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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 633-645, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099356

RESUMO

Background: With the increased application of Silver nanoparticles (AgNP), its potential concerns to the health of human beings remain to be defined. This study aims to explore the harmful effects of AgNP on lung tissue in animals and to examine the mechanisms of protection achieved by sodium selenite. Methods: Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were exposed to AgNP (200 µL,1mg/mL) through a single intratracheal instillation. Sodium selenite (0.2mg/kg) was i.p. injected. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were measured using a spectrophotometer. Histological outcomes and ultrastructural changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and electronic microscopy. Caspases and mitochondrial fission and fusion markers were measured by Western blotting. Results: The histopathologic findings showed that AgNP significantly increased the thickness of alveolar septa, accumulation of macrophage, and the formation of pulmonary bullae and pulmonary consolidation. Ultrastructural studies showed localization of AgNP inside the mitochondria, hyperplasia and vacuolation of type I and type II alveolar cells, lysis of osmiophilic lamellar bodies, and swollen of the mitochondria. AgNP elevated MDA and reduced GSH levels. AgNP activated caspases-3, increased mitochondrial fission markers Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) and phospho-Drp1(p-Drp1), and decreased fusion proteins optic atrophy 1 (Opa1) and mitofusins 2 (Mfn2). Treatment with sodium selenite for 7 days corrected the AgNP-caused alterations in morphological, ultrastructural, oxidative stress, caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial dynamic imbalance. Conclusion: We conclude that the exposure of AgNP causes lung tissue damage by enhances oxidative stress, activates caspases-3, and triggers mitochondrial dynamic imbalance towards fission. Sodium selenite effectively detoxifies the AgNP-induced damage to the lung tissue by preventing the above alterations.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077693

RESUMO

Six novel copper(I) cluster-based coordination polymers (CPs) [Cu9(pzt)7Cl2]n (1), [Cu2(pzt)Cl]n (2), [Cu4(pzt)3Br]n (3), [Cu(pzt)]n (4), [Cu4(pzt)3I]n (5), and [Cu7(pzt)6I]n (6) were solvothermally synthesized using Hpzt (Hpzt = pyrazine-2-thiol) ligand and well-characterized by elemental analysis, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD). Six CPs exhibit either 2D (4 and 6) or 3D (1-3, and 5) network based on diverse multinuclear {CuxSy} clusters. The structural evolutions of 1-6 are greatly influenced by types of metal halides and the ligand-to-metal molar ratio used in the reaction. Among them, compound 1 displays interesting temperature-dependent photoluminescence arising from triplet cluster-centered (3CC) excited state from the cluster metal core. Compounds 1-6 also exhibit photocurrent responses upon visible-light illumination (λ = 420 nm) in the order 6 > 5 > 3 > 1 > 4 > 2. This work not only shows the structural diversity of {CuxSy} clusters-based CPs but also provides an interesting insight into structural modulation using crystal engineering concept.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012248

RESUMO

Early-adulthood body size is strongly inversely associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer. It is unclear whether subsequent changes in weight affect risk. We pooled individual-level data from 17 prospective studies to investigate the association of weight change with premenopausal breast cancer risk, considering strata of initial weight, timing of weight change, other breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer subtype. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using Cox regression. Among 628,463 women, 10,886 were diagnosed with breast cancer before menopause. Models adjusted for initial weight at ages 18-24 years and other breast cancer risk factors showed that weight gain from ages 18-24 to 35-44 or to 45-54 years was inversely associated with breast cancer overall (e.g., HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) and with oestrogen-receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer (HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98). Weight gain from ages 25-34 was inversely associated with ER-positive breast cancer only and weight gain from ages 35-44 was not associated with risk. None of these weight gains were associated with ER-negative breast cancer. Weight loss was not consistently associated with overall or ER-specific risk after adjusting for initial weight. Weight increase from early-adulthood to ages 45-54 years is associated with a reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk independently of early-adulthood weight. Biological explanations are needed to account for these two separate factors.

