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1.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(4): 665-674, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826362

RESUMO

Water is essential for life survival and development. It plays a pivotal role in metabolic function, modulates normal osmotic pressure, maintains the electrolyte balance, and regulates body temperature. Adequate water intake is necessary for optimal hydration-both excessive and insufficient water consumption can have adverse effects on health. Water requirements among people vary based on various factors such as gender, age, physical activity, dietary factors, ambient temperature, and renal concentrating capacity. In recent years, water intake guidelines have been developed in some countries and by some organisations. Even in China, it is important to develop such guidelines considering specific dietary habits, height of people, and environmental factors. In 2013, guidelines for adequate water intake were developed in China, but the scope was somewhat limited; there are still specific challenges in formulating such recommendations. Future water-related studies should focus on surveying water intake among infants and toddlers, older adults, and pregnant and lactating women. Moreover, additional studies should be conducted to elucidate water intake among adults and adolescents in different regions and seasons, and the association between water intake and related diseases should also be investigated. It is imperative to transform the results of scientific research into action plans for water-related health education so as to inform and evaluate pertinent public health programmes.

2.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 16: 67, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548843

RESUMO

Background: Normal distribution of body fluid is important for maintaining health through the balance of water metabolism. Studies have shown that disease states and diuretics perturb the balance and then induce abnormal intracellular/extracellular fluid ratio. However, there are relatively few researches on the associations between water intakes and body fluid. The objective of this study was to explore the association between body fluid and water intake. Methods: A total of 159 young adults in Baoding, China were recruited in this cross-sectional survey and completeness of follow-up was 98.1%. A 7-day fluid specific diary was used to record total fluid intake (TFI). Water intake from foods (FWI) for 3 days was measured using the methods of weighting, duplicate portion method and laboratory analysis by researchers. Body fluid was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results: Total body water (TBW), intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF) of participants were 32.8[28.0,39.2], 20.5[17.3,24.5] and 12.4[10.7,14.7], (kg). This represented 55.2 ± 6.2, 34.4 ± 4.0 and 20.8 ± 2.3 (%) of body weight (BW), respectively. ICF, ECF and TBW among male participants who drank more than or equal to adequate TFI was higher than those who drank less (Z = -1.985, p = 0.047; Z = -2.134, p = 0.033; Z = -2.053, p = 0.040). Among both males and females, the values of TBW/BW in participants whose TWI met or exceeded the AI were higher than those with TWI less than AI (t = - 2.011, p = 0.046; t = - 2.716, p = 0.008). Among all participants, there was moderate correlation between water intakes (TFI/BW, FWI/BW and TWI/BW) and body fluid (ICF/BW,ECF/BW and TBW/BW) (p < 0.01 for all). Same correlations were found among both males and females. Conclusion: There is a certain degree of association between water intake and body fluid. However, whether TFI or TWI achieve AI or not do not disturb the balance on the distribution of body fluid. More studies should be conducted to find the diagnostic threshold on TFI and TWI which may disrupt the distribution of body fluid so as to prevent related diseases. Trial registration: Chinese clinical trial registry. Name of the registry: Relationship of drinking water and urination. Trial registration number: ChiCTR-ROC-17010320. Date of registration: 01/04/2017. URL of trial registry record: http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=17601&htm=4.

3.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 16: 44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320919

RESUMO

Background: Visceral adiposity has been reported to play a key role in hypertension compared with other measurements of regional or general obesity. The aim of current study was to evaluate the relationship between visceral fat reduction and changes in blood pressure in a group of overweight or obese Chinese individuals. Methods: An observational study was conducted with 168 participants (ChiCTR-OOC-17012000). Body composition, blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at the beginning and end of the intervention. Males and females were categorized separately into quartiles according to changes in visceral fat during the intervention. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the associations of changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure with changes of visceral fat area, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Changes in visceral fat was significantly associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men for systolic (ß = 0.234, 95% CI: 0.103, 0.365; p = 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (ß = 0.237; 95% CI: 0.127, 0.346; p <0.001), but not in women after adjustment for the same potential confounders for systolic blood (ß = - 0.003, 95% CI: - 0.260, 0.255; p = 0.984) and diastolic blood pressure (ß = 0.101, 95% CI: - 0.072, 0.273; p = 0.249). Conclusions: A positive association was observed between reduction in visceral fat and improvements in both systolic blood and diastolic blood pressures in males but not females in a 12-week meal replacement intervention. Trial registration: The Ethics Committee of Peking University Health Science Center approved the study protocol on 6 July 2017. The authors confirm that all ongoing and related trials for this intervention were carried out following the rules of the Declaration of Helsinki of 1975 and registered (ChiCTR-OOC-17012000). http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=20426.

