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1.
Eye (Lond) ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the expressions of SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS2) genes in human and mouse ocular cells and comparison to other tissue cells. METHODS: Human conjunctiva and primary pterygium tissues were collected from pterygium patients who underwent surgery. The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes was determined in human primary conjunctival and pterygium cells, human ocular and other tissue cell lines, mesenchymal stem cells as well as mouse ocular and other tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and SYBR green PCR. RESULTS: RT-PCR analysis showed consistent expression by 2 ACE2 gene primers in 2 out of 3 human conjunctival cells and pterygium cell lines. Expression by 2 TMPRSS2 gene primers could only be found in 1 out of 3 pterygium cell lines, but not in any conjunctival cells. Compared with the lung A549 cells, similar expression was noted in conjunctival and pterygium cells. In addition, mouse cornea had comparable expression of Tmprss2 gene and lower but prominent Ace2 gene expression compared with the lung tissue. CONCLUSION: Considering the necessity of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 for SARS-CoV-2 infection, our results suggest that conjunctiva would be less likely to be infected by SARS-CoV-2, whereas pterygium possesses some possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection. With high and consistent expression of Ace2 and Tmprss2 in cornea, cornea rather than conjunctiva has higher potential to be infected by SARS-CoV-2. Precaution is necessary to prevent possible SARS-CoV-2 infection through ocular surface in clinical practice.

2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 127: 110125, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361163

RESUMO

Connexin-43 (Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein in the nervous system. It enables cell communication and has important physiological roles including ion transport and substrate exchange, all of which have been implicated in cerebral ischemia injury. Our previous in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that Cx43 is internalized and degraded during ischemia stress. However, the significance of ischemia-induced degradation of Cx43 remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrated that Cx43 degradation during ischemia injury is mediated by selective autophagy; additionally, we identified two related autophagy receptors-OPTN and NDP52. Cx43 degradation during ischemia requires its phosphorylation and ubiquitination, which are mediated by PKC, Src kinases, and ubiquitin kinase PINK1. Using point mutagenesis, we identified three phosphorylation sites underlying Cx43 autophagy degradation under ischemic stress. Cx43 degradation inhibition promoted the transition of astrocytes from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory status, based on the levels of IL-10 and TNF in ischemia. Knockdown or accelerated degradation of Cx43 protected astrocytes from apoptosis under ischemic stress. These findings elucidate the underlying mechanism of astrocytic Cx43 autophagic degradation during ischemia. The study has identified potentially novel therapeutic strategies against ischemic stroke and evidence of crosstalk between autophagic degradation of Cx43, astrocytic apoptosis, and neuroinflammation.

3.
J Neurol Sci ; 413: 116775, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197118

RESUMO

The development of effective treatment for ischemic stroke, which is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, remains an unmet goal because the current first-line treatment management interventional therapy has a strict time window and serious complications. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has shown that the elevation of intracellular and extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) alleviates brain damage after ischemic stroke by attenuating neuroinflammation in the central nervous system and peripheral immune system. In the central nervous system, upregulated intracellular cAMP signaling can alleviate immune-mediated damage by restoring neuronal morphology and function, inhibiting microglia migration and activation, stabilizing the membrane potential of astrocytes and improving the cellular functions of endothelial cells and oligodendrocytes. Enhancement of the extracellular cAMP signaling pathway can improve neurological function by activating the cAMP-adenosine pathway to reduce immune-mediated damage. In the peripheral immune system, cAMP can act on various immune cells to suppress peripheral immune function, which can alleviate the inflammatory response in the central nervous system and improve the prognosis of acute cerebral ischemic injury. Therefore, cAMP may play key roles in reducing post-stroke neuroinflammatory damage. The protective roles of the cAMP indicate that the cAMP enhancing drugs such as cAMP supplements, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adenylate cyclase agonists, which are currently used in the treatment of heart and lung diseases. They are potentially able to be applied as a new therapeutic strategy in ischemic stroke. This review focuses on the immune-regulating roles and the clinical implication of cAMP in acute ischemic stroke.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(22): 4912-4917, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872600

