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1.
Sci Adv ; 6(13): eaaz0361, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232156

RESUMO

Imbalanced mitochondrial fission/fusion, a major cause of apoptotic cell death, often results from dysregulation of Drp1 phosphorylation of two serines, S616 and S637. Whereas kinases for Drp1-S616 phosphorylation are well-described, phosphatase(s) for its dephosphorylation remains unclear. Here, we show that dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) dephosphorylates Drp1-S616 independently of its known substrates ERK1/2. DUSP6 keeps Drp1-S616 phosphorylation levels low under normal conditions. The stability and catalytic function of DUSP6 are maintained through conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO1) and SUMO2/3 at lysine-234 (K234), which is disrupted during oxidation through transcriptional up-regulation of SUMO-deconjugating enzyme, SENP1, causing DUSP6 degradation by ubiquitin-proteasome. deSUMOylation underlies DUSP6 degradation, Drp1-S616 hyperphosphorylation, mitochondrial fragmentation, and apoptosis induced by H2O2 in cultured cells or brain ischemia/reperfusion in mice. Overexpression of DUSP6, but not the SUMOylation-deficient DUSP6K234R mutant, protected cells from apoptosis. Thus, DUSP6 exerts a cytoprotective role by directly dephosphorylating Drp1-S616, which is disrupted by deSUMOylation under oxidation.

2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180770

RESUMO

Aerobic glycolysis is a recognized feature shared by tumors, leading to the accumulation of lactic acid in their local microenvironments. Like the tumors, the blastocysts, placenta, trophoblasts and decidual immune cells can also produce a large amount of lactic acid through aerobic glycolysis during the early pregnancy. Moreover, the placenta expresses the transporters of the lactic acid. While several studies have described the role of lactic acid in the tumor microenvironment, especially lactic acid's modulation of immune cells, the role of lactic acid produced during pregnancy is still unclear. In this paper, we reviewed the scientific evidence detailing the effects of lactic acid in the tumor microenvironment. Based on the influence of the lactic acid on immune cells and tumors, we proposed that lactic acid released in the unique uterine environment could have similar effects on the trophoblast cells and immune cells during the early pregnancy.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212684

RESUMO

With the aid of a pyridyl tetracarboxylate ligand, 2,5-bis(2',5'-dicarboxylphenyl)pyridine (H4L), two indium-organic frameworks, [In2(L)(OH)2]·2DMF·2H2O (1) and [Me2NH2][In(L)]·2.5NMF·4H2O (2), with (6,8)- and (4,4)-connected nets have been constructed in different solvent systems. Both 1 and 2 exhibit high thermal and chemical stability. Gas sorption behavior of 1 and 2 for N2, C2H2, C2H4, CO2, and CH4 indicate excellent separation selectivities of C2Hx/CH4 and CO2/CH4. Furthermore, 1 possesses a high density of Brønsted sites and shows efficient catalytic conversion for CO2 cycloaddition with epoxides. Meanwhile, luminescence investigations reveal that 2 can detect nitrofurazone efficiently.

4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 236: 115972, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172827

RESUMO

An environmentally friendly octenylsuccinic anhydride modified pH-sensitive chitosan-octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA-CS) was synthesized. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the modified chitosan was 27 µg/mL, the graft polymers can form solubilized curcumin (CUR) and quercetin (QUE) nanoparticles. The drug-loaded nanoparticles had high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading content, the self-assembly of graft polymers formed spherical uniform nanoparticles with an approximate diameter of 150-180 nm. The nanoparticles were stable under storage conditions and in serum. The results revealed that OSA-CS exhibited excellent biocompatibility, no cytotoxicity. Additionally, the results of pH sensitivity and drug release experiments showed that the nanoparticles were highly sensitive to weakly acidic conditions (pH 6.0) and showed a faster release rate, while they were reasonably stable at physiological conditions (pH 7.4). The drug-loaded nanoparticles exhibited higher cellular uptake in vitro, and exhibited stronger anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy. Therefore, OSA-CS-based nanoparticles are a promising hydrophobic drug delivery system for pH-response targeting therapy.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026291

