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1.
Metabolism ; 128: 154958, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) incidence and prevalence increasing, it is necessary to identify patients with advanced fibrosis (F3-F4 stages). We evaluated the performance of new biomarkers and algorithms for diagnosing advanced fibrosis in an Asian population. METHODS: Data from two Asian cohorts (including 851 biopsy-proven MAFLD [578 from Wenzhou, 273 from Hong Kong]) were studied. The association between N-terminal propeptide of type 3 collagen (PRO-C3) and the histologic stage of liver fibrosis was analyzed by multivariable linear regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to test the diagnostic performance of serum PRO-C3 and the ADAPT score for advanced fibrosis and compared them to other established non-invasive tests. RESULTS: Serum PRO-C3 levels increased progressively across liver fibrosis stages and correlated with advanced fibrosis (P < 0.001). The ADAPT score had an AUROC of 0.865 (95% confidence interval 0.829-0.901) for advanced fibrosis; the accuracy, sensitivity and negative predictive values were 81.4%, 82.2% and 96.1%, respectively. This result was better compared to that of PRO-C3 alone or other non-invasive fibrosis biomarkers (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, Fibrosis-4, BARD, and NAFLD fibrosis score). In subgroup analyses (including sex, age, diabetes, NAFLD activity score, body mass index or serum alanine aminotransferase levels), the ADAPT score had good diagnostic performance. CONCLUSION: PRO-C3 and the ADAPT score reliably exclude advanced fibrosis in MAFLD patients and reduce the need for liver biopsy.

2.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 2021 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34839623

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic dysfunction. Among the multiple factors, genetic variation acts as important modifiers. Klotho, an enzyme encoded by the klotho (KL) gene in human, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic dysfunctions. However, the impact of variants in KL on NAFLD risk remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of KL rs495392 C>A polymorphism on the histological severity of NAFLD. Methods: We evaluated the impact of the KL rs495392 polymorphism on liver histology in 531 Chinese with NAFLD and replicated that in the population-based Rotterdam Study cohort. The interactions between the rs495392 and vitamin D and patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 polymorphism were also analyzed. Results: Carriage of the rs495392 A allele had a protective effect on steatosis severity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42 - 0.89, P = 0.010) in Chinese patients. After adjustment for potential confounders, the A allele remained significant with a protective effect (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45 - 0.98, P = 0.040). The effect on hepatic steatosis was confirmed in the Rotterdam Study cohort. Additional analysis showed the association between serum vitamin D levels and NAFLD specifically in rs495392 A allele carriers, but not in non-carriers. Moreover, we found that the rs495392 A allele attenuated the detrimental impact of PNPLA3 rs738409 G allele on the risk of severe hepatic steatosis. Conclusions: The KL rs495392 polymorphism has a protective effect against hepatic steatosis in patients with NAFLD.

3.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(9): 758-764, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caspase-cleaved K18 (cK18) may accurately reflect hepatocyte apoptosis in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, NASH can also exist within the normal range of cK18. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors and characteristics of NASH within the normal serum levels of cK18. METHODS: In the study, 227 histopathologically confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients with normal cK18 levels (≤200 U/L), measured in serum using ELISA kits, were enrolled. The Rs738409 allele, coding patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3), was detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was defined as an NAFLD activity score (NAS) ≥5 with each part >0. RESULTS: The prevalence of NASH was 31.7% among NAFLD patients with normal serum cK18 levels. Compared with non-NASH, NASH had a higher possibility of occurrence with central obesity, insulin resistance, and the G allele of PNPLA3. The mean serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were higher in NASH patients. Moreover, ALT, AST, TC, LDL-C, central obesity, and the PNPLA3 G allele were risk factors for NASH in NAFLD patients with normal serum cK18 levels, with odds ratios of 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.02), 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.05), 1.33 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.68), 1.41 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.92), 2.19 (95% CI: 1.15, 4.18), and 2.48 (95% CI: 1.15, 5.36), respectively; all P < .05. CONCLUSIONS: The major risk factors for NASH were central obesity, AST, and the PNPLA3 G allele, in NAFLD with low hepatocyte apoptosis.

