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1.
J Org Chem ; 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041422

RESUMO

Under visible light, N-tosyl-protected sulfoximidoyl chlorides react with aryl alkynes to give ß-keto sulfoximines. The reaction is characterized by a high functional group tolerance and good yields. It can be improved by the presence of a ruthenium photocatalyst. Air is the source of the ketonic oxygen in the products.

2.
Innovation (N Y) ; 3(1): 100189, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34984408

RESUMO

Selective hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived aromatic alcohols to value-added chemical or fuel is of great importance for sustainable biomass upgrading, and hydrodeoxygenation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) is one of the most attractive reactions. Achieving the conversion of HMF to DMF using H2 at ambient temperature is challenging. In this work, we used PdCu nanoalloys to catalyze the selective hydrodeoxygenation reaction of HMF to DMF using H2 as the reducing agent. The reaction path and the product selectivity are governed by the crystallographic phase of the PdCu nanoalloys. It was discovered that body-centered cubic (BCC) PdCu nanoalloys supported on activated carbon (AC) exhibited outstanding performance with 93.6% yield of DMF at room temperature (PdCu/AC-BCC). A combination of experimental and density functional theory (DFT) studies showed that the tilted adsorption modes of furanic intermediates on PdCu-BCC nanoalloy surfaces accounted for the high selectivity of DMF; however, furan ring was activated on PdCu face-centered cubic (FCC) nanoalloy surfaces. Furthermore, PdCu/AC-BCC could also catalyze the hydrodeoxygenation of other aromatic alcohols at room temperature while maintaining the aromatic structures. This work opens the way for selective hydrodeoxygenation of the aromatic alcohols at room temperature with the aromatic ring intact.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989076

RESUMO

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and CO2, two chemical wastes that urgently need to be transformed in the environment, are converted simultaneously in a one-pot catalytic process through the synergistic coupling of three reactions: CO2 hydrogenation, PET methanolysis and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) hydrogenation. More interestingly, the chemicals equilibria of both reactions were shifted forward due to a revealed dual-promotion effect, leading to significantly enhanced PET depolymerization. The overall methanol yield from CO2 hydrogenation exceeded the original thermodynamic equilibrium limit since the methanol was in-situ consumed in PET methanolysis. The degradation of PET by a stoichiometric ratio of methanol was significantly enhanced because the primary product, DMT was hydrogenated to dimethyl cyclohexanedicarboxylate (DMCD) or p-xylene (PX). This synergistic catalytic process provides an effective way to simultaneously recycle two wastes, polyesters and CO2, for producing high-value chemicals.

4.
J Exp Med ; 219(1)2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825915

RESUMO

Targeted therapies represent attractive combination partners with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) to increase the population of patients who benefit or to interdict the emergence of resistance. We demonstrate that targeting WEE1 up-regulates immune signaling through the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viral defense pathway with subsequent responsiveness to immune checkpoint blockade even in cGAS/STING-deficient tumors, which is a typical phenotype across multiple cancer types. WEE1 inhibition increases endogenous retroviral elements (ERVs) expression by relieving SETDB1/H3K9me3 repression through down-regulating FOXM1. ERVs trigger dsRNA stress and interferon response, increasing recruitment of anti-tumor T cells with concurrent PD-L1 elevation in multiple tumor models. Furthermore, combining WEE1 inhibition and PD-L1 blockade induced striking tumor regression in a CD8+ T cell-dependent manner. A WEE1 inhibition-induced viral defense signature provides a potentially informative biomarker for patient selection for combination therapy with WEE1 and ICB. WEE1 inhibition stimulates anti-tumor immunity and enhances sensitivity to ICB, providing a rationale for the combination of WEE1 inhibitors and ICB in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células A549 , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Retrovirus Endógenos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/genética , Carga Tumoral/imunologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6978, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848709