4.
Cancer ; 126(8): 1708-1716, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional status can directly affect morbidity and mortality in older adults with cancer. This study evaluated the association between pretreatment body mass index (BMI), albumin level, and unintentional weight loss (UWL) in the prior 6 months and chemotherapy toxicity among older adults with solid tumors. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective, multicenter study involving chemotherapy-treated patients 65 years old or older. Geriatric assessment, BMI, albumin level, and UWL data were collected before treatment. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluated the associations between nutritional factors and the risk of grade 3 or higher (grade 3+) chemotherapy toxicity. RESULTS: Seven hundred fifty patients with a median age of 72 years (range, 65-94 years) and mostly stage IV disease were enrolled. The median pretreatment BMI and albumin values were 26 kg/m2 (range, 15.1-52.1 kg/m2 ) and 3.9 mg/dL (range, 1.0-5.0 mg/dL), respectively. Nearly 50% of the patients reported UWL, with 17.6% reporting >10% UWL. Multivariable analysis revealed no association between >10% UWL and a risk for grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.87; P = .58). Multivariable analysis showed a trend toward an association between a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and a decreased risk of grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity (AOR, 0.65; P = .06), whereas a low albumin level (≤3.6 mg/dL) was associated with a higher risk of grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity (AOR, 1.50; P = .03). An analysis of the joint effect of BMI and albumin demonstrated the lowest risk of grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity among patients with high BMIs (≥30 kg/m2 ) and normal albumin levels (AOR, 0.41; P = .008). CONCLUSIONS: Among older adults with solid tumors, higher BMIs and normal albumin levels are associated with a lower risk of grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity. Additional research is warranted to define the clinical significance of nutritional markers and to inform future interventions.

5.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 11(2): 274-279, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between social support (SS) and grade 3-5 chemotherapy-related toxicities among older adults with cancer. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective longitudinal study of patients aged 65+ with solid cancer which led to the development of a predictive model for grade 3-5 chemotherapy-related toxicity (the Cancer and Aging Research Group [CARG] Chemotherapy Toxicity Risk Score). SS was measured by a modified version of Medical-Outcome Study-Social Support Survey and grade 3-5 hematological and non-hematological toxicities were captured and graded using CTCAE version 3.0. Patients were categorized into those with poor (SS score ≤ 75) and good SS (score of 76-100). Multivariate polychotomous logistic regression was used to examine the associations between SS and chemotherapy-related toxicity with adjustment for the CARG Toxicity Risk Score. RESULTS: Compared to patients with good SS, those with poor SS were less likely to have grade 3-5 toxicity, especially for non-hematological toxicity (adjusted OR = 0.52, p = .02). Patients who did not have someone to take them to the doctor "most" or "all of the time" were less likely to have grade 3-5 non-hematological toxicity compared to patients who had someone to take them to the doctor most or all of the time (adjusted OR = 0.32, p = .02). CONCLUSION: Our study showed that patients with poor SS, especially those with less availability of someone to take them to doctors were less likely to have a documented grade 3-5 non-hematological toxicity.

6.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 11(2): 284-289, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813840

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cognitive impairment (CI) increases chemotherapy toxicity risk with need to understand this association utilizing publicly available short screening tools. We evaluated this utilizing a lower threshold on a short screening tool in older adults with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data from the Cancer and Aging Research Group (CARG) Chemotherapy Toxicity Risk tool (CARG score) development and validation cohorts (n = 703), which recruited adults age ≥ 65 with cancer from academic centers. Cognition was evaluated with the Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration test (BOMC). Patients with BOMC score ≥ 11 were excluded. Utilizing cut-points for older adults, we considered moderate BOMC scores (5-10) as potential CI. Logistic regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: Patient baseline characteristics included: mean age 73; 85% white; 63% college or higher education; 250 (36%) potential CI; 385 (55%) severe toxicity. Patients with potential CI were more likely non-white (p ≤ 0.01) and to have high school or lower education (p ≤ 0.01) and high CARG score (p = 0.04). Potential CI was associated with increased severe toxicity risk (OR = 1.54, p ≤ 0.01). After adjusting for CARG score, this association became nonsignificant (OR = 1.35; p = 0.08). Among patients with lower education (n = 258; 36.7%), potential CI remained associated with severe toxicity, even after adjusting for CARG score (OR = 1.87, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest potential cognitive impairment, defined by BOMC score 5-10, in older adults with cancer and lower education is associated with increased severe toxicity risk. Future studies are needed to validate these findings. Healthcare providers should consider cognitive testing before treatment for these vulnerable patients.

