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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(41): 12197-12208, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586788

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro) inhibitors are considered as potential treatments for coronavirus disease 2019, and dietary polyphenols show promise in SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibition based on in silico studies. In the present study, we utilize a combination of biochemical-, surface plasmon resonance-, and docking-based assays to evaluate the inhibition and binding affinities of a series of tannins and their gut microbial metabolites on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The tested compounds (2-50 µM) were hydrolyzable tannins, including ellagitannins (punicalagin and ellagic acid) and gallotannins (tannic acid, pentagalloyl glucose, ginnalin A, and gallic acid), and their gut microbial metabolites, urolithins and pyrogallol, respectively. They inhibited SARS-CoV-2 Mpro (by 6.6-100.0% at 50 µM) and bound directly to the Mpro protein (with dissociation constants from 1.1 × 10-6 to 5.3 × 10-5 M). This study sheds light on the inhibitory effects of tannins and their metabolites on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.

2.
J Food Sci ; 86(10): 4554-4565, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519054

RESUMO

Combinations of phytochemical(s) and engineered nanoparticles have attracted immense research interest due to their superior antimicrobial effects against contaminations. Herein, a Pickering emulsion is developed with capsulized phytochemicals including borneol and citral (BC-Cap) stabilized by hydrophilic amine-functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiO2 ─NH2 NPs). The droplet sizes of Pickering emulsion were 5.2 ± 1.4 µm under the condition that the concentrations of SiO2 ─NH2 NPs ranged from 0.6 to 1.2 wt.%, and the emulsion showed desirable stability during storage at 40°C for 365 days. In addition, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the Pickering emulsion were investigated. The antibacterial effect of BC-Cap increased by two- to fourfold compared with citral or borneol alone. Treatment of BC/BC-Cap for 4 h eliminated the formation of biofilms generated by Listeria monocytogenes (at 5/1.25 mg/ml; 2 × MIC concentration) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (at 5/2.5 mg/ml; 2 × MIC concentration). Further mechanistic studies revealed that the antibiofilm effects of BC-Cap were attributed to its ability to increase the porosity and lytic effects on the cell membrane of bacteria. Findings from the current study support the antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of BC-Cap Pickering emulsion as a promising food additive. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The Pickering emulsion has potential applications as bacteriostatic agent in packaging materials and general surface disinfectant. The combination of borneol and citral is stabilized by hydrophilic amine-functionalized silica nanoparticles (SiO2 ─NH2 NPs). With the synergistic effects of borneol and citral, the Pickering emulsion shows a promising elimination effect against the formation of biofilms produced by Listeria monocytogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Antibacterianos , Canfanos , Nanopartículas , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Canfanos/química , Emulsões/química , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Silício
3.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117668, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426390

RESUMO

Using Fe(II) salt as the precipitant in heterotrophic denitrification achieves improved TP removal, and enhancement in denitrification was often observed. This study aimed to obtain a better understanding of Fe(II)-enhanced denitrification with sufficient carbon source supply. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted in SBRs with or without Fe(II) addition. Remarkably improved TP removal was experienced. TP removal efficiency in Fe(II) adding reactor was 85.8 ± 3.4%; whereas, that in the reactor without Fe(II) addition was 31.1 ± 2.8%. Besides improved TP removal, better TN removal efficiency (94.1 ± 1.1%) were recorded when Fe(II) was added, and that in the reactor without Fe(II) addition was 89 ± 0.8%. The specific denitrification rate were observed increase by 12.6% when Fe(II) was added. Further microbial analyses revealed increases in the abundances of typical denitrifiers (i.e. Niastella, Opitutus, Dechloromonas, Ignavibacterium, Anaeromyxobacter, Pedosphaera, and Myxococcus). Their associated denitrifying genes, narG, nirS, norB, and nosZ, were observed had 14.2%, 19.4%, 21.6%, and 9.9% elevation, respectively. Such enhancement in denitrification shall not be due to nitrate-dependent ferrous oxidation, which prevails in organic-deficient environments. In an environment with a continuous supply of Fe(II) and plenty of carbon sources, a cycle of denitrifying enzyme activity enhancement in the presence of Fe(II) facilitating nitrogen substrate utilization, stimulating denitrifier metabolism and growth, elevating denitrifying genes abundance, and increasing denitrifying enzymes expression were thought to be responsible for the Fe(II)-enhanced heterotrophic denitrification. Fe(II) salt is often a less expensive precipitant and has recently become attractive for TP removal in wastewater. The findings of this study solidify previous observation of enhancement of both TP and TN removal by adding Fe(II) in denitrification, and would be helpful for developing cost-effective pollutant removal processes.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Fósforo , Reatores Biológicos , Precipitação Química , Compostos Ferrosos , Nitratos , Nitrogênio , Águas Residuárias
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126953, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449337