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to observe the effect of triptolide( TP) on cardiovascular function and its possible mechanism by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide in rats with endotoxemia. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided intonormal group( NC group),endotoxemia model group( LPS group),TP low concentration intervention group( LPS + TP-L group,25 µg·kg~(-1)),TP middle concentration intervention group( LPS+TP-M group,50 µg·kg~(-1)),TP high concentration intervention group( LPS+TP-H group,100 µg·kg~(-1)) and polymyxin B group( LPS+PMX-B group,0. 2 mg·kg~(-1)). 10 mg·kg~(-1) LPS was injected intraperitoneally for 6 h to replicate the endotoxemia rat model. The rats in TP intervention groups were pre-treated 15 min before intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Rats in each group underwent total arterial intubation to measure hemodynamic parameters: heart rate( HR),left ventricular diastolic pressure( LVDP),the maximum rate of the increase/decrease of left ventricular pressure( ±dp/dtmax). The levels of BNP,CK-MB and c Tn-Ⅰ in serum and levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma were detected by ELISA. The contents of p65 protein in myocardium and contents of p65,TLR4,i NOS and e NOS protein in thoracic aorta were detected by Western blot. As compared with NC group,the hemodynamic indexes in LPS group were significantly decreased; the contents of BNP,CK-MB and c Tn-Ⅰ in serum,TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma,p65 in myocardium,i NOS,e NOS,TLR4 and p65 in vascular tissues were significantly increased. As compared with LPS group,the hemodynamic indexes were significantly improved in LPS+TP-M group,LPS+TP-H group and LPS+PMX-B group; the contents of BNP,CK-MB and c Tn-Ⅰ in serum,TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma,p65 in myocardium,i NOS,e NOS,TLR4 and p65 in vascular tissues were significantly decreased in each treatment group. Triptolide has a protective effect on cardiovascular damage in a dose-dependent manner in endotoxemia rats,probably through TLR4/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway to improve endothelial function.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Endotoxemia , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Endotélio , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , NF-kappa B , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
5.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 23(11): 967-986, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711309

RESUMO

Introduction: Inflammation resolution induced by specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) is a new concept. The application of SPMs is a promising therapeutic strategy that can potentially supersede anti-inflammatory drugs. Most CNS diseases are associated with hyperreactive inflammatory damage. CNS inflammation causes irreversible neuronal loss and permanent functional impairments. Given the high mortality and morbidity rates, the investigation of therapeutic strategies to ameliorate inflammatory damage is necessary.Areas covered: In this review, we explore inflammation resolution in CNS disorders. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and dynamic changes of SPMs and their precursors in neurological diseases and examine how this can potentially be incorporated into the clinic. References were selected from PubMed; most were published between 2010 and 2019.Expert opinion: Inflammation resolution is a natural process that emerges after acute or chronic inflammation. The evidence that SPMs can effectively ameliorate hyperreactive inflammation, shorten resolution time and accelerate tissue regeneration in CNS disorders. Adjuvants and nanotechnology offer opportunities for SPM drug design; however, more preclinical studies are necessary to investigate basic, critical issues such as safety.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224331, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Olfactory testing is a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease (PD). Although fast and easy to use, the high intercultural variability of odor detection limits the world-wide use of the most common test sets. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test one of the most commonly used olfactory tests (Sniffin' Sticks 12-identification test) in an adapted version for a Chinese population of healthy subjects and PD patients. METHODS: For this purpose, cohorts of 39 Chinese and 41 German PD patients as well as 70 Chinese and 100 German healthy subjects have been examined both with the original and the adapted version of the Sniffin' Sticks test, the latter being designed according to the regional culture. RESULTS: The adapted Chinese version of the Sniffin' Sticks 12 identification test proved to discriminate Chinese PD patients from controls with a high specificity but relatively low sensitivity. Yet not all odor exchanges would have been necessary as the original odors including liquorice and coffee showed an equally high identification rate in the Chinese and German cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the newly adapted test could be used as a screening test for PD related olfactory dysfunction in a Chinese population. However further investigation will be necessary to optimize the selection of odors for the Chinese version of the test.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(44): 41701-41709, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625378

