarifies the influence of T2DM on osteoclasts and matrix degradation, and provides insights for the design of novel scaffolding materials that target on osteoclasts for T2DM bone regeneration.

16.
J Hepatol ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell-based immunotherapy is effective as adjuvant therapy in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but lacks efficacy in advanced HCC. We investigated immune suppressor mechanisms focuing on CIKs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). METHODS: MDSCs were quantified by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. Cytokines were detected by cytokine array. An LDH cytotoxicity assay was performed in the presence or absence of MDSCs to study CIK function against HCC cells in vitro. An FDA approved PDE5 inhibitor, tadalafil, was used to target MDSCs in vitro and in vivo. Two different murine HCC cell lines were tested in subcutaneous and orthotopic tumor models in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. The anti-tumor effects of human CIKs and MDSCs were also tested in vitro. RESULTS: Adoptive cell transfer of CIKs into tumor bearing mice induced inflammatory mediators (e.g., CX3CL1, IL-13) in the tumor microenvironment and an increase of tumor infiltrating MDSCs leading to impaired anti-tumor activity in two different HCC tumor models. MDSCs efficiently suppressed the cytotoxic activity of CIKs in vitro. In contrast, treatment with a PDE5 inhibitor reversed the MDSC suppressor function via ARG1 and iNOS blockade and systemic treatment with a PDE5 inhibitor prevented MDSC accumulation in the tumor microenvironment upon CIK cell therapy and increased its anti-tumor efficacy. Similar results were observed when human CIKs were tested in vitro in the presence of CD14+HLA-DR-/low MDSCs. Treatment of MDSCs with a PDE5 inhibitor suppressed MDSCs suppressor function and enhanced CIK activity against human HCC cell lines in vitro. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that targeting MDSCs is an efficient strategy to enhance the antitumor efficacy of CIKs for the treatment of patients with HCC. Lay Summary CIK cells are a mixture of immune cells given to eliminate cancer cells. However, not all patients respond to this treatment. Here we show in two different liver cancer models that MDSCs are increased in response to CIK cell therapy and subsequently may be targeted with medication to provide an additional therapeutic benefit.

17.
J Biol Chem ; 293(45): 17454-17463, 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257864

RESUMO

Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is a member of the arginine methyltransferase protein family that critically mediates the symmetric dimethylation of Arg-3 at histone H4 (H4R3me2s) and is involved in many key cellular processes, including hematopoiesis. However, the post-translational modifications (PTMs) of PRMT5 that may affect its biological functions remain less well-understood. In this study, using MS analyses, we found that PRMT5 itself is methylated in human erythroleukemia Lys-562 cells. Biochemical assays revealed that coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) interacts directly with and methylates PRMT5 at Arg-505 both in vivo and in vitro. Substitutions at Arg-505 significantly reduced PRMT5's methyltransferase activity, decreased H4R3me2s enrichment at the γ-globin gene promoter, and increased the expression of the γ-globin gene in Lys-562 cells. Moreover, CARM1 knockdown consistently reduced PRMT5 activity and activated γ-globin gene expression. Importantly, we show that CARM1-mediated methylation of PRMT5 is essential for the intracellular homodimerization of PRMT5 to its active form. These results thus reveal a critical PTM of PRMT5 that represses human γ-globin gene expression. We conclude that CARM1-mediated asymmetric methylation of PRMT5 is critical for its dimerization and methyltransferase activity leading to the repression of γ-globin expression. Given PRMT5's crucial role in diverse cellular processes, these findings may inform strategies for manipulating its methyltransferase activity for managing hemoglobinopathy or cancer.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory skin disease that is known to be, at least in part, genetically determined. Mutations in caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 14 (CARD14) have been shown to result in various forms of psoriasis and related disorders. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify rare DNA variants conferring a significant risk for AD through genetic and functional studies in a cohort of patients affected with severe AD. METHODS: Whole-exome and direct gene sequencing, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, ELISA, and functional assays in human keratinocytes were used. RESULTS: In a cohort of patients referred with severe AD, DNA sequencing revealed in 4 patients 2 rare heterozygous missense mutations in the gene encoding CARD14, a major regulator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). A dual luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that both mutations exert a dominant loss-of-function effect and result in decreased NF-κB signaling. Accordingly, immunohistochemistry staining showed decreased expression of CARD14 in patients' skin, as well as decreased levels of activated p65, a surrogate marker for NF-κB activity. CARD14-deficient or mutant-expressing keratinocytes displayed abnormal secretion of key mediators of innate immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Although dominant gain-of-function mutations in CARD14 are associated with psoriasis and related diseases, loss-of-function mutations in the same gene are associated with a severe variant of AD.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3914, 2018 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237502

RESUMO

The originally published version of this Article contained an error in Figure 4. The bar chart in panel f was inadvertently replaced with a duplicate of the bar chart in panel e. This error has now corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caspase activation and recruitment domain 11 (CARD11) encodes a scaffold protein in lymphocytes that links antigen receptor engagement with downstream signaling to nuclear factor κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. Germline CARD11 mutations cause several distinct primary immune disorders in human subjects, including severe combined immune deficiency (biallelic null mutations), B-cell expansion with nuclear factor κB and T-cell anergy (heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations), and severe atopic disease (loss-of-function, heterozygous, dominant interfering mutations), which has focused attention on CARD11 mutations discovered by using whole-exome sequencing. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the molecular actions of an extended allelic series of CARD11 and to characterize the expanding range of clinical phenotypes associated with heterozygous CARD11 loss-of-function alleles. METHODS: Cell transfections and primary T-cell assays were used to evaluate signaling and function of CARD11 variants. RESULTS: Here we report on an expanded cohort of patients harboring novel heterozygous CARD11 mutations that extend beyond atopy to include other immunologic phenotypes not previously associated with CARD11 mutations. In addition to (and sometimes excluding) severe atopy, heterozygous missense and indel mutations in CARD11 presented with immunologic phenotypes similar to those observed in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 loss of function, dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, neutropenia, and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked-like syndrome. Pathogenic variants exhibited dominant negative activity and were largely confined to the CARD or coiled-coil domains of the CARD11 protein. CONCLUSION: These results illuminate a broader phenotypic spectrum associated with CARD11 mutations in human subjects and underscore the need for functional studies to demonstrate that rare gene variants encountered in expected and unexpected phenotypes must nonetheless be validated for pathogenic activity.

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