7.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 800, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of breast cancer; however, its association with subsequent risk of breast cancer death is unclear. METHODS: We followed 4523 women with complete information on relevant risk factors for mortality; these women were 35 to 64 years of age when diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer between 1994 and 1998. During follow up (median, 8.6 years), 1055 women died; 824 died from breast cancer. The information on alcohol consumption before diagnosis was collected shortly after breast cancer diagnosis (average: 5.1 months) during an in-person interview which used a structured questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models provided hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer-specific mortality, mortality due to causes other than breast cancer, and all-cause mortality associated with alcohol consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis and during recent periods of time prior to breast cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: Average weekly alcohol consumption from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (Ptrend = 0.01). Compared to non-drinkers, women in the highest average weekly alcohol consumption category (≥7 drinks/week) had 25% lower risk of breast cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.56-1.00). Breast cancer mortality risk was also reduced among women in the highest average weekly alcohol consumption category in two recent time periods (5-year period ending 2-years prior to breast cancer diagnosis, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.95; 2-year period immediately prior to breast cancer diagnosis: HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.56-0.95). Furthermore, analyses of average weekly alcohol consumption by beverage type from age 15 years until breast cancer diagnosis suggested that wine consumption was inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality risk (wine Ptrend = 0.06, beer Ptrend = 0.24, liquor Ptrend = 0.74). No association with any of these alcohol consumption variables was observed for mortality risk due to causes other than breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found no evidence that alcohol consumption before breast cancer diagnosis increases subsequent risk of death from breast cancer.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
8.
Dalton Trans ; 48(36): 13541-13545, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469147

RESUMO

Simultaneously involving abundant [NH2(CH3)2]+ cations and uncoordinated carboxylate oxygen atoms as dual active sites, two microporous CoII-MOFs (LCU-105 and LCU-106, LCU = Liaocheng University) both exhibit highly selective adsorption of CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2. GCMC theoretical simulations provide good verification of the experimental results.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(22): 20104-20109, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083963

RESUMO

Two isostructural nanocage-based porous Ni/Co(II)-MOFs have been hydrothermally synthesized, which were interestingly composed of icosahedron and tetrahedron cages with a new (3,8)-connected 3D topology. Moreover, the stable Ni-MOF exhibits good selective CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 adsorption owing to its exposed nitrogen active sites.

10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 176(1): 181-189, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Older cancer patients are at increased risk of cancer-related cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to assess the alterations in intrinsic brain activity associated with adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with breast cancer. METHODS: Chemotherapy treatment (CT) group included sixteen women aged ≥ 60 years (range 60-82 years) with stage I-III breast cancers, who underwent both resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and neuropsychological testing with NIH Toolbox for Cognition before adjuvant chemotherapy, at time point 1 (TP1), and again within 1 month after completing chemotherapy, at time point 2 (TP2). Fourteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent the same assessments at matched intervals. Three voxel-wise rs-fMRI parameters: amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), fractional ALFF (fALFF), and regional homogeneity, were computed at each time point. The changes in rs-fMRI parameters from TP1 to TP2 for each group, the group differences in changes (the CT group vs. the HC group), and the group difference in the baseline rs-fMRI parameters were assessed. In addition, correlative analysis between the rs-fMRI parameters and neuropsychological testing scores was also performed. RESULTS: In the CT group, one brain region, which included parts of the bilateral subcallosal gyri and right anterior cingulate gyrus, displayed increased ALFF from TP1 to TP2 (cluster p-corrected = 0.024); another brain region in the left precuneus displayed decreased fALFF from TP1 to TP2 (cluster level p-corrected = 0.025). No significant changes in the rs-fMRI parameters from TP1 to TP2 were observed in the HC group. Although ALFF and fALFF alterations were observed only in the CT group, none of the between-group differences in rs-fMRI parameter changes reached statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our study results of ALFF and fALFF alterations in the chemotherapy-treated women suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy may affect intrinsic brain activity in older women with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Projetos Piloto
11.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(5): 978-986, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Caregivers of older adults with cancer assist both with cancer care and other health issues, which may make them vulnerable to consequences of caregiving. Hospitalization may represent a time when a caregiver's ability to provide care at home is exceeded. We sought to characterize caregivers of hospitalized older adults with cancer, determine their quality of life (QOL), and identify factors associated with caregiver QOL. METHODS: Patients (n = 100), aged 65 years and older, with an unplanned hospitalization and their caregivers were included. Caregivers completed a questionnaire about their health, social support, caregiving relationship, QOL (Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer [CQOLC] tool), and patient function. Patient medical history was obtained via chart review. The association between patient, caregiving, and caregiver factors and CQOLC was determined using multivariate linear regression. RESULTS: Most patients (73%) had metastatic/advanced disease, and 71% received treatment for their cancer within 30 days of hospitalization. Median Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) was 60%, and 89% required help with instrumental activities of daily living, as reported by caregivers. Median caregiver age was 65 years (range = 29-84 years). The majority (60%) had no major comorbidities and rated their health as excellent/good (79%), though 22% reported worsening health due to caregiving. Caregivers had a median Mental Health Inventory-18 score of 70 (range = 0-97), a median Medical Outcomes Study (MOS)-social activity score of 56 (range = 0-87.5), and a median MOS-Social Support Survey score of 68 (range = 0-100). Caregivers provided a median of 35 hours of care per week (range = 0-168 hours of care per week). Mean CQOLC was 84.6 ± 23.5. Lower caregiver QOL was associated with poorer caregiver mental health, less social support, and poorer patient KPS (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Caregivers of hospitalized older adults with cancer are older but generally in good health. Those with poorer mental health, less social support, and caring for patients with poorer performance status are more likely to experience lower QOL. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:978-986, 2019.