RESUMO

Flexible wearable soft epidermal sensors assembled from conductive hydrogels have recently attracted tremendous research attention because of their extensive and significant applications in body-attachable healthcare monitoring, ultrasensitive electronic skins, and personal healthcare diagnosis. However, traditional conductive hydrogels inevitably face the challenge of long-term usage under room temperature and cold conditions, due to the lost water, elasticity, and conductivity at room temperature, and freezing at the water icing temperatures. It severely limits the applications in flexible electronics at room temperature or cold environment. Herein, we report a flexible, wearable, antifreezing, and healable epidermal sensor assembled from an antifreezing, long-lasting moist, and conductive organohydrogel. The nanocomposite organohydrogel is prepared from the conformal coating of functionalized reduced graphene oxide network by the hydrogel polymer networks consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol), phenylboronic acid grafted alginate, and polyacrylamide in the binary ethylene glycol (EG)/H2O solvent system. The obtained organohydrogel exhibits excellent temperature tolerance (-40 °C), long-lasting moisture (20 days), reliable self-healing ability, and can be assembled as wearable sensor for an accurate detection of both large and tiny human activities under extreme environment. Thus, it paves the way for the design of highly sensitive wearable epidermal sensors with reliable long-lasting moisture and excellent temperature tolerance for potential versatile applications in electronic skins, wearable healthcare monitoring, and human-machine interaction.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 989, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572179

RESUMO

Hypertension is one of the most common cardiovascular diseases, resulting in serious complications such as cardiovascular damage and chronic kidney disease. Tianshu capsule (TSC), composed of Chuanxiong (Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort) and Tianma (Gastrodiaelata Blume), has been widely used to treat the blood stasis type of headache and migraine in clinic. Results of previous research showed its antihypertensive effects, but the underlying mechanisms were still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of TSC on spontaneously hypertensive rats by 1H NMR-based metabonomics and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIAS), explore potential biomarkers and targets, and probe the potential mechanism of TSC on antihypertensive treatment. The results showed that TSC could decrease the product of oxidative stress (MDA) and enhance the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, down-regulate the expression of enzymes (LDHA, PKM2 and HK2) related to glycolysis, and perturb the levels of a series of amino acids (isoleucine, alanine, asparagine, citrate, etc.) and pathways. Multivariate statistical analyses showed remarkable changes in some endogenous metabolites after administrating TSC related to oxidative stress, amino acid metabolism and energy metabolism disturbances. Some enzymes (alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-2, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopa decarboxylase, etc.) related to metabolic biomarkers were predicted as the potential targets of TSC treatment on SHRs. The discoveries are helpful to understand the antihypertensive mechanism of TSC and provide theoretical evidence for its future research, development and clinical use.

9.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 8191-8200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564978

RESUMO

Background: Targeted therapy is an important treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with specific genetic mutations, crizotinib can prolong survival in advanced NSCLC patients with echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) rearrangement. We performed a retrospective analysis to investigate the association between the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with EML4-ALK rearrangement NSCLC receiving treatment with crizotinib. Methods: Advanced (stage IIIb-IV) NSCLC patients with EML4-ALK rearrangement receiving treatment with crizotinib were enrolled between January 2007 and January 2016 at Peking Union Medical College and Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Results: Overall, 212 patients were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier univariate analysis showed that elevated pre-treatment LDH level (7.9 vs 14.1 months, HR =1.251, CI: 1.008-1.553, P=0.004) was significantly associated with shorter PFS, while the post-treatment mean-LDH level (13.3 vs 14.3 months, HR=1.439, 95% CI: 0.994-2.082, P=0.970) was not significantly associated with PFS. Cox proportional hazards model also identified that pre-treatment LDH level (HR=2.085, 95% CI: 1.150-3.781, P=0.016) was associated with the PFS. Logistic regression analysis showed that post-treatment LDH level was associated with creatine kinase (OR=6.712, 95% CI 3.395-13.273, P<0.01), creatine kinase isoenzyme (OR=6.297, 95% CI 2.953-13.427, P<0.01), and hemoglobin (OR=4.163, 1.741-9.956, P<0.001). Conclusion: An elevated pre-treatment serum LDH level (>250 U/L) was significantly associated with shorter PFS in patients with EML4-ALK rearrangement NSCLC. Post-treatment elevated serum LDH level was not significantly associated with PFS, which related to adverse events including muscle damage and anemia.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4367, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554813