4.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate data on water and beverage intakes are essential for assessing hydration adequacy and setting proper guidelines. The objective of this study is to identify the patterns and sociodemographic determinants of water intake and to assess the intake adequacy for children in China. METHODS: The study team recruited 41,439 children aged 6-17 years using a multi-stage cluster random sampling method. Daily water and beverage intakes were investigated with the standard questionnaires and measuring containers in face-to-face interviews. Each participant was assigned an adjustment weight to obtain a nationally representative sample. Sociodemographic factors influencing water intake were identified using multi-variable regressions. Water intake adequacy was evaluated by comparing with the recommended water intake (RWI). RESULTS: The mean ± standard deviation of total water intake (TWI) was 1603 ± 731 mL/day for boys and 1487 ± 661 mL/day for girls. Plain water, food moisture, and other beverages contributed 51%, 20%, and 29% of the TWI. Multi-variable analyses showed that TWI of children increased with age, in urban areas and day schools, and with parents' economic and educational levels. The majority (82%) of children had TWI not meeting the corresponding RWI, and the percentage increased with age except for 14-17-year-old boys. CONCLUSIONS: Plain water is still the major source of daily water intake by children in China. Unfortunately, the majority of children do not have sufficient water intake, which warrants future actions and guidelines targeting adequate hydration.

5.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(7): 2669-2677, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225629

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the amounts and contributions of total drinking fluids and water from food to total water intake (TWI), to explore the drinking pattern, and to compare the amount of TWI with the recommendations of China and EFSA among young adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was implemented with 159 young adults aged 18-23 years from Hebei, China. Total drinking fluids and water from food were assessed by 7-day 24-h fluid intake questionnaire and the duplicate portion method, respectively. Differences between groups stratified according to the distribution of TWI were compared using one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis H test. General linear models were used to identify the variations in TWI due to total drinking fluids and water from food. RESULTS: In total, 156 subjects (80 males and 76 females) completed the study. Approximately 80.1% of them did not meet the TWI recommended by China, while 50.0% did not meet that recommended by the EFSA. Participants with higher TWI had greater amounts of total drinking fluids, water rom food and water than their counterparts with lower TWI. The regression between total drinking fluids and TWI was R2 = 0.8526 (P < 0.05) and that between water from food and TWI was R2 = 0.4650 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of young adults have insufficient TWI. Participants with lower TWI would not compensate with water from food. The variances in TWI among participants were mainly due to differences in total drinking fluids. There is an urgent need to improve the fluids intake behaviors of young adults.

6.
Nutr Today ; 53(3): 104-114, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930434

RESUMO

This article reports the study design, methodological issues and early results of a pilot study testing methods for collecting nutrition, physical activity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure data in a groundbreaking study in China. Epidemiological studies suggest that exposures across the entire life course, including in utero, early childhood, and adolescence, may be important in the etiology of adult cancers and other chronic diseases. The Chinese Children and Families Cohort Study intends to follow-up subjects from the 1993 to 1995 Community Intervention Program of folic acid supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects. This cohort is unique in that only folic acid exposure during pregnancy varies between groups as other supplements were not available, and there were nutrient deficiencies in the populations. Prior to launching a large-scale follow-up effort, a pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of recontacting original study participants to collect extensive diet, physical activity, and UV radiation exposure data in this population. The pilot study included 92 mothers and 184 adolescent children aged 14 to 17 years from 1 urban and 1 rural Community Intervention Program site. Subjects completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire, a 3-day food record, a physical activity questionnaire, a 3-day sun exposure diary together with 3 days of personal UV dosimetry, and 7 days of pedometry measurements and provided blood, saliva, and toenail samples. Grip strength and body composition measurements were taken, and ambient solar UV radiation was monitored in both study sites. While most of the assessments were successful, future studies would likely require different dietary intake instruments. The purpose of this report is to describe the study design and methodological issues emerging from this pilot work relevant for the follow-up of this large birth cohort.