RESUMO

Reversing the thermal induced sintering phenomenon and forming high temperature stable fine dispersed metallic centers with unique structural and electronic properties is one of the ever-lasting targets of heterogeneous catalysis. Here we report that the dispersion of metallic Ni particles into under-coordinated two-dimensional Ni clusters over γ-Mo2N is a thermodynamically favorable process based on the AIMD simulation. A Ni-4nm/γ-Mo2N model catalyst is synthesized and used to further study the reverse sintering effect by the combination of multiple in-situ characterization methods, including in-situ quick XANES and EXAFS, ambient pressure XPS and environmental SE/STEM etc. The under-coordinated two-dimensional layered Ni clusters on molybdenum nitride support generated from the Ni-4nm/γ-Mo2N has been demonstrated to be a thermally stable catalyst in 50 h stability test in CO2 hydrogenation, and exhibits a remarkable catalytic selectivity reverse compared with traditional Ni particles-based catalyst, leading to a chemo-specific CO2 hydrogenation to CO.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855383

RESUMO

Understanding the unique behaviors of atomically dispersed catalysts and the origin thereof is a challenging topic. Herein, we demonstrate a facile strategy to encapsulate Ptδ+ species within Y zeolite and reveal the nature of selective hydrogenation over a Pt@Y model catalyst. The unique configuration of Pt@Y, namely atomically dispersed Ptδ+ stabilized by the surrounding oxygen atoms of six-membered rings shared by sodalite cages and supercages, enables the exclusive heterolytic activation of dihydrogen over Ptδ+···O2- units, resembling the well-known classical Lewis pairs. The charged hydrogen species, i.e., H+ and Hδ-, are active reagents for selective hydrogenations, and therefore, the Pt@Y catalyst exhibits remarkable performance in the selective hydrogenation of α,ß-unsaturated aldehydes to unsaturated alcohols and of nitroarenes to arylamines.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(undefined)2021 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862879

RESUMO

Ongoing pandemic and potential resurgence of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has prompted urgent efforts to investigate the immunological memory of convalescent patients, especially in patients with active cancers. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing in peripheral blood samples of 3 healthy donors (HDs), 4 COVID-19 patients (Covs) and 4 COVID-19 patients with active gynecological tumor (TCs) pre- and post- anti-tumor treatment. All Covs patients had recovered from their acute infection. Interestingly, the molecular features of PBMCs in TCs are similar to that in Covs, suggesting that convalescent COVID-19 with gynecologic tumors do not have major immunological changes and may be protected against reinfection similar to COVID-19 patients without tumors. Moreover, the chemotherapy given to these patients mainly caused neutropenia, while having little effect on the proportion and functional phenotype of T and B cells, and T cell clonal expansion. Notably, anti-PD-L1 treatment massively increased cytotoxic scores of NK cells, and T cells, and facilitated clonal expansion of T cells in these patients. It is likely that T cells could protect patients from SARS-CoV-2 virus reinfection and anti-PD-L1 treatment can enhance the anti-viral activity of the T cells.

8.
Adv Mater ; : e2107150, 2021 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897858

RESUMO

Ferritin (Fn) is considered a promising carrier for targeted delivery to tumors, but the successful application in vivo has not been fully achieved yet. Herein, strong evidence is provided that the Fn receptor is expressed in liver tissues, resulting in an intercept effect in regards to tumor delivery. Building on these observations, a biomineralization technology is rationally designed to shield Fn using a calcium phosphate (CaP) shell, which can improve the delivery performance by reducing Fn interception in the liver while re-exposing it in acidic tumors. Moreover, the selective dissolution of the CaP shell not only neutralizes the acidic microenvironment but also induces the intratumoral immunomodulation and calcification. Upon multiple cell line and patient-derived xenografts, it is demonstrated that the elaboration of the highly flexible Fn@CaP chassis by loading a chemotherapeutic drug into the Fn cavity confers potent antitumor effects, and additionally encapsulating a photosensitizer into the outer shell enables a combined chemo-photothermal therapy for complete suppression of advanced tumors. Altogether, these results support Fn@CaP as a new nanoplatform for efficient modulation of the tumor microenvironment and targeted delivery of diverse therapeutic agents.