RESUMO

Cyclopropanes represent a class of versatile building blocks in modern organic synthesis. While the release of ring strain offers a thermodynamic driving force, the control of selectivity for C-C bond cleavage and the subsequent regiochemistry of the functionalization remains difficult, especially for unactivated cyclopropanes. Here we report a photoredox-coupled ring-opening oxo-amination of electronically unbiased cyclopropanes, which enables the expedient construction of a host of structurally diverse ß-amino ketone derivatives. Through one electron oxidation, the relatively inert aryl cyclopropanes are readily converted into reactive radical cation intermediates, which in turn participate in the ensuing ring-opening functionalizations. Based on mechanistic studies, the present oxo-amination is proposed to proceed through an SN2-like nucleophilic attack/ring-opening manifold. This protocol features wide substrate scope, mild reaction conditions, and use of dioxygen as an oxidant both for catalyst regeneration and oxygen-incorporation. Moreover, a one-pot formal aminoacylation of olefins is described through a sequential cyclopropanation/oxo-amination.

11.
Cancer Med ; 8(13): 5823-5830, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Crizotinib has demonstrated good efficacy in patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Continuing crizotinib therapy beyond progressive disease (CBPD) can achieve ongoing survival benefit in real-world clinical practice. In terms of survival, progression-free survival (PFS), the most commonly used endpoint in efficacy evaluations, may not provide accurate information on the impact of this intervention when crizotinib is administered in sequential therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study of 201 ALK-positive advanced NSCLC patients was conducted to analyze the PFS, overall survival (OS), and treatment duration (TD) of crizotinib. The correlations between the TD of crizotinib and OS in CBPD and non-CBPD groups of patients were compared. RESULTS: All patients were treated with crizotinib, 150 of whom eventually developed progressive disease (PD). The median PFS1 and PFS2 were 13.2 months and 10.5 months, respectively. The OS of the whole population was 50.5 months. The median TD was 20.7 months, which is shorter than direct PFS1 + PFS2. The TD of crizotinib in CBPD group was significantly longer than that in non-CBPD group (median 39.7 vs 15.0 months, P < .001). TD correlated better with OS (R = .79) than PFS (R = .64) in the CBPD group. CONCLUSIONS: Crizotinib showed good efficacy in patients with ALK-positive advanced NSCLC. Instead of PFS, treatment duration might be a more reasonable surrogate clinical endpoint in patients who received crizotinib in sequential therapy.