7.
J Obes ; 2018: 2837367, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687550

RESUMO

Meal replacement plans are effective tools for weight loss and improvement of various clinical characteristics but not sustainable due to the severe energy restriction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of meal replacement, specifically 388 kcal in total energy, on body composition and metabolic parameters in individuals with overweight and obesity from a Chinese population. A parallel, randomized controlled trial was performed with 174 participants (ChiCTR-OOC-17012000). The intervention group (N=86) was provided with a dinner meal replacement, and the control group (N=88) continued their routine diet as before. Body composition and blood parameters were assessed at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. A post hoc analysis (least significant difference (LSD) test), repeated measurements, and paired T-test were used to compare each variable within and between groups. Significant (p < 0.001) improvements in body composition components were observed among the intervention group, including body weight (-4.3 ± 3.3%), body mass index (-4.3 ± 3.3%), waist circumference (-4.3 ± 4.4%), fat-free mass (-1.8 ± 2.9%), and body fat mass (-5.3 ± 8.8%). Body composition improvements corresponded with significant metabolic improvements of blood glucose (-4.7 ± 9.8%). Further improvements in visceral fat area (-7.7 ± 10.1%), accompanying with improvements in systolic (-3.7 ± 6.9%) and diastolic (-5.3 ± 7.7%) blood pressure, were only found in male subjects. To conclude, meal replacement intake with 388 kcal in total energy at dinner time for 12 weeks contributed to improvement in body composition and clinically significant metabolic parameters in both male and female participants with overweight/obesity. Additionally, glucose and blood pressure reduction were gender-specific highlighting the importance of gender stratification for design of nutritional intervention studies for improvement of health.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/métodos , Alimentos Formulados , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720789

RESUMO

Background: Dehydration may affect cognitive performances as water accounts for 75% of brain mass. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of dehydration and water supplementation on cognitive performances, and to explore the changes of brain structures and functions using MRI. Methods and Analysis: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial has been designed and will be implemented among 64 college students aged 18⁻23 years from Baoding, China. Subjects will be asked to restrict water for 36 h. The first morning urine will be collected and urine osmolality measured. The fasting blood samples will be collected and osmolality and copeptin will be measured. Three MRI sequences, including fMRI, ASL and 3D BRAVO will be taken to observe the changes of whole brain volume, ventricular volume, BOLD response and the cortex thickness. Cognitive performances and mood will be performed with software and questionnaires, respectively. Subjects in the water supplementation groups 1, 2, 3 will drink 200, 500 and 1000 mL of water, respectively, while subjects in the no water supplementation group will not drink any water. After 90 min, urine and blood samples, MRI scans, cognitive performances and mood will be performed. One-way ANOVA will be used to study the differences among groups. Ethics and Dissemination: The study protocol has been approved by the Peking University Institutional Review Committee. Ethical approval project identification code is IRB00001052-16071. Results will be published according to the CONSORT statement and will be reported in peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
Cognição , Desidratação , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Jejum , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Concentração Osmolar , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
9.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 26(6): 1139-1151, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28917242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: With prevalence of childhood obesity increasing rapidly, developing of effective and sustainable intervention strategies is becoming more and more important for the prevention of childhood obesity in China. A trial was developed to evaluate the effect of comprehensive school-based intervention on childhood obesity. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A multi-center cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among urban children (n=9,867) aged 6-13 years in 38 primary schools from six large cities. Comprehensive intervention, nutrition education and physical activity interventions were carried out among children. Nutrition education was also targeted towards teachers, parents and health workers in intervention schools. The program was implemented for 2 semesters from May 2009 to May 2010. RESULTS: The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity increased by 1.5 percent (22.7% vs 24.2%, p<0.001) in control group while 0.2 percent in comprehensive intervention group (23.6% vs 23.8%, p=0.954) after intervention (p=0.067). The effect was significantly stronger among girls than boys (-1.4% vs -0.9%, p=0.028). A significant intervention effect was found on BMI for -0.3 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.4, -0.2; p<0.001), BMI z scores for -0.14 (95% CI: -0.18, -0.11; p<0.001),body fat for -0.8 percent (95% CI: -0.9, -0.6; p<0.001), waist circumference for -0.5 cm (95% CI: -0.6, -0.3; p<0.001), blood serum glucose for -0.20 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.24, -0.16; p<0.001) and cholesterol for -0.32 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.34, -0.30; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed moderately significant effects on combined prevalence of overweight and obesity, BMI, BMI z scores, waist circumference, percentage body fat, glucose and lipid for a comprehensive school-based intervention of childhood obesity in China.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Glicemia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 26(5): 788-793, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28802286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between quantified urine color and urine osmolality, and its validity in distinguishing hydration status among college men in Hebei, China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-eight college men aged 18~25 years completed a cross-sectional study. All participants were asked to complete a 24-h fluid intake record to estimate fluid intake from beverages after anthropometric measurements. The foods eaten by participants were weighed to assess fluid intake from foods. All urine samples for the day were collected by participants to determine urine osmolality and urine color by chromatogram spectrophotometry (in accord with the Commission Internationale de l'Eclarige (CIE) notation L*a*b*). RESULTS: A total 413 urine samples from 68 participants were collected and 151 (36.6%) samples indicated dehydration according to urine osmolality. The dehydrated group versus hydrated group had a smaller urine color L* (94.88 vs 98.06) and a* (- 2.39 vs -1.91), bigger b* (30.41 vs 15.15), and higher osmolality (958 mOsm/kg vs 486 mOsm/kg). Urine color and osmolality were closely correlated, especially for b* (0.86, p<0.0001). The percentage variance in urine osmolality (R2) explained by a partial least squares (PLS) model was 79%. Urine color b* contributed most substantially to the PLS model, with variable importance for projection of 1.35. The cutoff for b* for adequate hydration was 17.78 (area under the curve=0.899). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in urine color between dehydrated and hydrated status related to urine osmolality. Urine color quantification is a reliable method to assess hydration status among young Chinese men.