RESUMO

The discharge of widely used per- and poly-fluorinated compounds (PFCs) leads to their environmental prevalence, bioaccumulation and biotoxicity; and attracts researches focusing on their treatment in wastewater. Electrochemical reductive treatment is a promising alternative due to its milder reaction conditions and easy operation. The feasibility of electrochemical reductive decomposition of PFOA using a Rh/Ni cathode was explored. The Rh/Ni cathode was fabricated by coating Rh3+ on Ni foil through electrodeposition. The Rh coating was primarily elemental and in a Rh(111) crystalline form. PFOA decomposition and defluorination were observed when using the Rh/Ni cathode where DMF was the solvent and the cathode potential was -1.25 V. A hydrodefluorination reaction was considered having occurred. Because possessing d electrons and empty d orbitals, the Rh coating enhanced PFOA adsorption onto the cathode surface and facilitated CF bond activation through Rh···F interactions. Moreover, the Rh(111) crystal helped chemisorb the generated H* and supply it participating in PFOA decomposition. With the continuous interaction of cathode-supplied electrons, CF bond would ultimately dissociate and transform to CH bond by H* substitution. Adding FeCp2* as a supporting electrolyte enhanced PFOA decomposition by working as the shuttle facilitating PFOA migration to the cathode surface.

5.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1665-1678, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309457

RESUMO

Oleanolic acid (OA) is a natural cosmeceutical compound with various skin beneficial activities including inhibitory effect on hyaluronidase but the anti-hyaluronidase activity and mechanisms of action of its synthetic analogues remain unclear. Herein, a series of OA derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on hyaluronidase. Compared to OA, an induction of fluorinated (6c) and chlorinated (6g) indole moieties led to enhanced anti-hyaluronidase activity (IC50 = 80.3 vs. 9.97 and 9.57 µg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, spectroscopic and computational studies revealed that 6c and 6g can bind to hyaluronidase protein and alter its secondary structure leading to reduced enzyme activity. In addition, OA indole derivatives showed feasible skin permeability in a slightly acidic environment (pH = 6.5) and 6c exerted skin protective effect by reducing cellular reactive oxygen species in human skin keratinocytes. Findings from the current study support that OA indole derivatives are potential cosmeceuticals with anti-hyaluronidase activity.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Indóis/farmacologia , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Humanos , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Indóis/síntese química , Indóis/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/síntese química , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
J Cannabis Res ; 3(1): 20, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cannabidiol (CBD) has been reported to have anti-diabetic effects in pre-clinical and clinical studies but its inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase, a carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme, remain unknown. Herein, we evaluated CBD's inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase using in vitro assays and computational studies. METHODS: CBD's inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase activity was evaluated in a yeast enzymatic assay and by molecular docking. The stability of CBD in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. RESULTS: CBD, at 10, 19, 38, 76, 152, 304, 608, and 1216 µM, inhibited α-glucosidase activity with inhibition of 17.1, 20.4, 48.1, 56.6, 59.1, 63.7, 74.1, and 95.4%, respectively. Acarbose, the positive control, showed a comparable inhibitory activity (with 85.1% inhibition at 608 µM). CBD's inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase was supported by molecular docking showing binding energy (-6.39 kcal/mol) and interactions between CBD and the α-glucosidase protein. CBD was stable in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids for two hours (maintained ≥ 90.0%). CONCLUSIONS: CBD showed moderate inhibitory effect against yeast α-glucosidase activity and was stable in gastric and intestinal fluids. However, further studies on CBD's anti-α-glucosidase effects using cellular and in vivo models are warranted to support its potential application for the management of type II diabetes mellitus.