RESUMO

For further understanding the genetic control mechanisms of growth and development in Tan sheep, and culturing good traits on meat performance, which is very important to both in developing local species and improving economic efficaciously. In our study, we recruited a total of 250 Tan sheep and 174 healthy Hu sheep to detect 32 SNPs in GH, GHR, NPY, Leptin, H-FABP, MSTN, and CAST by using direct sequencing techniques, in order to explore genetic marking loci which were an association with growth characters. From the results, we found different SNPs with an obvious difference for the growth traits. In the different genetic model analysis, we found SNP12, SNP29, SNP41, SNP8, SNP34, SNP35, SNP9, SNP10, SNP36, SNP45, and SNP39 were a significantly negative association with the two kinds of sheep. And SNP46, SNP42, and SNP69 with the positive association between the different trait in sheep were analyzed. From the LD and haplotype analysis, we found three blocks with the positive association in growth traits between Tan sheep and Hu sheep. The block of SNP29, SNP32, SNP34, SNP35, SNP36, SNP39, SNP41, SNP42, SNP45, and SNP46 with the genotype "AATCTACTTA" is the most significantly association with the traits. In summary, the study initially explored the genes for growth and reproduction between Tan sheep and Hu sheep and found some statistically significant results which demonstrate that there are genetic differences. These differential molecular markers may provide a scientific theoretical basis for the preferred species of Tan sheep which with good meat performance and better utilization of species resources.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 74(1): 237-244, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension, a common chronic disease, is associated with cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD), seriously affects older adults' quality of life and aggravates the burden of disease on society and families. Elevated Alzheimer-associated neuronal thread protein (AD7c-NTP) has been observed in the urine of patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment; however, it is not clear whether this protein can be used as a biomarker for cognitive impairment in older hypertensive patients. OBJECTIVE: To explore the value of urinary AD7c-NTP, and the association of urinary AD7c-NTP with cognitive function in older hypertensive patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. In total, 134 hypertensive patients aged ≥60 years were divided into two groups: Lower Cognitive Function group (LCF group, n = 89) and Normal Control group (NC group, n = 45) based on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Urinary AD7c-NTP, blood glucose, serum insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. RESULTS: Urinary AD7c-NTP level was significantly higher in the LCF group than in the NC group [0.48 (0.21-1.00) versus 0.25 (0.04-0.44) ng/ml, p < 0.001]. The LCF group had lower SOD level [(43.07±23.74) versus (53.12±25.80) U/ml, p = 0.026] and higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) [7.17 (3.74-13.94) versus 6.01 (3.78-7.43), p = 0.033] than the NC group. Urinary AD7c-NTP level was associated with MoCA score and HOMA-IR but not with SOD, MDA, blood glucose, and insulin. CONCLUSION: The level of urinary AD7c-NTP is elevated in older hypertensive patients with lower cognitive function, and insulin resistance may be involved in the process.

7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 150: 1-8, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007552

RESUMO

Antimicrobial cotton textiles (CT) show great promise for wound dressings. However, modifying CTs to have antimicrobial properties requires balancing the killing of microbes while protecting normal cells. In this study, the surface of CT was modified using maleopimaric acid quaternary ammonium cations (MPA-N+) from rosin acid. The surfaces morphology and chemical composition were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which confirmed that the MPA-N+ modified CT (CT-g-MPA-N+) was prepared. CT-g-MPA-N+ shows strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). It also exhibits prominent durability of antimicrobial capability even after soaking in PBS for 6 days, and can effectively inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. Most importantly, the excellent biocompatibility of CT-g-MPA-N+ was verified by hemocompatible and cytotoxic assays. This work is believed to be promising method to prepare antimicrobial cotton textiles by surface modification and suggest the great potential application in wound dressing.