Assuntos
Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/urina , Urinálise/métodos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Estudantes , Universidades , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492493

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18-25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG), pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001) and osmolality (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001). The percentage of the variances in daily total fluid intake (R²) explained by PLS (partial least squares) model with seven urinary biomarkers was 68.9%; two urine biomarkers-24-h urine volume and osmolality-were identified as possible key predictors. The daily total fluid intake for assessing optimal hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , China , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 92, 2017 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the first meal of the day, breakfast plays an important role in supplying energy and nutrients, which are critical to working and learning activities. A three-phase crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of breakfast on cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers. The planned study protocol is presented. METHODS: A total of 264 participants aged 25-45 years will be recruited from Shenyang and Chongqing. Self-administered questionnaires will be used to collect information on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, smoking habits, drinking habits, and breakfast behaviours. The participants will be randomly assigned to 3 equal-sized groups (Groups A, B, and C) and will be provided with a nutrition-adequate breakfast, a nutrition-inadequate breakfast, or no breakfast, respectively. Each participant will receive the breakfast treatment on the basis of assignment to one of three sequences (ABC/BCA/CAB). Each participant will complete a battery of cognitive tests assessing short-term memory, attention, and working memory 120 minutes after breakfast. Mood will be measured through a self-administered questionnaire assessing the dimensions of positive and negative frames of mind. Additionally, fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2-hour blood glucose levels will be tested with a blood-glucose meter (Roche ACCU-CHEK®-Performa). All the participants will take all the tests in three successive weeks, and the order of presentation will be counter-balanced across groups. DISCUSSION: The present study will be the first investigation of the effect of breakfast food type and quality on cognitive function amongst white-collar workers in China. We predict that a nutrition-adequate breakfast, compared with a nutrition-inadequate breakfast and no breakfast, will significantly improve short-term cognitive function. The results of this study should provide scientific evidence of the effect of breakfast quality on cognitive function and provide scientific data to inform nutrition education strategies and promote a healthy lifestyle. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese clinical trial registry (Primary registry in the WHO registry network) Registration number: ChiCTR-IPR-15007114 . Date of registration: August 25, 2015.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Desjejum , Cognição/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , China , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Prev Med Rep ; 4: 397-403, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27570732

RESUMO

Increasing consumption of pre-packaged foods is likely an important driver of diet-related diseases in China. From January 2013 it became mandatory to provide a standardised nutrient declaration on pre-packaged foods in China. We collected data on pre-packaged foods from large chain supermarkets in Beijing in 2013, examined the completeness of the nutrient declaration of core required nutrients and summarised the average nutritional composition of 14 different major food groups. We also illustrated the potential use of the data by comparing sodium levels. Photos of 14,279 pre-packaged foods were collected from 16 chain supermarkets in Beijing. Data for 11,489 products were included in the evaluation of nutrient declarations and data for 10,048 in the summary analysis of average nutritional composition. Compliant nutrient declarations were displayed by 87% of products with 88% of foods displaying data for each of energy, protein, total fat, carbohydrate and sodium. Nutrients not required by the Chinese regulation were infrequently reported: saturated fat (12%), trans fat (17%) and sugars (11%). Mean sodium levels were higher in Chinese products compared to UK products for 8 of 11 major food categories, often markedly so (e.g. 1417 mg/100 g vs. 304 mg/100 g for convenience foods). There has been substantial uptake of the recently introduced Chinese nutrition labelling regulation which should help consumers to choose healthier foods. As the comparison against corresponding data about sodium from the United Kingdom shows, the nutrient data can also be used to identify broader opportunities for improvement of the food supply.