4.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176541

RESUMO

Sarcopenic obesity is regarded as a risk factor for the progression and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Since male sex is a risk factor for NAFLD and skeletal muscle mass markedly varies between the sexes, we examined whether sex influences the association between appendicular skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SVR), that is, an index of skeletal muscle mass combined with abdominal obesity, and the histological severity of NAFLD. The SVR was measured by bioelectrical impedance in a cohort of 613 (M/F = 443/170) Chinese middle-aged individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Multivariable logistic regression and subgroup analyses were used to test the association between SVR and the severity of NAFLD (i.e. non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or NASH with the presence of any stage of liver fibrosis). NASH was identified by a NAFLD activity score ≥5, with a minimum score of 1 for each of its categories. The presence of fibrosis was classified as having a histological stage ≥1. The SVR was inversely associated with NASH in men (adjusted OR 0·62; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·92, P = 0·017 for NASH, adjusted OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·99, P = 0·043 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis), but not in women (1·47 (95 % CI 0·76, 2·83), P = 0·25 for NASH, and 1·45 (95 % CI 0·74, 2·83), P = 0·28 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis). There was a significant interaction for sex and SVR (Pinteraction = 0·017 for NASH and Pinteraction = 0·033 for NASH with the presence of fibrosis). Our findings show that lower skeletal muscle mass combined with abdominal obesity is strongly associated with the presence of NASH only in men.

5.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 9(2): 194-202, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34007801

RESUMO

Background and Aims: In Europeans, variants in the hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) gene impact liver histology in metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). The impact of these variants in ethnic Chinese is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential associations in Chinese patients. Methods: In total, 427 Han Chinese with biopsy-confirmed MAFLD were enrolled. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSD17B13 were genotyped: rs72613567 and rs6531975. Logistic regression was used to test the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms and liver histology. Results: In our cohort, the minor allele TA of the rs72613567 variant was related to an increased risk of fibrosis [odds ratio (OR): 2.93 (1.20-7.17), p=0.019 for the additive model; OR: 3.32 (1.39-7.91), p=0.007 for the recessive model], representing an inverse association as compared to the results from European cohorts. In contrast, we observed a protective effect on fibrosis for the minor A allele carriers of the HSD17B13 rs6531975 variant [OR: 0.48 (0.24-0.98), p=0.043 for the additive model; OR: 0.62 (0.40-0.94), p=0.025 for the dominant model]. HSD17B13 variants were only associated with fibrosis but no other histological features. Furthermore, HSD17B13 rs6531975 modulated the effect of PNPLA3 rs738409 on hepatic steatosis. Conclusions: HSD17B13 rs72613567 is a risk variant for fibrosis in a Han Chinese MAFLD population but with a different direction for allelic association to that seen in Europeans. These data exemplify the need for studying diverse populations in genetic studies in order to fine map genome-wide association studies signals.

6.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(10): 2925-2934, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) plays a role in lipid metabolism, and by increasing hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation, the upregulation of CYP2E1 is involved in development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We aimed to explore the relationship between CYP2E1-333A>T (rs2070673) and the histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We studied 438 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. NASH was defined as NAFLD Activity Score ≥ 5 with existence of steatosis, ballooning, and lobular inflammation. CYP2E1-333A>T (rs2070673) was genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Serum cytokines related to inflammation were measured by the Bio-plex 200 system to investigate possible mediating factors involved in the process. RESULTS: The TA genotype of rs2070673 had a higher prevalence of moderate/severe lobular inflammation (27.6% vs 20.3% vs 13.3%, P < 0.01) and NASH (55.7% vs 42.4% vs 40.5%, P < 0.01) compared with the AA and TT genotypes, respectively. In multivariable regression modeling, the heterozygote state TA was associated with moderate/severe lobular inflammation (adjusted odds ratio: 2.31, 95% confidence interval 1.41-3.78, P < 0.01) or NASH (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.22-2.69, P < 0.01), independently of age, sex, common metabolic risk factors, and presence of liver fibrosis. Compared with no-NASH, NASH patients had significantly higher levels of serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-18, and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), whereas only IP-10 was increased with the rs2070673 TA variant (P = 0.01). Mediation analysis showed that IP-10 was responsible for ~60% of the association between the rs2070672 and NASH. CONCLUSIONS: The TA allele of rs2070673 is strongly associated with lobular inflammation and NASH, and this effect appears to be largely mediated by serum IP-10 levels.