12.
Chin J Cancer Res ; 31(3): 481-488, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354217

RESUMO

Objective: Crizotinib has demonstrated promising efficacy in patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in clinical trials. We conducted this retrospective multicenter study to assess the outcomes of crizotinib therapy in, to our knowledge, a large sample cohort of patients with ALK-positive advanced NSCLC. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 484 unselected ALK-positive NSCLC patients treated with crizotinib at 5 cancer centers in China from January 2013 to November 2017. Clinical data were collected from the initiation of crizotinib therapy to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)-defined progressive disease (PD). Results: A total of 428 eligible ALK-positive NSCLC patients were enrolled, 273 (63.8%) of whom received crizotinib as first-line treatment. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) from the initiation of crizotinib treatment were 14.4 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 12.4-16.4] months and 53.4 (95% CI, 33.7-73.1) months, respectively. In subgroup analyses, patients who received crizotinib as first-line treatment showed a higher disease control rate (DCR) and a longer median OS compared with second-/later-line crizotinib treatment (94.8% and OS not reachedvs. 89.0% and 40.5 months, respectively). For 261 patients with RECIST-defined PD, multivariate Cox analysis revealed that in patients who received first-line crizotinib therapy, continued crizotinib beyond progressive disease (CBPD) and next-generation ALK inhibitors after crizotinib failure were associated with improved survival. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the clinically meaningful benefit of crizotinib treatment in a large cohort of Chinese ALK-positive NSCLC patients. CBPD and next-generation ALK inhibitor treatment may provide improved survival after RECIST-defined progression on crizotinib.

13.
Brain ; 142(8): 2215-2229, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199454

RESUMO

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy exhibiting great clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Here, the identification of two heterozygous missense mutations in the C1orf194 gene at 1p21.2-p13.2 with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease are reported. Specifically, the p.I122N mutation was the cause of an intermediate form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and the p.K28I missense mutation predominately led to the demyelinating form. Functional studies demonstrated that the p.K28I variant significantly reduced expression of the protein, but the p.I122N variant increased. In addition, the p.I122N mutant protein exhibited the aggregation in neuroblastoma cell lines and the patient's peroneal nerve. Either gain-of-function or partial loss-of-function mutations to C1ORF194 can specify different causal mechanisms responsible for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with a wide range of clinical severity. Moreover, a knock-in mouse model confirmed that the C1orf194 missense mutation p.I121N led to impairments in motor and neuromuscular functions, and aberrant myelination and axonal phenotypes. The loss of normal C1ORF194 protein altered intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and upregulated Ca2+ handling regulatory proteins. These findings describe a novel protein with vital functions in peripheral nervous systems and broaden the causes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, which open new avenues for the diagnosis and treatment of related neuropathies.

14.
Chin J Cancer Res ; 31(2): 349-356, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156305

RESUMO

Objective: Crizotinib is recommended as the first-line therapy for advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite its initial efficacy, patients ultimately acquire resistance to crizotinib within 1 year. In such patients, the optimal sequential therapy after crizotinib treatment remains unknown. This study explored which sequential therapy option confers the greatest benefit. Methods: A total of 138 patients with advanced ALK-positive NSCLC resistant to crizotinib were studied. Based on patterns of disease progression of metastases, patients were divided into 3 groups: brain progression, non-liver progression, and liver progression. Sequential therapies included crizotinib continuation plus local therapy, next-generation ALK inhibitors (ALKi's), and chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) from the time of crizotinib resistance to death or last follow-up. Results: The 138 patients included 64 cases with progression in brain, 57 cases in non-liver sites and 17 cases in liver. A significant difference in OS was observed among the distinct progression pattern (median OS, 25.4 months in brain, 15.8 months in non-liver, and 10.8 months in liver, respectively, P=0.020). The difference in OS among sequential therapies was statistically significant in the non-liver progression group (median OS, 27.6 months with next-generation ALKi's, 13.3 months with crizotinib continuation, and 10.8 months with chemotherapy, respectively, P=0.019). However, crizotinib continuation plus local therapy seems to provide non-inferior median OS compared with next-generation ALKi's for patients with brain progression (median OS, 28.9 months vs. 32.8 months, P=0.204). And no significant differences in OS were found in patients with progression in liver (P=0.061). Conclusions: Crizotinib continuation together with local therapy might be a feasible strategy for patients with progression in brain beyond crizotinib resistance, as well as next-generation ALKi's. Next-generation ALKi's tended to provide a survival benefit in patients with non-liver progression.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 934-950, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247440