7.
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res ; 6(4): 288-299, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998855

RESUMO

Introduction: Published preclinical and clinical studies support the anti-inflammatory activity of CBD, but the molecular targets (e.g., genes and proteins) that are involved in its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Herein, a network-based pharmacology analysis was performed to aid in the identification of potential molecular targets for CBD's anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: Target genes and proteins were obtained from several online databases, including Swiss target prediction, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, and the DrugBank database. A compound-target-disease network was constructed with Cytoscape tool, and a network of protein-protein interactions was established with the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database. Lead proteins identified from the compound-target-disease network were further studied for their interactions with CBD by computational docking. In addition, biological pathways involved in CBD's anti-inflammatory activity were identified with the Gene Ontology enrichment and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. Results: A panel of proteins, including cellular tumor antigen p53, NF-kappa-B essential modulator, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor, transcription factor p65, NF-kappa-B p105, NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit alpha, and epidermal growth factor receptor, were identified as lead targets involved in CBD's anti-inflammatory activity. This finding was further supported by molecular docking, which showed interactions between the lead proteins and CBD. In addition, several signaling pathways, including TNF, toll-like receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, were identified as key regulators in the mediation of CBD's anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: A network-based pharmacology analysis identified potential molecular targets and signaling pathways for CBD's anti-inflammatory activity. Findings from this study add to the growing body of data supporting the utilization of CBD as a promising anti-inflammatory natural product.

8.
J Nat Prod ; 84(5): 1563-1572, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955754

RESUMO

Preclinical and clinical studies support cannabidiol (CBD)'s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which are linked to its skin protective effects, but there have been limited mechanistic studies reported. Herein we evaluated CBD's protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells and explored its possible mechanism(s) of action. CBD (10 µM) protected HaCaT cells by alleviating H2O2 (200 µM)-induced cytotoxicity (by 11.3%) and reactive oxygen species (total- and mitochondrial-derived). Several NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes including CASP1 and IL1B were identified as potential molecular targets for CBD's antioxidant effects by multiplexed gene and network pharmacology analyses. CBD treatment down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of CASP1 and IL1B (by 32.9 and 51.0%, respectively) and reduced IL-1ß level (by 16.2%) in H2O2-stimulated HaCaT cells. Furthermore, CBD inhibited the activity of caspase-1 enzyme (by 15.7%) via direct binding to caspase-1 protein, which was supported by data from a biophysical binding assay (surface plasmon resonance) and a computational docking experiment. In addition, CBD mitigated H2O2-induced pyroptosis (capase-1-mediated cell death) and apoptosis by 23.6 and 44.0%, respectively. The findings from the current study suggest that CBD exerts protective effects in human keratinocytes via the modulation of the caspase-1-IL-1ß axis, supporting its potential skin health applications.

9.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 239, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906641

RESUMO

Programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) based immunotherapy is a revolutionary cancer therapy with great clinical success. The majority of clinically used PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies but their applications are limited due to their poor oral bioavailability and immune-related adverse effects (irAEs). In contrast, several small molecule inhibitors against PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoints show promising blockage effects on PD-1/PD-L1 interactions without irAEs. However, proper analytical methods and bioassays are required to effectively screen small molecule derived PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Herein, we summarize the biophysical and biochemical assays currently employed for the measurements of binding capacities, molecular interactions, and blocking effects of small molecule inhibitors on PD-1/PD-L1. In addition, the discovery of natural products based PD-1/PD-L1 antagonists utilizing these screening assays are reviewed. Potential pitfalls for obtaining false leading compounds as PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors by using certain binding bioassays are also discussed in this review.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(12): 3626-3637, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733770

RESUMO

Nutraceutical/pharmaceutical agents capable of maintaining redox and inflammation homeostasis are considered as candidates for the prevention and/or treatment of liver diseases. Psidium guajava (commonly known as guava) leaf is a commercially available functional food that has been reported to possess hepatoprotective property. However, the hepatoprotective constituents in guava leaf are not known. In the current study, a standardized triterpenoid-enriched extract of guava leaves (TGL) was developed. A new ursolic acid derivative, namely 2α,3ß,6ß,23,30-pentahydroxyurs-11,13(18)-dien-28,20ß-olide (1), and 23 known triterpenoids were isolated and identified from TGL. The hepatoprotective effects of TGL were evaluated through a model using acetaminophen (APAP)-exposed C57BL/6 male mice. Pretreatment of TGL (75 and 150 mg/kg) restored the mice hepatic architecture, improved the serum ALT and AST levels, and reduced the hepatic ROS and MDA contents. Further molecular mechanistic study revealed that TGL modulated Nrf2 and MAPK signaling pathways to alleviate APAP-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress in liver. In addition, the new compound 1 from TGL showed protective effects against APAP-induced cytotoxicity via activation of the Nrf2 pathway in HepG2 cells. Overall, this is the first report on the hepatoprotective effects of a standardized triterpenoid-enriched extract of guava leaves, which supports its potential nutraceutical application in liver disease management.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Psidium , Triterpenos , Acetaminofen , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo
11.
Bioorg Chem ; 107: 104580, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418317