7.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci ; 28(7): 593-603, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of significant liver fibrosis is a key determinant of long-term prognosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to develop a novel machine learning algorithm (MLA) to predict fibrosis severity in NAFLD and compared it with the most widely used non-invasive fibrosis biomarkers. METHODS: We used a cohort of 553 adults with biopsy-proven NAFLD, who were randomly divided into a training cohort (n = 278) for the development of both logistic regression model (LRM) and MLA, and a validation cohort (n = 275). Significant fibrosis was defined as fibrosis stage F ≥ 2. MLA and LRM were derived from variables that were selected using a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression algorithm. RESULTS: In the training cohort, the variables selected by LASSO algorithm were body mass index, pro-collagen type III, collagen type IV, aspartate aminotransferase and albumin-to-globulin ratio. The diagnostic accuracy of MLA showed the highest values of area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.902, 95% CI 0.869-0.904) for identifying fibrosis F ≥ 2. The LRM AUROC was 0.764, 95% CI 0.710-0.816 and significantly better than the AST-to-Platelet ratio (AUROC 0.684, 95% CI 0.605-0.762), FIB-4 score (AUROC 0.594, 95% CI 0.503-0.685) and NAFLD Fibrosis Score (AUROC 0.557, 95% CI 0.470-0.644). In the validation cohort, MLA also showed the highest AUROC (0.893, 95% CI 0.864-0.901). The diagnostic accuracy of MLA outperformed that of LRM in all subgroups considered. CONCLUSIONS: Our newly developed MLA algorithm has excellent diagnostic performance for predicting fibrosis F ≥ 2 in patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Algoritmos , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Fibrose , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 27(2): 329-345, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the usefulness of a key biomarker, lipocalin-2 (LCN2), for the detection of NASH progression. METHODS: A mouse NASH model was established using a high-fat diet and a high-sugar drinking water. Gene expression profile of the NASH model was analyzed using RNA sequencing. Moreover, 360 NAFLD patients (steatosis, 83; NASH, 277), 40 healthy individuals, and 87 patients with alcoholic fatty liver disease were recruited. RESULTS: Inflammatory infiltration, focal necrosis in the leaflets, steatosis, and fibrosis were documented in the mouse liver. In total, 504 genes were differentially expressed in the livers of NASH mice, and showed significant functional enrichment in the inflammation-related category. Upregulated liver LCN2 was found to be significantly interactive with various interleukins and toll-like receptors. Serum LCN2 levels were significantly increased in NAFLD patients. Serum LCN2 levels were correlated with steatosis, intralobular inflammation, semiquantitative fibrosis score, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score. The area under the curve of serum LCN2 was 0.987 with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 93.5% for NASH diagnosis, and 0.977 with almost the same specificity and sensitivity for steatosis. CONCLUSION: LCN2 might be involved in the transition from NAFL to NASH by mediating inflammation. Serum LCN2 levels might be a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of NASH.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Animais , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Lipocalina-2 , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(2): 552-560, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Some previous studies reported serum autoantibody positivity in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The clinical significance of these findings remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of serum autoantibodies and liver disease severity in NAFLD. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 388 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in the study. Various serum autoantibodies (including also anti-nuclear antibodies [ANA]) were detected by indirect immunofluorescent or immunoblotting assays. Overall, 84 (21.6%) patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD had positivity for at least one of the measured serum autoantibodies. ANA positivity was present in 50 (12.9%) patients, whereas anti-U1RNP or pANCA antibodies were detectable in 9 (2.3%) and 6 (1.5%) patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ANA positivity (adjusted-odds ratio: 4.51, 95%CI: 1.77-11.5; P = 0.002) or positivity of any serum autoantibodies (adjusted-odds ratio: 3.14, 95%CI: 1.30-7.62; P = 0.01) were independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis (stages F3-F4). In serum autoantibody/ANA-positive patients, the proportion of those with advanced fibrosis was also greater among carriers of PNPLA3 rs738409 GG or CG than among those carrying PNPLA3 rs738409 CC genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Serum autoantibody positivity was independently associated with advanced liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. The presence of serum autoantibodies in patients with advanced fibrosis occurred more frequently amongst those carrying PNPLA3 rs738409 GG or CG genotypes.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/imunologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Br J Nutr ; 126(6): 813-824, 2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198849