RESUMO

Satellite and reanalysis precipitation products, as new and complementary data sources, are attractive for hydro-meteorological applications, especially in data-sparse areas. This study evaluates the accuracy of two satellite precipitation products (TMPA 3B42V7 and PERSIANN-CDR) and one reanalysis precipitation product (NCEP-CFSR) against gauge precipitation observations with four statistical indices over the upstream of the Lancang River Basin (ULRB), Southwest China. The reliability and applicability of these precipitation products as inputs to a hydrological model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) for streamflow and sediment simulations are also assessed. Furthermore, we compare the spatial plots of extreme water yield (99 percentiles) and suspended sediment yield (99 percentiles) driven by the four precipitation sources, and investigate the spatial and temporal variability of water yield and suspended sediment yield over the ULRB. Results show that for direct comparisons with gauge precipitation observations, monthly TMPA 3B42V7 precipitation product performs the best at the basin scale with the smallest error and bias, and the highest correlation, followed by NCEP-CFSR, and PERSIANN-CDR. For modeling-based indirect inference, TMPA 3B42V7 presents great capability for streamflow and sediment simulations in the SWAT model on a monthly time step at the basin outlet, and PERSIANN-CDR also performs well. NCEP-CFSR shows acceptable skills in modeling sediment but unacceptable skills in modeling streamflow. Extreme water yield presents moderate spatial variability over the ULRB while extreme suspended sediment yield presents strong spatial variability. Water yield of this basin shows a decreasing trend during 1998-2008 while there is no obvious trend in suspended sediment yield in this period.

16.
Front Neurol ; 10: 467, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130914

RESUMO

Chronic cerebral circulation insufficiency (CCCI) refers to a chronic decrease in cerebral blood perfusion, which may lead to cognitive impairment, psychiatric disorders such as depression, and acute ischemic stroke. Remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC), in which the limbs are subjected to a series of transient ischemic attacks, can activate multiple endogenous protective mechanisms to attenuate fatal ischemic injury to distant organs due to acute ischemia, such as ischemic stroke. Recent studies have also reported that RLIC can alleviate dysfunction in distant organs caused by chronic, non-fatal reductions in blood supply (e.g., CCCI). Indeed, research has indicated that RLIC may exert neuroprotective effects against CCCI through a variety of potential mechanisms, including attenuated glutamate excitotoxicity, improved endothelial function, increased cerebral blood flow, regulation of autophagy and immune responses, suppression of apoptosis, the production of protective humoral factors, and attenuated accumulation of amyloid-ß. Verification of these findings is necessary to improve prognosis and reduce the incidence of acute ischemic stroke/cognitive impairment in patients with CCCI.

17.
Target Oncol ; 14(3): 335-342, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) osimertinib has become the standard treatment for patients with pretreated EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who acquire the T790M resistance mutation. However, no standard treatment after osimertinib failure has been established. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to explore the clinical resistance modality upon failure of osimertinib therapy and to assess post-progression treatments in a real-world setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical data were retrospectively collected in our cancer center of patients with advanced NSCLC treated between 1 March 2017 and 1 July 2018, and who developed resistance to osimertinib. RESULTS: A total of 65 patients were analyzed. Clinical resistance modality varied among patients: 15 (23.1%) with local progression, 29 (44.6%) with gradual progression, and 21 (32.3%) with dramatic progression. Most patients experienced intrathoracic progression only (40/65, 61.5%), while ten (15.4%) cases presented intracranial failure only. Upon progressive disease, 20 patients (30.8%) received subsequent chemotherapy, and showed a trend for longer median overall survival (OS) than in those receiving a non-chemotherapy regimen (25.0 vs. 11.8 months, p = 0.106). Thirty-nine patients (60.0%) continued osimertinib beyond progression with a median post-progression treatment duration of 4.1 months. No significant difference in median OS was seen between patients who continued osimertinib and those who discontinued osimertinib (18.9 vs. 15.1 months, p = 0.802). In subgroup analyses, OS was improved in patients who experienced dramatic progression and were treated with chemotherapy, but data were immature for patients with local or gradual progression. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy could be an effective option after osimertinib failure in unselected patients.