15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 50(3): 217-20, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26957237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mean population intake of salt in Chinese adults in 2010-2012. METHODS: Data were from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012. The samples were selected through the method of probability proportion to size (PPS). The study objects were 55 531 adults aged 18 and over from 150 sites in 31 provinces, autonomous regions or municipalities in China. The information of oil, salt and other condiments for household was from the 3 d food weighed record. The average of salt intake for individuals was calculated based on the energy percentage in one family. The results presented the level of salt intake (x ± Sx) by analyzing the different demography characteristics. The results were calculated using complex weighting by the population data from National Bureau of Statistics in 2009. RESULTS: The intake of salt was (9.6 ± 0.3) g/d and it was higher in men ((10.4 ± 0.4) g/d) than that in women ((8.8 ± 0.3) g/d). The intake in the age group of 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 was (9.9 ± 0.5) g/d, (10.3 ± 0.4) g/d and (9.9 ± 0.3) g/d, respectively. The adults in rural ((10.2 ± 0.3) g/d) had a higher salt intake than that of urban ((9.0 ± 0.5) g/d). An average of salt intake was increased gradually in big city ((7.9 ± 0.3) g/d), medium /small city ((9.2 ± 0.6) g/d) , general rural ((9.9 ± 0.4) g/d) and poor rural ((10.8 ± 0.7)g/d). CONCLUSION: The mean salt intake among Chinese adults was still in a very high level. Something should be done to reduce the salt intake for the government and policy-makers.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Nutricionais , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Adulto , Idoso , China , Dieta , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , População Rural , População Urbana
16.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 50(3): 221-4, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26957238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the consumption of fruits and vegetables of Chinese adults. METHODS: Data were collected from 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance. Information on fruits and vegetables consumption was collected by using the 24 h recall method for 3 consecutive days. Using the multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method. The participants selected were more than 18 years old of 150 counties from 31 provinces in China. Age and sex standardization was performed based on the China 2009 population published by National Statistics Bureau. The average consumption of vegetables or fruits after weight adjustment for complex sampling was reported to analyze the consumption of fruits and vegetables of Chinese adults (x ± Sx). RESULTS: The average daily consumptions of vegetables and fruits for Chinese residents were (255 ± 6) and (36 ± 3)g/d, respectively. The total consumptions of fruits and vegetables were (291 ± 7)g/d, (295 ± 8)g/d for male, (286 ± 7)g/d for female. Rates on intake of vegetables in Chinese adults during the three survey days were 99.0%-99.8%.Rates on intake of fruits of urban and rural residents were 36.9%-51.5% and 21.3%-30.3%,respectively.The proportion of people whose total amount of vegetables and fruits intake reached 400 g/d were 24%-28% and 13%-23% in urban and rural areas, respectively. In urban and rural areas, the proportion of adults whose consumption reached Chinese dietary guidelines recommended level were 22%-26% and 14%-19% in vegetables, 2%-5% and 1%-2% in fruit, respectively. CONCLUSION: The consumptions of vegetables and fruits were inadequate in Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto , China , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , Verduras
17.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 25(1): 150-7, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26965774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the distribution of serum ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptor and body iron among girls and women by age and anaemia. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Serum ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptor and high sensitive C-reactive protein of 1625 and 1372 women in general and anaemic were measured in the National Health and Nutrition Survey commenced in 2010. RESULTS: The distributions of serum ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptor and body iron for 6-11-y, 12-17-y, 18-44-y, 45-59-y and >=60-y subgroups were significantly different. Both in population-representative women and those anaemic, the iron status of 18-44-y women was the lowest and that of 12-17-y girls the second lowest. The iron status of anaemic women was lower than that in representative women at ages 12-17 y, 18-44 y, 45-59 y and >=60 y. CONCLUSION: Iron status in women of different ages and anaemic had different distributions, but consistently lower than that of population-representative women. The observed iron status of Chinese urban women supports program planning for iron nutrition promotion in women. Iron status information is also needed for men and to understand the pathogenesis which may be related to intake or loss.