RESUMO

The FNDC5 gene encodes the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 that is a membrane protein mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, and the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism may be associated with liver disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the influence of the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the relationship between sarcopenia and the histological severity of NAFLD. A total of 370 adult individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD were studied. The association between the key exposure sarcopenia and the outcome liver histological severity was investigated by binary logistic regression. Stratified analyses were undertaken to examine the impact of FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the association between sarcopenia and the severity of NAFLD histology. Patients with sarcopenia had more severe histological grades of steatosis and a higher prevalence of significant fibrosis and definite non-alcoholic steatohepatitis than those without sarcopenia. There was a significant association between sarcopenia and significant fibrosis (adjusted OR 2·79, 95 % CI 1·31, 5·95, P = 0·008), independent of established risk factors and potential confounders. Among patients with sarcopenia, significant fibrosis occurred more frequently in the rs3480 AA genotype carriers than in those carrying the FNDC5 rs3480 G genotype (43·8 v. 17·2 %, P = 0·031). In the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis, there was a significant interaction between the FNDC5 genotype and sarcopenia status (P value for interaction = 0·006). Sarcopenia is independently associated with significant liver fibrosis, and the FNDC5 rs3480 G variant influences the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.

11.
MedComm (2020) ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838396

RESUMO

Clinicians have been faced with the challenge of differentiating between severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected pneumonia (NCP) and influenza A infected pneumonia (IAP), a seasonal disease that coincided with the outbreak. We aim to develop a machine-learning algorithm based on radiomics to distinguish NCP from IAP by texture analysis based on computed tomography (CT) imaging. Forty-one NCP and 37 IAP patients admitted from January to February 6, 2019 admitted to two hospitals in Wenzhou, China. All patients had undergone chest CT examination and blood routine tests prior to receiving medical treatment. NCP was diagnosed by real-time RT-PCR assays. Eight of 56 radiomic features extracted by LIFEx were selected by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression to develop a radiomics score and subsequently constructed into a nomogram to predict NCP with area under the operating characteristics curve of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.93). The nomogram also showed excellent calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test yielding a nonsignificant statistic (P = .904). The novel nomogram may efficiently distinguish between NCP and IAP patients. The nomogram may be incorporated to existing diagnostic algorithm to effectively stratify suspected patients for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.

12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1820-1825, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Emerging evidence suggests that plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels are decreased in patients with imaging-defined nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but no data are currently available on the association between plasma NT-proBNP levels and the histological severity of NAFLD. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 351 (73.5% men) consecutive adult patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD without a prior history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Plasma NT-proBNP levels were measured using a commercially available immunochemical system (VITROS® 5600, Johnson, New Jersey). Fifty-three percent of these subjects had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). After stratification of patients by plasma NT-proBNP tertiles; compared to those in the 1st tertile (NT-proBNP ≤16 pg/ml), the odds ratio for NASH was 0.52 (95% CI 0.29-0.95) in patients in the 2nd tertile (NT-proBNP of 17-33 pg/ml) and 0.49 (95% CI 0.26-0.93) in those in the 3rd tertile (NT-proBNP ≥34 pg/ml) of plasma NT-proBNP levels, even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-estimated insulin resistance, pre-existing diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. CONCLUSION: In subjects with biopsy-proven NAFLD without known CVD, this cross-sectional study shows for the first time, that lower plasma NT-proBNP levels are strongly associated with a higher prevalence of NASH.