18.
Neurol Sci ; 40(9): 1785-1797, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115802

RESUMO

Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a chronic autoimmune disease, which has a broad range of clinical manifestations shared by systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis. MCTD is featured with high serum titers of anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies and multiple system involvement. Its spinal cord involvement mainly manifests as transverse myelopathy (TM) and longitudinal extensive transverse myelopathy (LETM). Myelopathy in MCTD is extremely rare, and is usually characterized by serious neurological complications, such as paralysis or muscular paresis, sensory impairment, and smooth muscle dysfunction. Progressive clinical manifestations combined with laboratory examinations and magnetic resonance imaging examinations play important roles in the diagnosis of this disease. In order to prevent permanent neurological damage to the spinal cord, plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin can be performed in patients at the early disease stage. Early high-dose corticosteroids combined with cyclophosphamide, followed by low doses of immunosuppressors, can improve the long-term prognosis of patients. There are only nine global cases reported on MCTD associated with myelopathy at present. The death rate and disability rate of myelopathy in MCTD are extremely high. In this review, the pathomechanisms, clinical manifestations, auxiliary examination, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of myelopathy in MCTD were systematically elucidated.


Assuntos
Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/complicações , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/terapia
19.
Thorac Cancer ; 10(6): 1461-1468, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Afatinib is an irreversible ErbB family blocker that improves progression-free survival (PFS) of advanced EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma compared to chemotherapy. However, afatinib leads to more adverse events than first-generation EGFR inhibitors. Hence, exploration of the optimal afatinib initial dose and its efficacy and safety in Asian patients has drawn extensive attention. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated demographic and clinical information, survival data, and adverse events in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with afatinib from 27 February 2017 to 30 October 2018. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients were included in the study. Thirty-nine (65%) patients received afatinib as first-line treatment. The median PFS was 12.3 months (95% confidence internal 7.6-17.0). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that age, gender, smoking history, baseline brain metastasis status, afatinib starting dose, and mutation type did not significantly influence PFS. No significant difference in median PFS between patients treated with an initial dose of afatinib of 40 mg or 30 mg, either in the first-line (14.5 vs. 5.2 months; P = 0.101) or in a second or later-line setting (3.0 vs. 5.0 months; P = 0.375) was observed. The incidence of all grades of rash/acne (92.5% vs. 61.1%; P = 0.011) and paronychia (82.5% vs. 50.0%; P = 0.010) in the 40 mg group was significantly higher than in the 30 mg group. CONCLUSION: First-line afatinib treatment is beneficial for advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients with sensitive EGFR mutations. Initial dose and baseline brain metastasis status do not significantly impact PFS.

20.
Epilepsy Res ; 154: 26-33, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022637

RESUMO

Rogressive deconstruction of filament actin (F-actin) in hippocampal neurons in the epileptic brain have been associated with epileptogenesis. Previous clinical studies suggest that glucocorticoids treatment plays beneficial roles in refractory epilepsy. Glucocorticoids treatment affects dendritic spine morphology by regulating local glucocorticoid receptors and F-actin cytoskeleton dynamics. However, how glucocorticoids regulate epileptogenesis by controlling F-actin cytoskeleton is not clear yet. Here we study the function of glucocorticoids in epileptogenesis by examining F-actin abundance, hippocampal neuron number, and synaptic markers in pilocarpine-induced epileptic mice in the presence or absence of dexamethasone (DEX) treatment. We found that spontaneous seizure duration was significantly reduced; F-actin damage in hippocampal subfields was remarkably attenuated; loss of pyramidal cells was dramatically decreased; more intact synaptic structures indicated by pre- and postsynaptic markers were preserved in multiple hippocampal regions after DEX treatment. However, the number of ZNT3 positive particles in the molecular layer in the hippocampus of pilocarpine epileptic mice was not altered after DEX treatment. Although not sufficient to cease epileptogenesis, our results suggest that dexamethasone treatment ameliorates the damage of epileptic brain by stabilizing F-actin cytoskeleton in the pilocarpine epileptic mice.

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