8.
Yi Chuan ; 42(2): 212-221, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102777

RESUMO

An ongoing outbreak of a novel coronavirus infection in Wuhan, China since December 2019 has led to 31,516 infected persons and 638 deaths across 25 countries (till 16:00 on February 7, 2020). The virus causing this pneumonia was then named as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by the World Health Organization. To promote the data sharing and make all relevant information of 2019-nCoV publicly available, we construct the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Resource (2019nCoVR, https://bigd.big.ac.cn/ncov). 2019nCoVR features comprehensive integration of genomic and proteomic sequences as well as their metadata information from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data, National Center for Biotechnology Information, China National GeneBank, National Microbiology Data Center and China National Center for Bioinformation (CNCB)/National Genomics Data Center (NGDC). It also incorporates a wide range of relevant information including scientific literatures, news, and popular articles for science dissemination, and provides visualization functionalities for genome variation analysis results based on all collected 2019-nCoV strains. Moreover, by linking seamlessly with related databases in CNCB/NGDC, 2019nCoVR offers virus data submission and sharing services for raw sequence reads and assembled sequences. In this report, we provide comprehensive descriptions on data deposition, management, release and utility in 2019nCoVR, laying important foundations in aid of studies on virus classification and origin, genome variation and evolution, fast detection, drug development and pneumonia precision prevention and therapy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Disseminação de Informação , China , Coronavirus , Genômica , Humanos , Proteômica
9.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate an enlarged dacryoadenotic lacrimal gland and normal lacrimal glands for the presence of goblet cells (mucocytes). DESIGN: Retrospective clinicopathologic series. METHODS: An enlarged lacrimal gland (dacryoadenosis) without obvious histopathologic alterations was extensively evaluated histochemically, immunohistochemically, and ultrastructurally to detect the presence of goblet cells and to compare the findings with those in five normal lacrimal glands. RESULTS: Granular, zymogen-rich pyramidal acinar cells in normal glands predominated over a previously Not reported subpopulation of non-granular, pale staining cells in both dacryadenotic and normal lacrimal glands. These cells histochemically stained positively with mucicarmine and Alcian blue. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic evaluations established that there was a displacement or replacement of cytoplasmic gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 and CK 7-positive tonofilaments in the pale acinar cells by myriad mucus granules. Goblet cells constituted approximately 2 % of the normal acinar cells and 5% of dacryoadenotic acinar cells. A depletion of myoepithelial cells and ectopic intra-acinar ductular cells were also observed in dacryoadenosis. CONCLUSION: Dacryodenosis is caused by an increase in the number of acini without individual acinar cell hyperplasia. A normal cytologic feature of the lacrimal gland is the presence of acinar goblet cells that had been long overlooked; they are increased in number in dacryoadenosis. Intra-acinar ductular cells and the scattered loss of myoepithelial cells are other abnormalities in dacryoadenosis. The presence of lacrimal gland goblet cells may have physiologic implications for the pre-corneal tear film and its derangements as well as for the histogenesis of mucus-producing carcinomas.

10.
Funct Plant Biol ; 47(4): 293-302, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054565

RESUMO

Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) has been reported to regulate different physiological processes in plants. PtdIns(3)P is synthesised by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex which includes common subunits of vacuolar protein sorting (VPS)15, VPS30 and VPS34. Here, we characterised the roles of the important genes NbVPS15, -30 and -34 encoding PI3K components during interactions between Nicotiana benthamiana and Phytophthora pathogens. NbVPS15 and NbVPS34 were upregulated during infection, and plants deficient in these two genes displayed higher resistance to two different Phytophthora pathogens. Silencing NbVPS15 and NbVPS34 decreased the content of PtdIns(3)P in plant cells and the stability of three RxLR (containing the characteristic amino-terminal motif of arginine-X-leucine-arginine, X is any amino acid) effectors. Furthermore, NbVPS15, -30 and -34 were essential for autolysosome formation during Phytophthora capsici infection and limiting programmed cell death (PCD) induced by effectors and elicitors. Taken together, these findings suggest that NbVPS15 and NbVPS34 play a critical role in the resistance of N. benthamiana to Phytophthora pathogens by regulating PtdIns(3)P contents and host PCD.

11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(7)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005729

RESUMO

Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica are leading causes of foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce. Both species can enter the "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) state that precludes detection using conventional culture-based or molecular methods. In this study, we assessed propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) assays and novel methods combining PMA and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection and quantification of VBNC E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in fresh produce. The performance of PMA-LAMP assays targeting the wzy gene of E. coli O157:H7 and the agfA gene of S. enterica and the performance of PMA-qPCR assays were compared in pure culture and spiked tomato, lettuce, and spinach. No cross-reaction was observed in the specificity tests. The values representing the limit of detection (LOD) seen with PMA-LAMP were 9.0 CFU/reaction for E. coli O157:H7 and 4.6 CFU/reaction for S. enterica in pure culture and were 5.13 × 103 or 5.13 × 104 CFU/g for VBNC E. coli O157:H7 and 1.05 × 104 or 1.05 × 105 CFU/g for VBNC S. enterica in fresh produce, representing results comparable to those obtained by PMA-qPCR. Standard curves showed correlation coefficients ranging from 0.925 to 0.996, indicating a good quantitative capacity of PMA-LAMP for determining populations of both bacterial species in the VBNC state. The PMA-LAMP assay was completed with considerable economy of time (30 min versus 1 h) and achieved sensitivity and quantitative capacity comparable to those seen with a PMA-qPCR assay. PMA-LAMP is a rapid, sensitive, and robust method for the detection and quantification of VBNC E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in fresh produce.IMPORTANCE VBNC pathogenic bacteria pose a potential risk to the food industry because they do not multiply on routine microbiological media and thus can evade detection in conventional plating assays. Both E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica have been reported to enter the VBNC state under a range of environmental stress conditions and to resuscitate under favorable conditions and are a potential cause of human infections. PMA-LAMP methods developed in this study provide a rapid, sensitive, and specific way to determine levels of VBNC E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in fresh produce, which potentially decreases the risks related to the consumption of fresh produce contaminated by enteric pathogens in this state. PMA-LAMP can be further applied in the field study to enhance our understanding of the fate of VBNC pathogens in the preharvest and postharvest stages of fresh produce.