RESUMO

Research efforts have been directed to the development of oleanolic acid (OA) based α-glucosidase inhibitors and various OA derivatives showed improved anti-α-glucosidase activity. However, the inhibitory effects of indole infused OA derivatives on α-glucosidase is unknown. Herein, we synthesized a series of indole-OA (2a-2o) and -OA methyl ester (3a-3 l) derivatives with various electron withdrawing groups inducted to indole benzene ring and evaluated their anti-α-glucosidase activity. Indole OA derivatives (2a-2o) exhibited superior α-glucosidase inhibitory effects as compared to OA methyl ester derivatives (3a-3l) and OA (with IC50 values of 4.02 µM-5.30 µM v.s. over 10 µM and 5.52 µM, respectively). In addition, mechanistic studies using biochemical (kinetic assay), biophysical (circular dichroism), and computational (docking) methods revealed that OA-indole derivatives (2a and 2f) are mixed type of α-glucosidase inhibitors and their inhibitory effects were attributed to their capacity of forming the ligand-enzyme complex with α-glucosidase enzyme. Findings from this study support that OA indole derivatives are promising α-glucosidase inhibitors as a potential management of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/síntese química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Ácido Oleanólico/síntese química , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 72(4): 499-510, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203257

RESUMO

Diets rich in fats are linked to elevated systemic inflammation, which augments the progression of inflammatory-related disorders including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and neurodegenerative diseases. A phenolic-enriched pomegranate fruit extract (PE) was investigated for its hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in male C57BL/6 mice fed either a high-fat diet or a standard rodent diet with or without 1% of PE for 12 weeks. Mouse livers and hippocampi were evaluated for the expression of genes associated with NAFLD and inflammation by multiplexed gene analysis. PE alleviated diet-induced fatty liver and suppressed hepatic lipid regulating genes including Cd36, Fas, Acot2 and Slc27a1. In addition, PE suppressed gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including Il-1α, Il-7, Il-11, Ifnα, Tnfα and Lepr in the hippocampi. Our findings support the protective effects of PE against high-fat diet-induced hepatic and neurological disease.

13.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 8297-8308, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909594

RESUMO

Benzophenone glycosides are a major type of polyphenols present in guava. To date, there is still poor understanding of the relationship between benzophenone glycosides and the hepatoprotective effects attributed to this edible fruit. Herein, the protective effects of guavinoside B (GUB), a main benzophenone glycoside present in guava fruit, against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Fluorescence measurement demonstrated that GUB (at a concentration of 30 µM) significantly reduced the intracellular ROS levels in APAP-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, GUB (100 mg kg-1 d-1) pretreatment markedly alleviated APAP-induced hepatocyte infiltration and necrosis in C57BL/6 mice, and improved serum and hepatic biochemical parameters, such as ALT, AST, SOD, GSH, ROS, MDA, and TNF-α levels. RT-PCR and western blot experiments revealed that GUB up-regulated Nrf2, GCLC and NQO1, while reducing p-JNK gene expression in the liver. The fermentation experiment further revealed that the displayed beneficial effects of GUB in vivo might be related to the gut microbial metabolite gallic acid. These promising data suggested that GUB showed potent hepatoprotective effects through regulating the Nrf2 and JNK signaling pathways. Further investigation of the absorption and metabolism of benzophenones would be warranted to promote the utilization of these phenolics as functional food ingredients against oxidative stress-induced chronic diseases.