Assuntos
Fígado/patologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Liver Int ; 40(9): 2160-2163, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573883

RESUMO

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has attracted increasing worldwide attention. While metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) affects a quarter of world population, its impact on COVID-19 severity has not been characterized. We identified 55 MAFLD patients with COVID-19, who were 1:1 matched by age, sex and obesity status to non-aged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients without MAFLD. Our results demonstrate that in patients aged less than 60 years with COVID-19, MAFLD is associated with an approximately fourfold increase (adjusted odds ratio 4.07, 95% confidence interval 1.20-13.79, P = .02) in the probability for severe disease, after adjusting for confounders. Healthcare professionals caring for patients with COVID-19 need to be aware that there is a positive association between MAFLD and severe illness with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(10): 1804-1812, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is an immediate need for non-invasive accurate tests for diagnosing liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Previously, it has been suggested that MACK-3 (a formula that combines homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance with serum serum aspartate aminotransferase and cytokeratin [CK]18-M30 levels) accurately identifies patients with fibrotic NASH. Our aim was to assess the performance of MACK-3 and develop a novel, non-invasive algorithm for diagnosing fibrotic NASH. METHODS: Six hundred and thirty-six adults with biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) from two independent Asian cohorts were enrolled in our study. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) was assessed by vibration-controlled transient elastography (Fibroscan). Fibrotic NASH was defined as NASH with a NAFLD activity score (NAS) ≥ 4 and F ≥ 2 fibrosis. RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), platelet count and MACK-3 were independent predictors of fibrotic NASH. On the basis of their regression coefficients, we developed a novel nomogram showing a good discriminatory ability (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC]: 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI 0.75-0.83]) and a high negative predictive value (NPV: 94.7%) to rule out fibrotic NASH. In the validation set, this nomogram had a higher AUROC (0.81, 95%CI 0.74-0.87) than that of MACK-3 (AUROC: 0.75, 95%CI 0.68-0.82; P < 0.05) with a NPV of 93.2%. The sequential combination of this nomogram with LSM data avoided the need for liver biopsy in 56.9% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel nomogram (combining MACK-3, platelet count and MetS) shows promising utility for diagnosing fibrotic NASH. The sequential combination of this nomogram and vibration-controlled transient elastography limits indeterminate results and reduces the number of unnecessary liver biopsies.


