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BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 384, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416854


BACKGROUND: C. sinensis is an important economic crop with fluoride over-accumulation in its leaves, which poses a serious threat to human health due to its leaf consumption as tea. Recently, our study has indicated that cell wall proteins (CWPs) probably play a vital role in fluoride accumulation/detoxification in C. sinensis. However, there has been a lack in CWP identification and characterization up to now. This study is aimed to characterize cell wall proteome of C. sinensis leaves and to develop more CWPs related to stress response. A strategy of combined cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics was employed to investigate CWPs. CWPs were extracted by sequential salt buffers, while N-glycoproteins were enriched by hydrophilic interaction chromatography method using C. sinensis leaves as a material. Afterwards all the proteins were subjected to UPLC-MS/MS analysis. RESULTS: A total of 501 CWPs and 195 CWPs were identified respectively by cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics profiling with 118 CWPs in common. Notably, N-glycoproteomics is a feasible method for CWP identification, and it can enhance CWP coverage. Among identified CWPs, proteins acting on cell wall polysaccharides constitute the largest functional class, most of which might be involved in cell wall structure remodeling. The second largest functional class mainly encompass various proteases related to CWP turnover and maturation. Oxidoreductases represent the third largest functional class, most of which (especially Class III peroxidases) participate in defense response. As expected, identified CWPs are mainly related to plant cell wall formation and defense response. CONCLUSION: This was the first large-scale investigation of CWPs in C. sinensis through cell wall proteomics and N-glycoproteomics. Our results not only provide a database for further research on CWPs, but also an insight into cell wall formation and defense response in C. sinensis.

Camellia sinensis/química , Parede Celular/química , Fluoretos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , China , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Proteômica
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14123, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575979


Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are widely known to be present in higher plants and are believed to play important functional roles in embryonic development and abiotic stress responses. However, there is a current lack of systematic analyses on the LEA protein gene family in tea plant. In this study, a total of 48 LEA genes were identified using Hidden Markov Model profiles in C. sinensis, and were classified into seven distinct groups based on their conserved domains and phylogenetic relationships. Genes in the CsLEA_2 group were found to be the most abundant. Gene expression analyses revealed that all the identified CsLEA genes were expressed in at least one tissue, and most had higher expression levels in the root or seed relative to other tested tissues. Nearly all the CsLEA genes were found to be involved in seed development, and thirty-nine might play an important role in tea seed maturation concurrent with dehydration. However, only sixteen CsLEA genes were involved in seed desiccation, and furthermore, most were suppressed. Additionally, forty-six CsLEA genes could be induced by at least one of the tested stress treatments, and they were especially sensitive to high temperature stress. Furthermore, it was found that eleven CsLEA genes were involved in tea plant in response to all tested abiotic stresses. Overall, this study provides new insights into the formation of CsLEA gene family members and improves our understanding on the potential roles of these genes in normal development processes and abiotic stress responses in tea plant, particularly during seed development and desiccation. These results are beneficial for future functional studies of CsLEA genes that will help preserve the recalcitrant tea seeds for a long time and genetically improve tea plant.

Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Chá/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Filogenia
Int J Genomics ; 2018: 5963797, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967765


The tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) is an economically important woody perennial nonalcoholic health beverage crop. Tea seeds are categorized as recalcitrant and are sensitive to dehydration treatment. However, the molecular basis of this phenomenon has not been investigated. Thus, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profiles of three dehydration stages using RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) technologies. We performed de novo assembly and obtained a total of 91,925 nonredundant unigenes, of which 58,472 were extensively annotated. By a hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we found that 8929 DEGs were downregulated and 5875 DEGs were upregulated during dehydration treatment. A series of genes related to ABA biosynthesis and signal transduction, transcription factor, antioxidant enzyme, LEA protein, and proline metabolism that have been reported to function in dehydration process were found to be downregulated. Additionally, the expression profiles of 12 selected genes related to tea seed dehydration treatment were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide study elucidating the possible molecular mechanisms of sensitivity of recalcitrant tea seeds to dehydration. The results obtained in this study contribute to the preservation of tea seeds as genetic resources and can also be used to explore the mechanism of dehydration sensitivity of other recalcitrant seeds.

PLoS One ; 13(6): e0197506, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856771


Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) has strong enrichment ability for selenium (Se). Selenite is the main form of Se absorbed and utilized by tea plant. However, the mechanism of selenite absorption and accumulation in tea plant is still unknown. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to perform transcriptomic analysis on the molecular mechanism of selenite absorption and accumulation in tea plant. 397.98 million high-quality reads were obtained and assembled into 168,212 unigenes, 89,605 of which were extensively annotated. There were 60,582 and 1,362 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in roots and leaves, respectively. RNA-seq results were further validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Based on GO terms, the unigenes were mainly involved in cell, binding and metabolic process. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that predominant pathways included ribosome and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. Further analysis revealed that sulfur metabolism, glutathione metabolism, selenocompound metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction responded to selenite in tea plant. Additionally, a large number of genes of higher expressions associated with phosphate transporters, sulfur assimilation, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant substances and responses to ethylene and jasmonic acid were identified. Stress-related plant hormones might play a signaling role in promoting sulfate/selenite uptake and assimilation in tea plant. Moreover, some other Se accumulation mechanisms of tea plant were found. Our study provides a possibility for controlling Se accumulation in tea plant through bio-technologies and will be helpful for breeding new tea cultivars.