14.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(4): 512-517, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761299

RESUMO

Emerging data support that plant food based isoflavones have ameliorating effects on a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Our previous investigation revealed that dietary isoflavones including genistein (GEN), daidzein (DAI), and equol (EQL; a gut microbial metabolite of DAI) showed promising blood-brain barrier permeability and anti-neuroinflammatory activity in murine microglial BV2 cells. However, the neuroprotective effects of EQL against neurotoxins induced toxicity in PD related models remains unclear. Herein, EQL, along with GEN and DAI, were evaluated for their cytoprotective effect in a non-contact co-culture model with LPS-BV2-conditioned media and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, their neuroprotective effects against PD related neurotoxins including 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induced cytotoxicity were evaluated in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, EQL was evaluated for its neuroprotective effects against MPP+ induced neurotoxicity using in vivo PD model including Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan assay. DAI (10 µM) and EQL (10 and 20 µM) showed cytoprotective effects by decreasing LPS-BV2-conditioned media induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells by 29.2, 32.4 and 27.2%, respectively. EQL (10 and 20 µM) also showed neuroprotective effects by decreasing 6-OHDA and MPP+ induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells by 30.6-34.5 and 17.9-18.9%, respectively. Additionally, data from the in vivo assay supported EQL's neuroprotective effect as it increases survival of C. elegans exposed to MPP+ from 72 to 108 h. Our findings support a growing body of evidence of the neuroprotective effects of dietary isoflavones and further studies are warranted to elucidate their mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Isoflavonas , Neuroblastoma , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Apoptose , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Caenorhabditis elegans , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Equol/farmacologia , Humanos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade
15.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707654

RESUMO

Black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed extract has been shown to improve dermatological conditions, yet its beneficial effects for skin are not fully elucidated. Herein, Thymocid®, a chemically standardized black cumin seed extract, was investigated for its cosmeceutical potential including anti-aging properties associated with modulation of glycation, collagen cross-linking, and collagenase and elastase activities, as well as antimelanogenic effect in murine melanoma B16F10 cells. Thymocid® (50, 100, and 300 µg/mL) inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end-products (by 16.7-70.7%), collagen cross-linking (by 45.1-93.3%), collagenase activity (by 10.4-92.4%), and elastases activities (type I and III by 25.3-75.4% and 36.0-91.1%, respectively). In addition, Thymocid® (2.5-20 µg/mL) decreased melanin content in B16F10 cells by 42.5-61.6% and reduced cellular tyrosinase activity by 20.9% (at 20 µg/mL). Furthermore, Thymocid® (20 µg/mL for 72 h) markedly suppressed the mRNA expression levels of melanogenesis-related genes including microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), and TYRP2 to 78.9%, 0.3%, and 0.2%, respectively. Thymocid® (10 µg/mL) also suppressed the protein expression levels of MITF (by 15.2%) and TYRP1 (by 97.7%). Findings from this study support the anti-aging and antimelanogenic potential of Thymocid® as a bioactive cosmeceutical ingredient for skin care products.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Colagenases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição Associado à Microftalmia/metabolismo , Nigella sativa/química , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cosméticos , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Higiene da Pele
16.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619361

RESUMO

Two unusual di-isopentenyl guanidine alkaloids, named celosiadines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Iresine diffusa aerial parts. The structures of the compounds were elucidated from extensive spectroscopic analyses including HRMS, NMR and ECD. Celosiadines A and B showed favorable binding affinity to the androgen receptor (AR) in silico and were cytotoxic towards AR-sensitive (LNCaP) but not AR-insensitive (PC3) human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

17.
J Hazard Mater ; 400: 123116, 2020 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569980

RESUMO

Microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is known as a significant process for remediating heavy metals contaminated environment. In this study, a novel Cd-resistant ureolytic bacteria was isolated and identified as Enterobacter sp. Its performances for immobilizing Cd in solution and soil were systematically discussed at different treatment conditions. Results showed that initial pH and Cd concentration were important parameters to influence Cd removal rate. The maximal Cd removal rate in solution reached 99.50 % within 7 days by MICP. The precipitation produced in Cd removal process were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer to understand the removal mechanism. Analyses showed that Cd removal mechanism of CJW-1 was predominately via biominerals including calcites and vaterites to absorb Cd2+. Cd immobilization tests demonstrated that the highest Cd-immobilization rate in soil could reach 56.10 %. Although all treatments contribute to soil pH, fertility, and enzyme activities improvement, oyster shell wastes (OS) had a better effect on soil cation exchange capacity. All treatments had negative effects on soil respiration and bacterial community, but OS can alleviate such adverse influence. Our results emphasized that Cd-resistant ureolytic bacteria strain CJW-1 combined with OS had excellent ability and reuse value to remediate Cd-contaminated environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Cádmio , Carbonato de Cálcio , Carbonatos , Água
18.
J Nat Prod ; 83(6): 2025-2029, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374168