13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(2): 363-370, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088178

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in brain gray matter density (GMD) before and after adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with breast cancer. METHODS: We recruited 16 women aged ≥ 60 years with stage I-III breast cancers receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). The CT group underwent brain MRI and the NIH Toolbox for Cognition testing prior to adjuvant chemotherapy (time point 1, TP1) and within 1 month after chemotherapy (time point 2, TP2). The HC group underwent the same assessments at matched intervals. GMD was evaluated with the voxel-based morphometry. RESULTS: The mean age was 67 years in the CT group and 68.5 years in the HC group. There was significant GMD reduction within the chemotherapy group from TP1 to TP2. Compared to the HC group, the CT group displayed statistically significantly greater GMD reductions from TP1 to TP2 in the brain regions involving the left anterior cingulate gyrus, right insula, and left middle temporal gyrus (pFWE(family-wise error)-corrected < 0.05). The baseline GMD in left insula was positively correlated with the baseline list-sorting working memory score in the HC group (pFWE-corrected < 0.05). No correlation was observed for the changes in GMD with the changes in cognitive testing scores from TP1 to TP2 (pFWE-corrected < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that GMD reductions were associated with adjuvant chemotherapy in older women with breast cancer. Future studies are needed to understand the clinical significance of the neuroimaging findings. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01992432).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem
14.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(11): e181771, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931120