9.
Gland Surg ; 10(9): 2631-2643, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733713

RESUMO

Background: To investigate whether the interval between adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) completion and postoperative radiation therapy initiation (ICR) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) affects ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) or survival. Methods: All women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and underwent BCS between 2005 and 2014 were included. In total, 1,472 patients underwent adjuvant CT followed by postoperative radiation therapy (RT) (CT+), whereas 402 patients received postoperative RT alone (CT-). Analyses were stratified by ICR and the interval between surgery and the initiation of postoperative RT (ISR) in these two cohorts. The cutoff points for treatment delay were 47 days in the CT+ cohort and 69 days in the CT- cohort. IBTR, local-regional failure (LRF), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed through Kaplan-Meier (K-M) analysis. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the prognostic factors of survival outcomes. Results: The median follow-up duration was 56 months. There was an association between a delay in ICR and an increase in IBTR in the CT+ group (P=0.014 for intervals ≤47 vs. >47 days). This association was confirmed by multivariate analyses [hazard ratio (HR) of 2.766; P=0.046] in the hormone receptor-negative subgroup. The 5-year cumulative incidence rates of IBTR were 1.3% and 3.3% (≤47 vs. >47 days, respectively) in the CT+ cohort. For patients in the CT- cohort, a longer delay of initiation of postoperative RT (≤69 vs. >69 days) significantly decreased DFS (HR of 6.430; P=0.002). The 5-year cumulative incidence rates of disease recurrence were 3.0% for RT starting ≤69 days after surgery and 12.6% for RT starting >69 days after surgery. Conclusions: A high IBTR rate was related to an ICR beyond 47 days. Delay of RT after CT or surgery among patients who undergo BCS should be avoided, especially among patients in the hormone receptor-negative subgroup.

10.
JACS Au ; 1(11): 1834-1848, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841403

RESUMO

Heterogeneous catalytic processes produce the majority of the fuels and chemicals in the chemical industry and have kept improving the welfare of human beings for centuries. Although most of the heterogeneous catalytic reactions occur at the gas-solid interface, numerous cases have demonstrated that the condensed water near the active site and/or the aqueous phase merging the catalysts play positive roles in enhancing the performance of heterogeneous catalysts and creating novel catalytic conversion routes. We enumerate the traditional heterogeneous catalytic reactions that enable significant rate/selectivity promotion in the aqueous phase or adsorbed micro water environment and discuss the role of water in specific systems. Some of the novel heterogeneous reactions achieved with only the assistance of the aqueous phase have been summarized. The development of reactions with the participation of the aqueous phase/water and the investigation of the role of water in the heterogeneous catalytic reactions will open new horizons for catalysts with better activity, improved selectivity, and novel processes.

11.
Oncogene ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773072

RESUMO

Oncogene induced senescence is a tumor suppressing defense mechanism, in which the cell cycle-dependent protein kinase (CDK) inhibitor p16INK4A (encoded by the CDKN2A gene) plays a key role. We previously reported that a transcriptional co-activator chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7) mediates oncogenic ras-induced senescence by inducing transcription of the p16INK4A gene. In the current study, we identified myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) as the transcriptional factor that recruits CHD7 to the p16INK4A promoter, where it mediates oncogenic ras-induced p16INK4A transcription and senescence through CHD7, in primary human cells from multiple origins. Moreover, the expression of MZF1 is induced by oncogenic ras in senescent cells through the c-Jun and Ets1 transcriptional factors upon their activation by the Ras-Raf-1-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) where activating ras mutations occur frequently, reduced MZF1 expression is observed in tumors, as compared to corresponding normal tissues, and correlates with poor patient survival. Analysis of single cell RNA-sequencing data from PAAD patients revealed that among the tumor cells with normal RB expression levels, those with reduced levels of MZF1 are more likely to express lower p16INK4A levels. These findings have identified novel signaling components in the pathway that mediates induction of the p16INK4A tumor suppressor and the senescence response, and suggested that MZF1 is a potential tumor suppressor in at least some cancer types, the loss of which contributes to the inactivation of the p16INK4A/RB pathway and disruption of senescence in tumor cells with intact RB.