RESUMO

Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects associated with NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but its mechanism of anti-inflammasome action remains unclear. Herein, we report CBD's effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its modulation of P2X7, an inflammasome activation-related receptor, in human THP-1 monocytes. CBD (0.1, 1, and 10 µM) exerted anti-inflammasome activity in LPS-nigericin-stimulated THP-1 monocytes by reducing media IL-1ß concentration (by 63.9%, 64.1%, and 83.1%, respectively), which was similar to the known NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors oridonin and MCC950 (16.9% vs 20.8% and 17.4%, respectively; at 10 µM). CBD (10 µM) decreased nigericin-alone- and nigericin-lipopolysaccharide-induced potassium efflux by 13.7% and 13.0%, respectively, in THP-1 monocytes, strongly suggesting P2X7 receptor modulation. Computational docking data supported the potential for CBD binding to the P2X7 receptor via interaction with GLU 172 and VAL 173 residues. Overall, the observed CBD suppressive effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in THP-1 monocytes was associated with decreased potassium efflux, as well as in silico prediction of P2X7 receptor binding. CBD inhibitory effects on the NLRP3 inflammasome may contribute to the overall anti-inflammatory effects reported for this phytocannabinoid.

19.
Food Funct ; 11(6): 5105-5114, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356551

RESUMO

Phytochemicals from functional foods are common ingredients in dietary supplements and cosmetic products for anti-skin aging effects due to their antioxidant activities. A proprietary red maple (Acer rubrum) leaf extract (Maplifa™) and its major phenolic compound, ginnalin A (GA), have been reported to show antioxidant, anti-melanogenesis, and anti-glycation effects but their protective effects against oxidative stress in human skin cells remain unknown. Herein, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Maplifa™ and GA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). H2O2 and MGO (both at 400 µM) induced toxicity in HaCaT cells and reduced their viability to 59.2 and 61.6%, respectively. Treatment of Maplifa™ (50 µg mL-1) and GA (50 µM) increased the viability of H2O2- and MGO-treated cells by 22.0 and 15.5%, respectively. Maplifa™ and GA also showed cytoprotective effects by reducing H2O2-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells by 8.0 and 7.2%, respectively. The anti-apoptotic effect of Maplifa™ was further supported by the decreased levels of apoptosis associated enzymes including caspases-3/7 and -8 in HaCaT cells by 49.5 and 19.0%, respectively. In addition, Maplifa™ (50 µg mL-1) and GA (50 µM) reduced H2O2- and MGO-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 84.1 and 56.8%, respectively. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that Maplifa™ and GA reduced MGO-induced total cellular ROS production while increasing mitochondria-derived ROS production in HaCaT cells. The cytoprotective effects of Maplifa™ and GA in human keratinocytes support their potential utilization for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications.


Assuntos
Acer/química , Desoxiglucose/análogos & derivados , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aldeído Pirúvico/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Citoproteção , Desoxiglucose/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Heliyon ; 6(4): e03693, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32258515

RESUMO

Entamoeba histolytica infects 50 million people worldwide and causes 55 thousand fatalities every year. Current anti-amebic drugs (e.g. paromomycin) work either at the level of the intestinal lumen (where trophozoites proliferate via cell divisions) or on the invasive trophozoites that have penetrated the gut or colonized internal organs (e.g. metronidazole). Some of these drugs are highly toxic to patients, have generated trophozoite resistance, or caused mutations and cancer in laboratory animals. Thus, alternative anti-amebic compounds need to be identified to minimize the side effects (on patients) or resistance (by amebas) to current treatments. The literature suggests that anthraquinones (chemicals found in medicinal plants) have antibacterial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Here we provide experimental evidence that Chinese rhubarb (Rheum palmatum) leaves' extract (rich in the anthraquinone rhein) inhibits E. histolytica trophozoite growth in vitro. In addition, from a set of ten isolated/synthetic anthraquinones (which we suspected to have anti-amebic properties), four analogs (rhein; AHHDAC = 1-amino-4-hydroxy-9, 10-dioxo-9, 10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid; unisol blue AS; and sennoside B) efficiently inhibited amebic growth at EIC50 concentrations comparable to metronidazole. The mechanism of action of these compounds still needs to be determined, although anthraquinones might enhance the production of toxic oxygen metabolites as it has been suggested for various protists (e.g. Leishmania, Plasmodium, Trypanosoma). Our research is the first to explore anti-amebic effects of Chinese rhubarb leaves' extract and isolated/synthetic anthraquinones on pathogenic Entamoeba.

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