RESUMO

Importance: The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation. Objective: To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter analysis used pooled individual-level data from 758 592 premenopausal women from 19 prospective cohorts to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of premenopausal breast cancer in association with BMI from ages 18 through 54 years using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Median follow-up was 9.3 years (interquartile range, 4.9-13.5 years) per participant, with 13 082 incident cases of breast cancer. Participants were recruited from January 1, 1963, through December 31, 2013, and data were analyzed from September 1, 2013, through December 31, 2017. Exposures: Body mass index at ages 18 to 24, 25 to 34, 35 to 44, and 45 to 54 years. Main Outcomes and Measures: Invasive or in situ premenopausal breast cancer. Results: Among the 758 592 premenopausal women (median age, 40.6 years; interquartile range, 35.2-45.5 years) included in the analysis, inverse linear associations of BMI with breast cancer risk were found that were stronger for BMI at ages 18 to 24 years (HR per 5 kg/m2 [5.0-U] difference, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80) than for BMI at ages 45 to 54 years (HR per 5.0-U difference, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.86-0.91). The inverse associations were observed even among nonoverweight women. There was a 4.2-fold risk gradient between the highest and lowest BMI categories (BMI≥35.0 vs <17.0) at ages 18 to 24 years (HR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.14-0.40). Hazard ratios did not appreciably vary by attained age or between strata of other breast cancer risk factors. Associations were stronger for estrogen receptor-positive and/or progesterone receptor-positive than for hormone receptor-negative breast cancer for BMI at every age group (eg, for BMI at age 18 to 24 years: HR per 5.0-U difference for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.70-0.81] vs hormone receptor-negative tumors, 0.85 [95% CI: 0.76-0.95]); BMI at ages 25 to 54 years was not consistently associated with triple-negative or hormone receptor-negative breast cancer overall. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study suggest that increased adiposity is associated with a reduced risk of premenopausal breast cancer at a greater magnitude than previously shown and across the entire distribution of BMI. The strongest associations of risk were observed for BMI in early adulthood. Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these associations could have important preventive potential.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 5, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29357906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although it has been well-documented that obesity is associated with decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer and increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, it is unclear whether these associations differ among breast cancer subtypes defined by the tumor protein expression status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). METHODS: We evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI) at age 18 years and recent BMI in relation to risk of breast cancer overall and ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes, in 6320 women (3934 case-patient participants, 2386 control participants) aged 35-64 years, who participated in one of three population-based case-control studies. We estimated multivariable-adjusted odd ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using polychotomous unconditional logistic regression methods for case-control comparisons in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: BMI at age 18 years was inversely associated with risk of breast cancer, particularly among premenopausal women (≥ 25 vs. < 20 kg/m2, OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.53-0.96; per 5 kg/m2 increase, OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.73-0.95). This inverse association did not differ across ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes or by race (white women, African-American women). Recent BMI was not associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer after adjustment for BMI at age 18 years; nevertheless, the analysis for the joint effects of BMI at age 18 years and recent BMI showed that premenopausal women in the highest categories of the two BMI measures (≥ 25 kg/m2 at age 18 years and ≥ 30 kg/m2 for recent BMI) had 46% lower risk of breast cancer than premenopausal women in the lowest categories of the two BMI measures (< 20 kg/m2 at age 18 years and < 25 kg/m2 for recent BMI; OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.38-0.78). Neither measure of BMI was statistically significantly associated with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that high BMI near the end of adolescence decreases risk of all ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes of premenopausal breast cancer and also suggest that this benefit could be maximized among premenopausal women who consistently have high BMI during their premenopausal years.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
16.
ACS Omega ; 3(10): 13960-13966, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31458091

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic hybrid material is a recent hot topic in the scientific community. The best band gap for the entire solar absorption spectrum is about 1.1 eV. However, the lead perovskite band gap is about 1.5 eV. Therefore, developing organic-inorganic hybrid material toward the broader light harvesting of the solar spectrum is extremely urgent. In this study, we prepare three kinds of organic-inorganic hybrid palladium perovskite materials, including (CH3NH3)2PdCl4, (CH3NH3)2PdCl4-x Br x , and CH3NH3PdI3, for an optoelectronic response. The absorption cut offs of (CH3NH3)2PdCl4, (CH3NH3)2PdCl4-x Br x , and CH3NH3PdI3 are approximately 600, 700, and 1000 nm, respectively. The band gaps of (CH3NH3)2PdCl4, (CH3NH3)2PdCl4-x Br x , and CH3NH3PdI3 are determined to be approximately 2.15, 1.87, and 1.25 eV, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that discusses adsorption properties and photoelectric behavior of organic-inorganic hybrid palladium perovskite materials. Interestingly, the photoelectric response of the devices based on CH3NH3PdI3 reaches 950 nm. The results will attract attention in the fields of optical recorders, optical memory, security, light capture, and light treatment.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(9): 1462-1465, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28864454