12.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, there is no approved blood-based biomarker for breast cancer detection. Herein, we aimed to assess semaphorin 4C (SEMA4C), a pivotal protein involved in breast cancer progression, as a serum diagnostic biomarker. METHODS: We included 6,213 consecutive inpatients from Tongji Hospital, Qilu Hospital, and Hubei Cancer Hospital. Training cohort and two validation cohorts were introduced for diagnostic exploration and validation. A pan-cancer cohort was used to independently explore the diagnostic potential of SEMA4C among solid tumors. Breast cancer patients who underwent mass excision prior to modified radical mastectomy were also analyzed. We hypothesized that increased pre-treatment serum SEMA4C levels, measured using optimized in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, could detect breast cancer. The endpoints were diagnostic performance, including area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. Post-surgery pathological diagnosis was the reference standard and breast cancer staging followed the TNM classification. There was no restriction on disease stage for eligibilities. RESULTS: We included 2667 inpatients with breast lesions, 2378 patients with other solid tumors, and 1168 healthy participants. Specifically, 118 patients with breast cancer were diagnosed with stage 0 (5.71%), 620 with stage I (30.00%), 966 with stage II (46.73%), 217 with stage III (10.50%), and 8 with stage IV (0.39%). Patients with breast cancer had significantly higher serum SEMA4C levels than benign breast tumor patients and normal controls (P < 0.001). Elevated serum SEMA4C levels had AUC of 0.920 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.900-0.941) and 0.932 (95%CI: 0.911-0.953) for breast cancer detection in the two validation cohorts. The AUCs for detecting early-stage breast cancer (n = 366) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 85) were 0.931 (95%CI: 0.916-0.946) and 0.879 (95%CI: 0.832-0.925), respectively. Serum SEMA4C levels significantly decreased after surgery, and the reduction was more striking after modified radical mastectomy, compared with mass excision (P < 0.001). The positive rate of enhanced serum SEMA4C levels was 84.77% for breast cancer and below 20.75% for the other 14 solid tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Serum SEMA4C demonstrated promising potential as a candidate biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis. However, validation in prospective settings and by other study groups is warranted.

13.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 752154, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621789

RESUMO

Background: The microenvironment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) can be divided into three clusters based on bioinformatics-based immunogenomic analysis: the "immune-desert" cluster, the "innate immune-inactivated" cluster, and the "immune-inflamed" cluster. The immune-inflamed cluster is considered as "hot tumor" while the other two are considered as "cold tumor". Methods: To investigate the prognostic effect of microenvironment phenotypes on TNBC, we compared relapse-free survival (RFS) of different phenotypes in 100 patients with RNA sequencing-based expression data from the PATTERN trial (NCT01216111, published in JAMA Oncol 2020), which indicated a superior efficacy of adjuvant paclitaxel-plus-carboplatin regimen compared to the regimen of cyclophosphamide/epirubicin/fluorouracil followed by docetaxel for TNBC. We also analyzed the efficacy of the two regimens for different immune phenotypes to explore potential treatment strategies. Results: No significant difference in RFS was observed between the "hot tumor" and the "cold tumor" (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.66, P = 0.40). However, the "hot tumor" subtype was associated with significantly longer RFS in node-positive patients (HR = 0.27, 95%CI 0.07-0.97, P = 0.03). Consistently, a similar trend to improved RFS of the "hot tumor" phenotype was detected in patients with stage pT2-3 tumors (HR = 0.29, 95%CI 0.06-1.30, P = 0.08). Furthermore, no significant difference in RFS between the two treatment arms was observed in patients with "hot tumor" (HR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.08-2.01, P = 0.24) or "cold tumor" (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.39-2.82, P = 0.92). Conclusion: The microenvironment phenotype in TNBC might have prognostic significance to patients with a high risk of recurrence. The association of the microenvironment phenotypes with the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for TNBC remains to be further studied.

14.
Org Lett ; 23(21): 8287-8290, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636567

RESUMO

Upon treatment with Cs2CO3, S-methyl-N-ynonylsulfoximines undergo 5-exo-dig cyclizations to give three-dimensional heterocycles. The reactions proceed at ambient temperature with a wide range of substrates affording the corresponding products in good to excellent yields.