12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 151: 112000, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999595

RESUMO

Herein, a multifunctional dual-modal imaging probe is successfully developed to integrate the advantages of second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) fluorescence imaging (FI) and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) with the ultimate goal of improving diseases diagnosis and management. Melanin-inspired polydopamine (PDA) polymer coated NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+@NaYbF4@NaYF4:Nd3+ down conversion nanoparticles (DCNPs) is designed via water-in-oil microemulsion method, which comprises a DCNP core, acting as the NIR-II optical imaging agent, and a PDA shell, acting as the PA contrast agent. By taking the advantages of high spatial resolution and excellent temporal resolution, the dual-modal contrast agent is capable for high sensitivity real-time visualization of gastrointestinal tract, diagnosis of gastrointestinal peristalsis disorder and NIR-II FI-guided intestinal obstruction surgery. All of the above results demonstrate the great potential of DCNP@PDA NP as an efficient NIR-II/PAI dual-modal contrast agent for precision medicine.

15.
Chem Asian J ; 15(1): 191-197, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782903

RESUMO

Three new isostructural 3D lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs), {H[LnL(H2 O)]⋅2 H2 O}n (1-Ln) (Ln=Eu3+ , Gd3+ and Tb3+ ), based on infinite lanthanide-carboxylate chains were constructed by employing an ether-separated 5,5'-oxydiisophthalic acid (H4 L) ligand under solvothermal reaction. 1-Eu and 1-Tb exhibit strong red and green emission, respectively, through the antenna effect, as demonstrated through a combination of calculation and experimental results. Moreover, a series of dichromatic doped 1-Eux Tby MOFs were fabricated by introducing different concentrations of Eu3+ and Tb3+ ions, and they display an unusual variation of luminescent colors from green, yellow, orange to red. 1-Eu with channels decorated by ether O atoms and the open metal sites displays good performance for CO2 capture and conversion between CO2 and epoxides into cyclic carbonates.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 143: 190-199, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825801

RESUMO

N-vinylcaprolactam (NVCL) is a temperature-responsive monomer, which is widely used for preparing responsive hydrogels. However, poor water solubility of NVCL necessitates the use of emulsifiers for better dispersion. Hydrolyzed epoxy soybean oil-grafted hydroxyethyl cellulose (H-ESO-HEC) polymeric emulsifier has excellent emulsifying properties, and the carboxyl groups afford pH-responsiveness to the hydrogels. A novel temperature- and pH-responsive cellulose-based hydrogel was prepared by combining NVCL and H-ESO-HEC. The hydrogel morphology, thermal stability, and swelling capacity were characterized, and it was also used as a dual-responsive drug preservative carrier. Scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the porous structure and good thermal stability, respectively, of the hydrogel. The hydrogel displayed a temperature- and pH-dependent swelling behavior and improved swelling capacity. The swelling behavior agreed well with the Korsmeyer-Peppas model and Schott's second-order kinetic model. The dual-responsive hydrogel has significant potential in the drug delivery systems owing to its biocompatibility and temperature and pH sensitivity.

17.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(2): 514-516.e2, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981007

RESUMO

Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance has been recommended as an optimal endpoint of antiviral treatment by the latest chronic hepatitis B management guideline.1 However, few reports investigated the durability of response after HBsAg seroclearance, because of a lower HBsAg seroclearance rate and the difficulty of obtaining a sufficient number of samples for analysis. Our center has made a long-term commitment to investigate the personalized antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B. More than 300 patients achieved HBsAg seroclearance by interferon (IFN)-based antiviral treatment. In this study, the durability and the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antibody (Anti-HBs) level on relapse after HBsAg seroclearance were investigated.