Assuntos
Ferro/análise , Estado Nutricional , População Urbana , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , China , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue
18.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 25(1): 184-94, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26965778

RESUMO

To examine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent alcoholic beverage preferences and the associated drinking patterns in China. The study used cross-sectional data collected from 136 junior or senior high schools, using a self-administered questionnaire. A total number of 7,075 subjects of drinking students were selected from three metropolises (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou) via a two-stage stratified sampling method. Among the adolescent drinkers, 87.8% (95% CI: 86.5-89.0) reported that they drunk alcohol during the past years preceding the study, while 42.4% (95% CI: 40.4-44.4) of the subjects stated that they had drunk alcohol during the past 30 days. There were gradual increases in the usual quantity (>1 Standard Drink, SD) of alcoholic beverages with increasing SES, with highest rates reported by the high-level SES. Beer and grape wine were the most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, regardless of SES. Our findings suggest that high-level SES students have an increasing prevalence of drinking behaviour. Their confirmation by future studies which extend the sampling regions is required to further the prevention of adolescent alcohol abuse in China.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares , Classe Social , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Cerveja , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Vinho
19.
Food Nutr Bull ; 36(4): 405-14, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26612420

RESUMO

Following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government instituted an infant and young and child nutrition program that included promotion of in-home fortification of complementary food with ying yang bao (YYB), a soy-based powder containing iron, 2.5 mg as iron-EDTA and 5 mg as ferrous fumarate, and other micronutrients. Ying yang bao was provided to participating families in 8 poor rural counties in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces by the Ministry of Health. We assessed hemoglobin levels among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6 to 23 months at baseline in May 2010 (n = 1290) and during follow-up in November 2010 (n = 1142), May 2011 (n = 1118), and November 2011 (n = 1040), using the Hemocue method. Interviewers collected basic demographic information and child feeding practices from the children's caretakers. Altitude-adjusted hemoglobin level averaged 10.8 g/dL, and total anemia prevalence was 49.5% at baseline. Average hemoglobin was 11.3 g/dL at 6 months, 11.6 g/dL at 12 months, and 11.7 g/dL at 18 months after introduction of YYB. Moderate anemia (hemoglobin: 70-99 g/dL) decreased from 20.3% at baseline to 7.5%, 5.8%, and 7.3% after 6, 12, and 18 months of home fortification, respectively (P < .001), whereas mild anemia (hemoglobin: 100-110 g/dL) decreased from 29.0% to 16.7%, 18.1%, and 15.4%, respectively (P < .001). Among infants aged 6 to 23 months, 95% had regularly been fed YYB during the observation period. Regression analysis showed that the duration of YYB consumption and number of sachets consumed per week correlated positively with hemoglobin levels and negatively with anemia rates. Home food fortification with YYB is feasible and effective for nutrition promotion among IYC in high-risk regions of China.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Alimentos Fortificados , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Pobreza , População Rural , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Edético , Compostos Ferrosos/administração & dosagem , Assistência Alimentar , Programas Governamentais , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/deficiência , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Soja
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 12(7): 7208-19, 2015 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132475

RESUMO

This study assessed the association between accessibility of catering service venues and adolescents' alcohol use over the previous 30 days. The data were collected from cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2014, 2223 students at 27 high schools in Chaoyang and Xicheng districts, Beijing using self-administered questionnaires to collect the adolescents information on socio-demographic characteristics and recent alcohol experiences. The accessibility of, and proximity to, catering service venues were summarized by weights, which were calculated by multiplication of the type-weight and the distance-weight. All sampled schools were categorized into three subgroups (low, middle, and high geographic density) based on the tertile of nearby catering service venues, and a multi-level logistic regression analysis was performed to explore variance between the school levels. Considering the setting characteristics, the catering service venues weighted value was found to account for 8.6% of the school level variance of adolescent alcohol use. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of drinking over the past 30-days among adolescents with medium and high accessibility of catering service venues were 1.17 (0.86, 1.57) and 1.47 (1.06, 2.02), respectively (p < 0.001 for trend test). This study addressed a gap in the adolescent drinking influence by the catering service venues around schools in China. Results suggest that the greater accessibility of catering service venues around schools is associated with a growing risk of recent drinking.


Assuntos
Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Pequim , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
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