15.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697490

RESUMO

Trivalent arsenic (AsIII) is an effective agent for treating patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia, but its ionic nature leads to several major limitations like low effective concentrations in leukaemia cells and substantial off-target cytotoxicity, which limits its general application to other types of leukaemia. Here, building from our clinical discovery that cancerous cells from patients with different leukaemia forms featured stable and strong expression of CD71, we designed a ferritin-based As nanomedicine, As@Fn, that bound to leukaemia cells with very high affinity, and efficiently delivered cytotoxic AsIII into a large diversity of leukaemia cell lines and patient cells. Moreover, As@Fn exerted strong anti-leukaemia effects in diverse cell-line-derived xenograft models, as well as in a patient-derived xenograft model, in which it consistently outperformed the gold standard, showing its potential as a precision treatment for a variety of leukaemias.

16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6194, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702832

RESUMO

The product selectivity in catalytic hydrogenation of nitriles is strongly correlated with the structure of the catalyst. In this work, two types of atomically dispersed Pd species stabilized on the defect-rich nanodiamond-graphene (ND@G) hybrid support: single Pd atoms (Pd1/ND@G) and fully exposed Pd clusters with average three Pd atoms (Pdn/ND@G), were fabricated. The two catalysts show distinct difference in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of nitriles. The Pd1/ND@G catalyst preferentially generates secondary amines (Turnover frequency (TOF@333 K 709 h-1, selectivity >98%), while the Pdn/ND@G catalyst exhibits high selectivity towards primary amines (TOF@313 K 543 h-1, selectivity >98%) under mild reaction conditions. Detailed characterizations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the structure of atomically dispersed Pd catalysts governs the dissociative adsorption pattern of H2 and also the hydrogenation pathway of the benzylideneimine (BI) intermediate, resulting in different product selectivity over Pd1/ND@G and Pdn/ND@G, respectively. The structure-performance relationship established over atomically dispersed Pd catalysts provides valuable insights for designing catalysts with tunable selectivity.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(40): 16358-16363, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591468

RESUMO

In comparison to the traditional petroleum-based plastics, polylactic acid, the most popular biodegradable plastic, can be decomposed into carbon dioxide and water in the environment. However, the natural degradation of polylactic acid requires a substantial period of time and, more importantly, it is a carbon-emitting process. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a novel transformation process that can upcycle the plastic trash into value-added products, especially with high chemical selectivity. Here we demonstrate a one-pot catalytic method to convert polylactic acid into alanine by a simple ammonia solution treatment using a Ru/TiO2 catalyst. The process has a 77% yield of alanine at 140 °C, and an overall selectivity of 94% can be reached by recycling experiments. Importantly, no added hydrogen is used in this process. It has been verified that lactamide and ammonium lactate are the initial intermediates and that the dehydrogenation of ammonium lactate initiates the amination, while Ru nanoparticles are essential for the dehydrogenation/rehydrogenation and amination steps. The process demonstrated here could expand the application of polylactic acid waste and inspire new upcycling strategies for different plastic wastes.

19.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(37): 8096-8101, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487133

RESUMO

Visible light induces C-C-bond cleavage reactions of ketones, which can be utilized for N-acylations of sulfoximines. No (photo)catalyst is required, and the reactions occur at ambient temperature in air. The substrate scope is broad for both ketones and sulfoximines. For converting NH-sulfoximines, the presence of NBS is essential.

20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 312, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417437

RESUMO

Immunotherapies play critical roles in cancer treatment. However, given that only a few patients respond to immune checkpoint blockades and other immunotherapeutic strategies, more novel technologies are needed to decipher the complicated interplay between tumor cells and the components of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). Tumor immunomics refers to the integrated study of the TIME using immunogenomics, immunoproteomics, immune-bioinformatics, and other multi-omics data reflecting the immune states of tumors, which has relied on the rapid development of next-generation sequencing. High-throughput genomic and transcriptomic data may be utilized for calculating the abundance of immune cells and predicting tumor antigens, referring to immunogenomics. However, as bulk sequencing represents the average characteristics of a heterogeneous cell population, it fails to distinguish distinct cell subtypes. Single-cell-based technologies enable better dissection of the TIME through precise immune cell subpopulation and spatial architecture investigations. In addition, radiomics and digital pathology-based deep learning models largely contribute to research on cancer immunity. These artificial intelligence technologies have performed well in predicting response to immunotherapy, with profound significance in cancer therapy. In this review, we briefly summarize conventional and state-of-the-art technologies in the field of immunogenomics, single-cell and artificial intelligence, and present prospects for future research.

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