RESUMO

Background: Few studies have focused on the relationship of exonic variation with breast cancer and subtypes defined by tumor markers: estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2.Methods: We genotyped 1,764 breast cancer patients and 1,400 controls from the California Teachers Study cohort using the Infinium HumanExome Beadchip. Individual variant and gene-based analyses were conducted for overall breast cancer and by individual tumor marker subtype.Results: No exonic variants or gene-based analyses were statistically significantly associated with breast cancer overall or by ER-, PR-, or HER2-defined subtype.Conclusions: We did not detect any novel statistically significant exonic variants with overall breast cancer risk or by subtype.Impact: Exonic variants in the exome chip may not be associated with overall breast cancer or subtype susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1462-5. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , California , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
18.
Stroke ; 48(9): 2346-2352, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Whether changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) over time are associated with lower risk of stroke is not well established. We examined the association between changes in self-reported LTPA 10 years apart, with risk of incident stroke in the CTS (California Teachers Study). We hypothesized that the risk of stroke would be lowest among those who remained active. METHODS: Sixty-one thousand two hundred and fifty-six CTS participants reported LTPA at 2 intensity levels (moderate and strenuous activity) at 2 time points (baseline 1995-96; 10-year follow-up 2005-2006). LTPA at each intensity level was categorized based on American Heart Association (AHA) recommendations (moderate, >150 minutes/week; strenuous, >75 minutes/week). Changes in LTPA were summarized as follows: (1) not meeting recommendations at both time points; (2) meeting recommendations only at follow-up; (3) meeting recommendations only at baseline; and (4) meeting recommendations at both time points. Incident strokes were identified through California state hospitalization records. Using multivariable Cox models, we examined the associations between changes in LTPA with incident stroke. RESULTS: Nine hundred and eighty-seven women were diagnosed with stroke who completed both questionnaires. Meeting AHA recommendations at both the time points was associated with a lower risk of all stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.98). The protective effects for stroke were driven by meeting AHA recommendations for moderate activity and largely observed for ischemic strokes (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: Meeting AHA recommendations for moderate activity had a protective effect for reducing ischemic stroke risk. Participants who met AHA recommendations at baseline but not at follow-up, however, were not afforded reduced stroke risk.


Assuntos
Exercício , Atividades de Lazer , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , American Heart Association , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Professores Escolares , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
19.
PLoS Med ; 14(6): e1002335, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28666001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors. Its age-related characteristics have been studied in women in western countries, but whether these associations apply to women worldwide is not known. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined cross-sectional differences in MD by age and menopausal status in over 11,000 breast-cancer-free women aged 35-85 years, from 40 ethnicity- and location-specific population groups across 22 countries in the International Consortium on Mammographic Density (ICMD). MD was read centrally using a quantitative method (Cumulus) and its square-root metrics were analysed using meta-analysis of group-level estimates and linear regression models of pooled data, adjusted for body mass index, reproductive factors, mammogram view, image type, and reader. In all, 4,534 women were premenopausal, and 6,481 postmenopausal, at the time of mammography. A large age-adjusted difference in percent MD (PD) between post- and premenopausal women was apparent (-0.46 cm [95% CI: -0.53, -0.39]) and appeared greater in women with lower breast cancer risk profiles; variation across population groups due to heterogeneity (I2) was 16.5%. Among premenopausal women, the √PD difference per 10-year increase in age was -0.24 cm (95% CI: -0.34, -0.14; I2 = 30%), reflecting a compositional change (lower dense area and higher non-dense area, with no difference in breast area). In postmenopausal women, the corresponding difference in √PD (-0.38 cm [95% CI: -0.44, -0.33]; I2 = 30%) was additionally driven by increasing breast area. The study is limited by different mammography systems and its cross-sectional rather than longitudinal nature. CONCLUSIONS: Declines in MD with increasing age are present premenopausally, continue postmenopausally, and are most pronounced over the menopausal transition. These effects were highly consistent across diverse groups of women worldwide, suggesting that they result from an intrinsic biological, likely hormonal, mechanism common to women. If cumulative breast density is a key determinant of breast cancer risk, younger ages may be the more critical periods for lifestyle modifications aimed at breast density and breast cancer risk reduction.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Densidade da Mama , Perimenopausa , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(9): 1360-1369, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28600297

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among premenopausal women around the world. Unlike rates in postmenopausal women, incidence rates of advanced breast cancer have increased in recent decades for premenopausal women. Progress in identifying contributors to breast cancer risk among premenopausal women has been constrained by the limited numbers of premenopausal breast cancer cases in individual studies and resulting low statistical power to subcategorize exposures or to study specific subtypes. The Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group was established to facilitate cohort-based analyses of risk factors for premenopausal breast cancer by pooling individual-level data from studies participating in the United States National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. This article describes the Group, including the rationale for its initial aims related to pregnancy, obesity, and physical activity. We also describe the 20 cohort studies with data submitted to the Group by June 2016. The infrastructure developed for this work can be leveraged to support additional investigations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1360-9. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Pré-Menopausa , Estados Unidos
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