Camellia sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Selênio/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/genética , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
J Proteomics ; 176: 71-81, 2018 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408313


The tea plant is a fluoride hyperaccumulator, and fluoride accumulation in its leaves is closely related to human health. To dissect molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride accumulation/detoxification, the leaves of tea seedlings exposed to different fluoride treatments for 30 days were sampled for physiological and proteomics analyses. The results showed that fluoride had no adverse effects on the growth of tea seedlings in spite of high content fluoride accumulation in their leaves. Through TMT coupled with UPLC MS/MS, 189 differentially accumulated proteins were quantified, of which 41 and 148 were localized in the cell wall and cellular compartments respectively. 41 cell wall proteins were mainly conductive to cell wall structure rearrangement, signaling modulation and the protection cells from damages; 148 cellular compartments proteins mainly contributed to diverse metabolisms reprogramming, energy reallocation and plant defense. Notably, upregulation of several proteins including GHs, smHSPs, DRT100, YLS2-like, primary amine oxidase, GDSL esterase/lipases and citrate synthase probably enhanced the defense of tea seedlings against fluoride. Collectively, our results presented a comprehensive proteomics analysis on the leaves of tea seedlings in response to fluoride, which would contribute to further deciphering of molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride accumulation/detoxification in tea plant. SIGNIFICANCE: The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is an important economic crop with its made tea occupying up the third non-alcohol beverage in the world. Tea plant is also a fluoride hyperaccumulator with up to 98% fluoride accumulation in the leaves by initiative absorption. Due to the fact that about 40% to 90% of fluoride could be readily released into tea infusion and then absorbed by human body, overaccumulation of fluoride in tea leaves is closely related to human health. Therefore, it is very necessary to deeply dissect the mechanisms underlying fluoride accumulation/detoxification in tea plant. Previously, numerous studies were conducted to investigate fluoride specification and fluoride localization of tea plant at morphological, physiological and biochemical levels, which documented that fluoride was majorly immobilized in the cell walls and stored in the vacuoles in the form of fluoride-ligands complexes. However, the molecular mechanisms governing cell wall immobilization and vacuolar compartmentation of fluoride were still remaining unknown. Thus, a quantitative proteomics study into the leaves of tea seedlings upon exposure to fluoride was performed in current study. Our results showed that 41 and 148 of 189 differentially accumulated proteins were targeted into the cell wall and cellular compartments respectively, revealing that cell wall proteins and cellular compartments proteins played crucial roles in the response of tea seedlings to fluoride. Our results were also in good agreement with the idea that the cell wall was involved in fluoride accumulation/detoxification in tea plant. However, the functions of key interested differentially accumulated proteins need be further analyzed in follow-up work.

Camellia sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Proteômica/métodos , Compartimento Celular , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fluoretos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula
Nat Prod Commun ; 10(5): 789-92, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26058159


Caffeine, a purine alkaloid, is a major secondary metabolite in tea leaves. The demand for low caffeine tea is increasing in recent years, especially for health reasons. We report a novel grafted tea material with low caffeine content. The grafted tea plant had Camellia sinensis as scions and C. oleifera as stocks. The content of purine alkaloids was determined in the leaves of one-year-old grafted tea plants by HPLC. We also characterized caffeine synthase (CS), a key enzyme involved in caffeine biosynthesis in tea plants, at the expression level. The expression patterns of CS were examined in grafted and control leaves by Western blot, using a self-prepared polyclonal antibody with high specificity and sensitivity. The expression of related genes (TCS1, tea caffeine synthase gene, GenBank accession No. AB031280; sAMS, SAM synthetase gene, AJ277206; TIDH, IMP dehydrogenase gene, EU106658) in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway was investigated by qRT-PCR. HPLC showed that the caffeine content was only 38% as compared with the non-grafted tea leaves. Immunoblotting analysis showed that CS protein decreased by half in the leaves of grafted tea plants. qRT-PCR revealed no significant changes in the expression of two genes in the upstream pathway (sAMS and TIDH), while the expression of TCS1 was greatly decreased (50%). Taken together, these data revealed that the low caffeine content in the grafted tea leaves is due to low TCS1 expression and CS protein accumulation.

Cafeína/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/metabolismo , Camellia/metabolismo , Cruzamento , Cafeína/análise , Camellia/química , Camellia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camellia sinensis/química , Camellia sinensis/genética , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo