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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 565: 567-581, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982723

RESUMO

The formation of surface multilayer structures, with the addition of multivalent electrolytes, has been observed in a range of different anionic surfactants; and notably the sodium oxyethylene glycol alkyl sulfate, SAES, and alkyl ester sulfonate, AES, surfactants. The addition of increasing amounts of AlCl3 results in increasing surface layering, with a transition from monolayer to bilayer to ultimately more extended multilayer structures at the interface. The headgroup structures of these SAES and AES surfactants and their hydrophilic / hydrophobic balance give a degree of tolerance to the precipitation induced by multivalent counterions. This was considered to be important factor associated with the multivalent counterion induced surface layering. In this paper the impact of sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, an anionic surfactant more susceptible to precipitation in the presence of multivalent counterions, on the surface multilayer formation and solution self-assembly of sodium diethylene glycol monododecyl sulfate, SLES, is explored using surface tension, neutron reflectivity and small angle neutron scattering. The results show that SDS exhibits a similar progressive evolution in surface structures with increasing AlCl3 concentrations, as observed in SLES and related SAES surfactants, and in MES, sodium methyl ester dodecyl sulfonate surfactant. However in the SLES / SDS mixtures the structural evolution is different, and more complex pattern with increasing AlCl3 concentration is observed. The initial transition from monolayer to bilayer / trilayer structures exists, but the surface at higher AlCl3 concentration reverts to monolayer adsorption before extended multilayer structures are formed. Complementary small angle neutron scattering measurements indicate a more complex evolution in the micelle structure which broadly correlates with the surface behaviour. The results illustrate how subtle changes in headgroup structure and packing affect relative counterion binding and hence the surface and solution structures. The results reinforce and extend the observations of related structures on different SAES and AES surfactants, and highlight the opportunity for manipulating surface adsorption behaviour with surfactant mixtures.

2.
J Mol Graph Model ; 96: 107539, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982814

RESUMO

The electronic sensitivity and reactivity of a B36 borophene are scrutinized toward the metronidazole (ML) drug using density functional theory calculations. The drug is mainly adsorbed via its -NO2 group on the edge of the B36 borophene. In the gas phase, the adsorption energy and Gibbs free energy change are about -22.1 and -19.3 kcal/mol, respectively. Because of a large HOMO destabilization upon the ML adsorption, the HOMO-LUMO gap (Eg) of B36 meaningfully decreases from 1.84 to 0.75 eV. It increases the electrical conductivity which creates an electrical signal. The signal is connected to the ML presence, indicating that the borophene may be a proper sensor for the ML detection. A short recovery time of 1.53 s is estimated for the ML desorption from the B36 surface. Unlike the Eg, the Fermi level and work function of B36 are not altered sensibly by the ML drug adsorption. The interaction of ML with the B36 sheet weakens in the water solvent.

4.
J Microbiol ; 58(1): 39-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686390

RESUMO

A lectin gene (plectin) with a high level of expression was previously identified by comparative transcriptome analysis of Pleurotus ostreatus. In this study, we cloned a 733-bp DNA fragment from the start codon of the plectin gene. Sequence analysis showed that the plectin promoter (Plp) region contained several eukaryotic transcription factor binding motifs, such as the TATA-box, four possible CAAT-box, light respon-siveness motifs and MeJA-responsiveness motifs. To deter-mine whether the Plp promoter was a light-regulated promoter, we constructed an expression vector with the fused egfp-hph fragment under the control of the Plp promoter and transformed P. ostreatus mycelia via Agrobacterium tunte-faciens. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed the Plp-egfp-hph fragment was integrated into the chromosomal DNA of transformants. qRT-PCR, egfp visualization, and intracellular egfp determination experiments showed the Plp promoter could be a light-induced promoter that may be suitable for P. ostreatus genetic engineering. This study lays the foundation for gene homologous expression in P. ostreatus.

5.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 4075-4090, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824138

RESUMO

Background: Current clinical treatments for osteosarcoma are limited by disease recurrence and primary or secondary chemoresistance. Cancer stem-like cells have been proposed to facilitate the initiation, progression, recurrence and chemoresistance of osteosarcoma. Furthermore, previous studies have reported that IL-6-STAT3 pathway is overexpressed in various types of cancer and contributes to cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, chemoresistance and modulation of stemness features. Aim: To examined the effect of cinobufagin on cancer progression and modulation of stemness features in osteosarcoma, and investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. Methods: Human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS/MG-63 were recruited in this study. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were determined by MTT assay, colony formation assay,wound healing assay, and cell invasion assay respectively. Its effect on stemness was assessed by flow cytometry and mammosphere formation. The protein expression levels of related proteins were detected by Western blot. The xenograft model, immunofluorescence staining and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the effect of cinobufagin on tumorigenicity in vivo experiment. Results: We found that cinobufagin suppressed the viability of U2OS/MG-63 spheroids/parent cells in a time-and dose-dependent manner. Notably, cinobufagin had no effect on the viability of hFOB 1.19 cells. Moreover, cinobufagin induced apoptosis, increased the width of wounds, reduced invasive osteosarcoma spheroids/parent cell numbers and reduced EMT phenotype and OPN levels in U2OS/MG-63 spheroids as well as U2OS/MG-63 parent cells lines. Noticeablely, we found that OPN levels were higher in spheroids group than that in parent cells. In addition, cinobufagin ameliorated the proportion of CD133-positive cells, the size of spheroids and Nanog, Sox-2 and Oct3/4 protein levels. Our in vivo experiments showed that cinobufagin consistently reduced tumor volume,the expressions of OPN, Sox-2, Oct3/4, Nanog and p-STAT3 by the immuno histochemistry staining as well as CD133 expression in tumor tissues by immunofluorescence analysis. From a mechanistic point of view, cinobufagin was shown to inhibit IL-6-OPN-STAT3 signaling pathway. Exogenous IL-6/OE-OPN/overexpression STAT3 attenuated the induction of cinobufagin-mediated apoptosis and the suppression of stemness properties respectively. Conclusion: Collectively, our data demonstrated that cinobufagin inhibited the viability and tumorigenesis capability of osteosarcoma cells by blocking IL-6- OPN-STAT3 signaling pathway. Cinobufagin may therefore represent a promising therapeutic agent for osteosarcoma management.

6.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(10): 1213-1220, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We propose a sparse-view helical CT iterative reconstruction algorithm based on projection of convex set tensor total generalized variation minimization (TTGV-POCS) to reduce the X-ray dose of helical CT scanning. METHODS: The three-dimensional volume data of helical CT reconstruction was viewed as the third-order tensor. The tensor generalized total variation (TTGV) was used to describe the structural sparsity of the three-dimensional image. The POCS iterative reconstruction framework was adopted to achieve a robust result of sparse-view helical CT reconstruction. The TTGV-POCS algorithm fully used the structural sparsity of first-order and second-order derivation and the correlation between the slices of helical CT image data to effectively suppress artifacts and noise in the image of sparse-view reconstruction and better preserve image edge information. RESULTS: The experimental results of XCAT phantom and patient scan data showed that the TTGVPOCS algorithm had better performance in reducing noise, removing artifacts and maintaining edges than the existing reconstruction algorithms. Comparison of the sparse-view reconstruction results of XCAT phantom data with 144 exposure views showed that the TTGV-POCS algorithm proposed herein increased the PSNR quantitative index by 9.17%-15.24% compared with the experimental comparison algorithm; the FSIM quantitative index was increased by 1.27%-9.30%. CONCLUSIONS: The TTGV-POCS algorithm can effectively improve the image quality of helical CT sparse-view reconstruction and reduce the radiation dose of helical CT examination to improve the clinical imaging diagnosis.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Doses de Radiação , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Algoritmos , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas
7.
Inflammation ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834572

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) regulates the innate immune response of microglia during infection via autophagy. Microglial M1/M2 phenotypic switching after infection could serve as a novel pathogenic mechanism for cerebral infection. Hence, it has important implications for the damage and restoration of neurological function. However, the effect of TLR2-mediated autophagic signaling on microglial phenotypic transition remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms of TLR2-mediated autophagic signaling in the regulation of microglial M1/M2 phenotypes. Using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence, increased autophagy was observed in peptidoglycan (PGN)-stimulated BV2 cells, while reduced autophagy was observed in TLR2-KO cells. In contrast to the TLR2 antagonist CU-CPT22 group, increased autophagy was observed in the presence of the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4, which was associated with a significant increase in expression levels of M1 phenotype biomarkers (CD86, TNF-α, IL-6), higher levels of apoptosis, and decreased expression levels of M2 markers (CD206, IL-10, Arg-1). In the TLR2-KO mice, the expression levels of autophagy-related proteins in CD11b+ cells were lower than those in CD11b+ cells in the PGN-injected wild-type mice, and neuronal apoptosis was also reduced, but there were no significant differences compared to the control group. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the inhibition of autophagy or the absence of TLR2 induces microglial polarization towards the M2 phenotype, promotes microglial survival alone, and alleviates the development of neuroinflammation. In summary, TLR2-mediated autophagic signaling contributes to regulating the inflammatory response to activate microglial M1/M2 switching, which affects microglial survival after infection.

8.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(11): 1320-1328, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sparse-view CT has the advantages of accelerated data collection and reduced radiation dose, but data missing arising from the data collection process causes serious streaking artifact and noise in the images reconstructed using the traditional filtering back projection algorithm (FBP). To solve this problem, we propose a multi-scale wavelet residual network (MWResNet) to restore sparse-view CT images. METHODS: The MWResNet was based on the combination of deep learning and traditional model in MWCNN, and the wavelet network was combined with the residual block to enhance the network's ability to embed image features and speed up network training. The network proposed herein was trained using the real spiral geometry CT image data, namely the Low-dose CT Grand Challenge dataset. The results of the proposed networks were visually and quantitatively compared to that by other existing networks, including the image restoration iterative residual convolution network (IRLNet), residual coding-decoding convolutional neural network (REDCNN) and the FBP convolutional neural network (FBPConvNet). RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the proposed method was superior to other competing methods in terms of visual inspection and quantitative comparison. CONCLUSIONS: The MWResNet network is an effective method for suppressing noise and artifacts and maintaining edges details in the sparse-view CT images.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Algoritmos , Artefatos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(20): 4350-4353, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872644

RESUMO

Kangfu Xiaoyan Suppository is widely used in the treatment of gynecological inflammatory diseases. Long-term clinical application and a certain amount of research evidences show that Kangfu Xiaoyan Suppository can alleviate the clinical symptoms of pelvic inflammatory diseases,reduce the recurrence rate,and relieve sequelae,with a better safety and economic characteristics. As a type of nationally protected traditional Chinese medicine and type B medicine included in medical insurance,it has been selected as a Chinese patent medicine for rectal administration. It was included in the Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of common gynecological diseases of traditional Chinese medicine published by the Chinese Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in 2012,the Pelvic inflammatory diseases diagnosis and treatment guidelines issued by the Infectious Diseases Collaborative Group of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Branch of the Chinese Medical Association in 2014,and the group standard of Single use of traditional Chinese medicine/combined antibiot guidelines for clinical practice-pelvic inflammatory diseases of the Chinese Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in 2017. To further enhance clinicians' understanding of the drug and better guide its rational clinical use,experts from the field of gynecology of traditional Chinese and Western medicine were invited to develop and compile this expert consensus. This consensus takes full account of clinical evidences and expert clinical experience,and form recommendations for clinical problems based on evidences and consensus recommendations for clinical problems without evidence by nominal grouping method. The expert consensus is mainly formed in the consideration of six factors: quality of evidence,economy,efficacy,adverse reactions,patient acceptability and others. Based on clinical research evidences and expert experience,this consensus provides a preliminary reference for the clinical use of the drug in a concise and clear format. However,evidence-based support is still required in a large number of high-quality studies,and this consensus will be revised in the future according to new clinical problems and the update of evidence-based evidence in practical application.


Assuntos
Consenso , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Supositórios
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(20): 4354-4359, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872645

RESUMO

The formation of expert consensus statement is an indispensable part in the process of developing clinical practice guidelines. The Guidelines International Network believes that experts make group decisions for different stages and issues,and the process of gathering expert opinions is the process of reaching the consensus. GRADE system also requires that recommendations should be formed based on expert consensus in consideration of the risk and bias,patients' preferences and values,resources and other factors. At present,the main method for reaching consensus is the formal consensus method. According to the published clinical guidelines,most of them failed to report the specific methods and process of reaching expert consensus. Therefore,it is impossible to obtain an objective evaluation. This phenomenon is more common in the field of clinical practice guidelines of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM). There are two main reasons for this phenomenon. For one thing,the developers of the guidelines neglect the importance of transparency and objectivity in the implementation of expert consensus. For another,they know little about the methods and technical specifications for the formation of expert consensus. To solve them,based on the internationally recognized consensus-building methods,as well as the specific stages in the process of developing clinical practice guidelines of traditional Chinese medicine,it is of great significance to put forward the technical norms for TCM researchers to develop the expert consensus. This guide will provide detailed guidance for forming the expert consensus for TCM clinical practice guideline. This guideline has been approved and published by the Chinese Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine( No. T/CACM 1049-2017).


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Consenso , Humanos
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759998

RESUMO

Water-soluble polysaccharides from Schizophyllum commune (SPGs) were extracted using different methods including hot-water extraction (HWE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UE), microwave-assisted extraction (ME) and high pressure extraction (HPE). The physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic activity of four different SPGs were investigated. The results indicated that the polysaccharides yield (8.26%), uronic acid content (3.0%), total polysaccharides content (67.96%) and molecular weight (52.7 kDa) of SPGs extracted by HWE were higher than those obtained by other methods. FT-IR spectra and conformation information of four SPGs were similar, however, the color characteristics, the monosaccharide species and molar ratios, the solubility and micro-structure of each SPGs were significantly different. Though the molecular weight (11.0 kDa) of UE-SPGs was lowest, it showed the highest antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic activity. It could be considered that the UE extraction method might be a good potential extraction technique for the SPGs with high bioactivities.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(47): 44582-44592, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682097

RESUMO

Janus nanoparticles with an anisotropic feature concentrated multiple properties on a single carrier, providing synergistic effects. In this study, dual-functionalized Janus nanoparticles (HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA) were constructed with a tumor-targeting ligand (hyaluronic acid, HA) modified on the one side and a charge reversal group (2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, DMMA) on the other side. The drug release of HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA was positively correlated with the acidity of the environment. The cytotoxicity and cell uptake of HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA were superior to the isotropous nanoparticles. The endocytosis pathway of HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA involved the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (HA) and the micropinocytosis (DMMA) at the same time, which indicated that they both participated in the interaction between nanoparticles and tumor cells. After being injected intravenously in mice, the distribution of HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA in tumor was enhanced significantly. The antitumor therapy study in vivo showed that HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA inhibited tumor growth and improved the survival rate of tumor-bearing mice effectively. In general, HA-JMSN/DOX-DMMA could take the synergistic effect of active targeting and charge reversal to deliver drug in tumor cells and kill them efficiently, which was a promising antitumor nanodrug.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5064, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699996

RESUMO

A portion of the charcoal and soot produced during combustion processes on land (e.g., wildfire, burning of fossil fuels) enters aquatic systems as dissolved black carbon (DBC). In terms of mass flux, rivers are the main identified source of DBC to the oceans. Since DBC is believed to be representative of the refractory carbon pool, constraining sources of marine DBC is key to understanding the long-term persistence of carbon in our global oceans. Here, we use compound-specific stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) to reveal that DBC in the oceans is ~6‰ enriched in 13C compared to DBC exported by major rivers. This isotopic discrepancy indicates most riverine DBC is sequestered and/or rapidly degraded before it reaches the open ocean. Thus, we suggest that oceanic DBC does not predominantly originate from rivers and instead may be derived from another source with an isotopic signature similar to that of marine phytoplankton.

14.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(18): 445, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700881

RESUMO

Background: Podocyte-derived microparticles (MPs) could be secreted from activated or apoptotic podocytes. An increased number of podocyte-derived MPs in the urine might reflect podocyte injury in renal diseases. This study aimed to observe the change of urinary podocyte-derived MP levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to further explore its correlation with the progression of CKD. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted in eighty patients with biopsy-proven CKD. Podocyte-derived MPs (annexin V and podocalyxin positive) were detected by flow cytometry. The number of urinary podocyte-derived MPs was analyzed to evaluate the association with biochemical measurements and pathological glomerulosclerosis assessment. Patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) were followed up after the six-month treatment of prednisone combined with tacrolimus to evaluate the association of urinary podocyte-derived MP levels and the remission of IMN. Results: The CKD patients had higher urinary podocyte-derived MP levels compared with healthy controls (HCs). Baseline urinary levels of podocyte-derived MPs were positively correlated with 24-hour proteinuria, while were inversely correlated with the percentage of global glomerulosclerosis. The urinary podocyte-derived MPs levels had good discrimination for glomerulosclerosis [area under curve (AUC), 0.66]. The urinary podocyte-derived MPs levels in IMN patients were significantly decreased accompanied with the recovery of abnormal clinical parameters after six-month treatment. Conclusions: The urinary levels of podocyte-derived MPs were closely associated with podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis, which could be useful for monitoring disease activity in CKD patients. Urinary podocyte-derived MPs might be a non-invasive biomarker for the evaluation of early CKD progression.

15.
J Cancer ; 10(26): 6511-6525, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777581

RESUMO

Background: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are associated with tumor development, chemoresistance, recurrence, metastasis, and even prognosis. Interleukin (IL)-6 overexpression has been implicated in the development of various cancers, including osteosarcoma. This study aimed to investigate the role of IL-6 in modulating clinicopathological features, malignant traits, and stemness in osteosarcoma, and to determine the mechanisms underlying IL-6-mediated osteosarcoma progression. Methods: Patients with osteosarcoma (n = 54) and healthy controls (n = 50) were selected. No patients received any pre-operative cancer treatment. Serum levels of IL-6 were determined in patients with osteosarcoma by ELISA and their relationship with pathological features and prognosis analyzed. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl -2-thiazolyl)- 2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and colony formation assays were used to evaluate cell proliferation, transwell assays were used to assess the invasive potential of cells, and cell migration rates were analyzed using a wound healing assay. Tumor self-renewal was detected using a spheroid formation assay and CD133 and CD44 expression assessed by flow cytometry. Protein levels of NANOG, SOX2, OCT3/4, OPN, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers, and the phosphorylation status of STAT3, were determined by western blotting. Finally, cell viability was determined with or without cisplatin (cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum [DDP])/adriamycin (ADR) treatment. Xenograft tumor models were established by subcutaneous injection of osteosarcoma spheroids, with or without IL-6. Results: Serum IL-6 levels were higher in osteosarcoma patients than controls. There was no significant association of serum IL-6 level with age, sex and tumor size; however, it was associated with TNM stage, and lung metastasis (P < 0. 05). IL-6 significantly increased proliferation and colony formation of osteosarcoma cells, and enhanced their invasion and migratory potential, thus promoting an EMT-like phenotype and elevated chemoresistance of to DDP/ADR. Spheroid size/proportion of CD133+CD44+ cells and SOX2, OCT3/4, and NANOG protein levels were elevated by IL-6 treatment in a time-dependent manner; however, IL-6 did not substantially influence any of these features in hFOB 1.19 and T98G cells. Knockdown of IL-6 reduced cell viability, colony formation, and invasion/migration ability, and reversed EMT, whereas it increased chemosensitivity to DDP/ADR. Blocking IL-6 expression with siRNA also caused loss of stemness, including reducing self-renewal ability, and reduced the proportion of CD133/CD44-positive cells, and expression of stemness-related genes. Pretreatment with the STAT3 inhibitor, S3I-201, decreased sphere size, and downregulated NANOG, SOX2, and OCT3/4 protein levels, compared with IL-6 treatment alone. Furthermore, OPN levels were elevated in response to IL-6 and an anti-OPN antibody effectively blocked IL-6-induced spheroid formation and STAT3 phosphorylation. In vivo, tumor size and weight were higher in IL-6 treated mice than controls. Conclusions: IL-6 mediates promotion of osteosarcoma spheroid stemness by activating OPN/STAT3 signaling.

16.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 184: 110546, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606701

RESUMO

CD47, a transmembrane protein overexpressed in most tumors, limits macrophage phagocytosis by interacting with macrophage signal-regulated protein α (SIRPα). In this study, we have developed CD47-targeted bismuth selenide nanoparticles (Ab-PEG-Bi2Se3) that increase phagocytosis of cancer cells by macrophages to actualize improved photothermal therapy (PTT). The functionalized nanoparticles were constructed by conjugating anti-CD47 antibody (Ab) to PEGylated bismuth selenide nanoparticles (PEG-Bi2Se3). The anti-CD47 antibody modified on the nanoparticles enhanced the phagocytic activity of macrophages toward tumor cells by specifically blocking the crosstalk between CD47 and SIRPα. Meanwhile, Ab-PEG-Bi2Se3 showed excellent photothermal performance including strong near infrared (NIR) absorbance, high photothermal conversion efficiency and photostability, and exhibited outstanding in vitro PTT effect under NIR laser irradiation. In vivo therapeutic experiments revealed that this CD47-targeted PTT nanoagent, with the assistance of enhanced macrophage phagocytosis, achieved the goal of tumor eradication. Besides, toxicity studies confirmed that Ab-PEG-Bi2Se3 had good biocompatibility. In conclusion, Ab-PEG-Bi2Se3 may serve as an efficient PTT platform in combination with macrophage-mediated immunotherapy to improve antitumor efficacy.

17.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3343-3355, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571835

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of Chinese herb Danzhi Xiaoyao pills on the pharmacokinetics of venlafaxine and its metabolites O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) and N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV) in beagles by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Methods: Six beagles (half male, half female) were chosen to test, being fasted before the experiment but having free access to drinking water 1 day before being fed drugs. After oral administration of venlafaxine hydrochloride tablets (10.28 mg/kg), the blood samples were collected in succession at different points in time. After 1-week washout period, Danzhi Xiaoyao pills (0.6g/kg) were given through oral administration to the six beagles every morning until the 7th day, venlafaxine hydrochloride tablets (10.28 mg/kg) were given after feeding Danzhi Xiaoyao pills (0.6g/kg) half an hour and blood samples were collected continuously at different points. All samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters of venlafaxine, ODV and NDV were computed by DAS 2.0. Results: The Cmax of the venlafaxine group (control group) and the combination group (experimental group) were (2267.26±252.89) ng/mL and (1542.64±190.73) ng/mL, respectively. The AUC(0-∞) of the two groups were (13,934.79±3609.23) ng·h/mL and (8001.91±2167.58) ng·h/mL, respectively. The ODV Cmax of the two groups were (2253.80±215.81) ng/mL and (2721.37±118.20) ng/mL, and AUC(0-∞) were (13,974.99±2784.04) ng·h/mL and (17,539.44±1894.29) ng·h/mL, respectively. The NDV Cmax of the two groups were (50.98±5.76) ng/mL and (58.74±12.33) ng/mL, and AUC(0-∞) were (179.26±34.94) ng·h/mL and (220.68±51.41) ng·h/mL, respectively. After administration of Danzhi Xiaoyao pills, the Cmax and AUC(0-∞) of venlafaxine decreased significantly, indicating that the plasma exposure of venlafaxine decreased. The increase of Cmax and AUC(0-∞) of ODV and NDV indicated a rise in plasma exposure. Conclusion: Danzhi Xiaoyao pills can accelerate the metabolism of venlafaxine in beagles. In clinical, when venlafaxine was co-administrated with Danzhi Xiaoyao pills, dose adjustment of venlafaxine should be taken into account.

18.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 557: 124-134, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518834

RESUMO

The ester sulfonate anionic surfactants are a potentially valuable class of sustainable surfactants. The micellar growth, associated rheological changes, and the onset of precipitation are important consequences of the addition of electrolyte and especially multi-valent electrolytes in anionic surfactants. Small angle neutron scattering, SANS, has been used to investigate the self-assembly and the impact of different valence electrolytes on the self-assembly of a range of ester sulfonate surfactants with subtly different molecular structures. The results show that in the absence of electrolyte small globular micelles form, and in the presence of NaCl, and AlCl3 relatively modest micellar growth occurs before the onset of precipitation. The micellar growth is more pronounced for the longer unbranched and branched alkyl chain lengths. Whereas changing the headgroup geometry from methyl ester to ethyl ester has in general a less profound impact. The study highlights the importance of relative counterion binding strengths and shows how the surfactant structure affects the counterion binding and hence the micelle structure. The results have important consequences for the response of such surfactants to different operational environments.

19.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 556: 650-657, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499436

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Nonionic surfactants are used as adjuvants in agri-sprays to stabilise pesticides, but what happens when pesticide-loaded micelles are brought into direct contact with plant leaves? As pesticide solubilisation dehydrates the micellar shell and increases the effective hydrophobicity of the surfactant, we hypothesise that these micelles would uptake plant waxes and alter the amount of pesticide solubilized as a result of the re-equilibrating process. EXPERIMENTS: The solubility of the pesticide cyprodinil (CP) and its effect on the shape of hexaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E6) micelles were studied using changes in cloud point, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Similarly, the solubility of wheat leaf waxes was examined, as was the effect of adding leaf waxes to pre-dissolved cyprodinil in micellar C12E6. FINDINGS: Wax solubilisation caused pesticide release and shell hydration, and shortened the length of the cylindrical micelles of the CP loaded C12E6. Temperature increase led to a significant rise in the amount of the dissolved waxes, increased pesticide release, increased micellar length, and caused shrinkage and dehydration of the shell. This study indicates that agrochemical sprays are capable of dissolving leaf waxes, and may trigger pesticide release from surfactant micelles upon contact with plant surfaces.

20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2746-2756, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418200

RESUMO

To understand the effects of agricultural management activities on soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi diversity, the high-throughput sequencing based on Illumina MiSeq platform, and the fatty acids fingerprints were used to examine the effects of maize straw returning on soil arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The relationships between AM fungal community composition, AM fungal biomass and soil factors after maize straw returning were examined for four continuous years. A total of 2430 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were classified into 10 genera and 143 species, respectively, which belonged to 1 phylum, 3 classes, 4 orders, 8 families. There was no significant difference in AM fungal community richness (Chaoles index and ACE index) and diversity (Shannon, Simpson diversity indices) in different treatments. Paraglomus and Glomus were dominant genera among all AM fungal communities. With the increase of the maize straw returned amounts, the abundance of Glomus reduced. Under the treatments of 3000 and 9000 kg·hm-2 straw returned, the abundance of Glomus and Acaulospora had significant differences with the control (0 kg·hm-2). Compared with the control, there were significant differences between Archaeospora, Paraglomus and Glomus in the treatment of 3000 kg·hm-2 straw returned. Results from non-metric multi-dimensional scale (NMDS) analysis showed that under 9000 and 12000 kg·hm-2 straw returning treatments, the difference between the ß diversity of soil AM fungi and the spatial distance of controls was farther apart than the other treatments. The effect of straw returning on the ß diversity of AM fungi was significant. The multivariate analysis results revealed the relationship of the spatial variation between the soil physicochemical properties and AM fungi richness and diversity could be explained at 82.8% cumulative variables. The total nitrogen and available nitrogen were the most important factors driving soil microbial communities biomass marked by PLFAs and AM fungal biomass (NLFAs). The continuous maize straw returning to the field changed the genera composition of AM fungi. With the increases of straw returning amounts, the specific species of AM fungi decreased and the similarity between AM fungi community composition decreased. Straw returning increased soil AM fungi biomass and its contribution to soil total microbial biomass.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Micorrizas , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Zea mays
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