18.
Microbiol Res ; 232: 126390, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855689

RESUMO

Continuous cropping of soybean often causes significant declines in yields of soybean because of the outbreaks of soil-borne fungal diseases. It has been reported that wild crops often harbour a unique microbiome to benefit the host plants. Thus, it is necessary to find the different community structures of the rhizomicrobiomes associated with cultivated and wild soybeans in their continuous cropping. In this study, we simulated monocropping of cultivated and wild soybeans under greenhouse conditions to investigate the rhizomicrobiomes of both soybeans. Results indicated that the bacterial community structure still maintained a changing trend after four continuous planting seasons, while fungal community structure showed a stable trend as indicated by the high similarity in the fungal community structure between the third and fourth planting rotations in both soybeans. In addition, by comparing the continuous cropping of the two soybeans, we found different fungal groups in their rhizospheres between the wild and cultivated soybeans following each passage. Spizellomycetaceae was more highly enriched in the rhizosphere following cultivation of the cultivated soybean, while Chaetomiaceae and Orbiliaceae were more highly enriched in the rhizosphere of wild soybean. Taken together, results of this study suggested that although there was the same trend of stabilized fungal development in the rhizospheres of both soybeans, wild soybean rhizosphere had different fungal groups compared with that of cultivated soybean following their continuous cropping. The findings of this study may provide useful information for the farmers with regard to planting soybean, especially when they consider growing soybean in monoculture.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Microbiota/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , China , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Estações do Ano
19.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2558-2566, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492276

RESUMO

Febrifugine hydrochloride (FFH) has strong pharmacological antimalarial effect. However, compared with oral administration, the efficacy of intravenous administration is significantly reduced. In this study, we prepared conventional liposomes and PEGylated liposomes to improve the efficacy of its intravenous injection. Both liposome formulations were prepared using a modified ethanol injection method. Their mean particle sizes were 126.23 and 114.93 nm, mean zeta potentials were -6.25 and -26.33 mV, and entrapment efficiencies (EE) were 89.43 and 96.42%, respectively. The in vitro release profile indicated that the release of FFH from PEGylated liposomes and conventional liposomes was slower than free FFH, with sustained-release effect of PEGylated liposomes being more significant. PEGylated liposomes demonstrated excellent antimalarial activities in vitro superior to free FFH and conventional FFH-loaded liposomes. In addition, the PEGylated liposomes resulted in enhanced antimalarial effect in P. berghei infected mice in vivo with delayed recrudescence and prolonged survival time, compared with free FFH and conventional FFH-loaded liposomes administration. Based on these exciting experimental results, PEGylated liposomes could be a potential drug delivery system for FFH, with enhanced pharmacodynamics of intravenous injection.

20.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 15: 3167-3176, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814724

RESUMO

Purpose: Clinical trials have illustrated that Shenmayizhi decoction (SMYZ) could improve the cognitive functions in patients with dementia. However, the mechanism needs to be explored. Methods: Fifty adult male rats (Wistar strain) were divided into five groups equally and randomly, including control, model, and SMYZ of low dose, medium dose and high dose. Rats in each group received a daily gavage of respective treatment. Rats in control and model group were administrated by the same volume of distilled water. Memory impairment was induced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine (0.7 mg/kg) for 5 continuous days. Four weeks later, Morris water maze (MWM) was performed to evaluate the spatial memory in all rats. Then, rats were sacrificed and the hippocampus was removed for further tests. Furthermore, Western blot analysis was employed to assess the levels of acetylcholine M1 receptor (M1), acetylcholine M2 receptor (M2), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cholineacetyltransferase (ChAT). AChE and ChAT activities were determined. Results: The SMYZ decoction significantly improved behavioral performance of rats in high dose. The SMYZ decoction in three doses exhibited anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. In addition, a high dose of SMYZ promoted ChAT activity. Moreover, a high dose of SMYZ increased the level of ChAT and declined the level of AChE assessed by Western blotting. Besides, an increased level of M1 receptor was found after treatment. Conclusion: Shenmayizhi decoction could mitigate scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits through the preventative effect on cholinergic system dysfunction.

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