Assuntos
Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Algoritmos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Queratina-18/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nomogramas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Curva ROC
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Imaging-confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with normal alanine aminotransferase (nALT) levels is infrequently the subject for further evaluation. Early diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is needed to prevent disease progression. Thus, we tested the clinical utility of serum Golgi protein 73 (GP73) levels and developed a new non-invasive score to diagnose NASH in patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD and persistent nALT levels. METHODS: Serum GP73 and cytokeratin-18 M30 fragments (CK18-M30) levels were measured in 345 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. We developed a new score, named G-NASH model (by incorporating serum GP73), and combined it with serum CK18-M30 measurement in a sequential non-invasive approach to accurately identify NASH among patients with NAFLD and persistent nALT levels. RESULTS: 105 (30.4%) patients had persistent nALT, 53 of whom had histologically confirmed NASH. Both serum GP73 and CK18-M30 levels alone had poor diagnostic accuracy in identifying NASH (55.2% and 51.6%, respectively) in these patients. Conversely, G-NASH model performed better than other established non-invasive scoring systems, and by using our proposed sequential non-invasive approach 82.9% of patients with NASH were correctly identified. CONCLUSIONS: NASH is highly prevalent in patients with NAFLD with persistent nALT levels. The G-NASH model accurately identifies NASH in this patient group.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Queratina-18/sangue , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(6): 1057-1064, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) I148M (rs738409) genotype influences clinical/biochemical characteristics in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but whether PNPLA3-I148M (rs738409) genotype also influences the diagnostic performance of noninvasive diagnostic tests for NAFLD is uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the differences in diagnostic performance of noninvasive diagnostic tests for NAFLD according to PNPLA3-I148M (rs738409) genotype. METHODS: Fifty-eight healthy controls and 349 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCs) were calculated to predict hepatic steatosis (fatty liver index and hepatic steatosis index), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (cytokeratin-18 M30 and M65), and significant fibrosis (≥F2 fibrosis) (fibrosis-4 and BARD), stratifying by rs738409 genotypes (CC and CG + GG groups). RESULTS: Fatty liver index and hepatic steatosis index showed good diagnostic performance for diagnosing steatosis only in the CG + GG group with AUROCs ranging from 0.819 to 0.832. Cytokeratin-18 M30 (AUROC = 0.688) and M65 (AUROC = 0.678) had suboptimal performance for diagnosing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in the CG + GG group, whereas both had good performance (AUROC = 0.814 and 0.813, respectively) in the CC group. BARD score showed good performance in the CG + GG group compared with the CC group (AUROC = 0.805 and 0.532, respectively). Fibrosis-4 had suboptimal performance in the CG + GG group and good performance in the CC group (AUROC = 0.662 and 0.801, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic performance of noninvasive tests for NAFLD varied markedly according to PNPLA3 genotypes. Clinicians should be aware that PNPLA3 genotype limits the clinical utility of noninvasive diagnostic tests for diagnosing NAFLD.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Digestório , Genótipo , Lipase/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Liver Int ; 40(1): 107-119, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 polymorphism is associated with NAFLD severity and the PNPLA3 gene is expressed in the kidneys, but whether PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism is also associated with renal tubular injury (RTI) is uncertain. We assessed the effect of PNPLA3 genotypes on biomarkers of RTI and glomerular function in subjects with NAFLD who had either normal (nALT) or abnormal (abnALT) alanine aminotransaminase levels. METHODS: Two hundred and seventeen patients with histologically proven NAFLD of which 75 had persistently nALT (below upper limit of normal for 3 months) were included. Multivariable regression analyses were undertaken to test associations between PNPLA3 genotype and biomarkers of kidney dysfunction. RESULTS: The nALT patient group had higher urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels (u-NGAL, a biomarker of RTI) (P < .001), higher albuminuria (P = .039) and greater prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD; P = .046) than the abnALT group. The association between PNPLA3 GG genotype and risk of CKD and abnormal albuminuria remained significant after adjustment for kidney risk factors and severity of NAFLD histology, mostly in the nALT group. Similarly, PNPLA3 GG genotype was associated with higher u-NGAL levels in the nALT group, even after adjustment for the aforementioned risk factors and glomerular filtration-based markers (ß-coefficient: 22.29, 95% CI: 0.99-43.60, P = .041). CONCLUSION: Patients with NAFLD and persistently nALT, who carry the PNPLA3 rs738409 G allele, are at higher risk of early glomerular and tubular damage. We suggest PNPLA3 genotyping may help identify patients with NAFLD at higher risk of RTI.


Assuntos
Rim/fisiopatologia , Lipase/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
20.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(1): 80-86, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) has been established as a major risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) where it exerts effects on plasma glucose homeostasis, cellular anabolism, and organ glucose uptake. Owing to paucity of studies focused on peripheral IR in relation to pathological outcome, we aim to investigate homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) by histological characteristics of NAFLD. METHODS: Liver biopsy of 588 patients was screened. After excluding etiologies other than NAFLD and factors contributing to IR, serum HOMA-IR was compared with patients' histologic features. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess their relationship. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) was calculated to assess the discriminatory ability of homeostatic model assessment of IR for advanced lobular inflammation (LI). RESULTS: We observed higher serum level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and low-density lipoprotein as HOMA-IR increased. HOMA-IR is significantly associated with severity of LI (odds ratio = 1.222, 95% confidence interval = 1.135-1.315, P < 0.001), similar association remained after adjusting for age, BMI, hemoglobin A1c, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides (odds ratio = 1.205, 95% confidence interval = 1.102-1.317, P < 0.001). HOMA-IR is discriminant of LI with AUROC = 0.832 and cutoff = 2.995 (sensitivity = 0.938, specificity = 0.569). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated a strong and independent association of HOMA-IR with the severity of liver inflammation by histological evaluation in NAFLD patients without diabetes or metabolic syndrome, and its possible role in diagnosis of LI could be translated into clinical assessment of NAFLD patients with uncertainty of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis progression.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Alanina Transaminase , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Humanos , Inflamação , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico
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