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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 110: 150-159, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593186

RESUMO

Environmental impact of pollutants can be analyzed effectively by acquiring fish behavioral signals in water with biological behavior sensors. However, a variety of factors, such as the complexity of biological organisms themselves, the device error and the environmental noise, may compromise the accuracy and timeliness of model predictions. The current methods lack prior knowledge about the fish behavioral signals corresponding to characteristic pollutants, and in the event of a pollutant invasion, the fish behavioral signals are poorly discriminated. Therefore, we propose a novel method based on Bayesian sequential, which utilizes multi-channel prior knowledge to calculate the outlier sequence based on wavelet feature followed by calculating the anomaly probability of observed values. Furthermore, the relationship between the anomaly probability and toxicity is analyzed in order to achieve forewarning effectively. At last, our algorithm for fish toxicity detection is verified by integrating the data on laboratory acceptance of characteristic pollutants. The results show that only one false positive occurred in the six experiments, the present algorithm is effective in suppressing false positives and negatives, which increases the reliability of toxicity detections, and thereby has certain applicability and universality in engineering applications.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Água , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Probabilidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127288, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592594

RESUMO

It is crucial to deeply understand the fate and removal mechanism of various organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in specified wastewater treatment processes. However, concentration fluctuation and matrix effect in wastewater challenge quantification of PFR flux for both field observation and model validation. We present measured seasonal distribution profiles of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations by in situ hydrophobic and polar passive samplers and modeled mass transport and transformation by means of fugacity for 11 PFRs with varied structures in an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A-A-O) municipal wastewater treatment system, and provided a systematic approach to characterize fate and removal mechanism of PFRs in major compartments via various treatment processes. We find evidence that PFRs have a unique structural-dependent fate and removal in the A-A-O system. Hydrophilic chlorinated-PFRs present persistent in all major compartments and dominate in effluents with significant variations; alkyl-PFRs are majorly reduced by biodegradation; whereas hydrophobic aryl-PFRs have the highest removal percentage, contributed by both sorption on solids and biotransformation. Sensitive analysis shows the most influential operation parameters on removal efficiency varied among the PFRs with different properties. We also conclude passive sampling can be effectively applied to estimate TWA wastewater concentrations and to validate fugacity model prediction.

3.
Sleep Med ; 85: 184-190, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343768

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We aim to explore the mechanism of relationship between insomnia and liver metabolism by examining the gene × insomnia interactions. METHODS: Individual level genotypic and phenotypic data were obtained from the UK Biobank cohort. Regression analysis was first conducted to test the association of insomnia with plasma total bilirubin (TBil; n = 186,793), direct bilirubin (DBil; n = 159,854) and total protein (TP; n = 171,574) in UK Biobank cohort. Second, genome-wide gene-environment interaction study (GWGEIS) was conducted by PLINK 2.0, and FUMA platform was used to identify enriched pathway terms. RESULTS: In UK Biobank cohort, we found that TP (P < 2.00 × 10-16), DBil (P = 1.72 × 10-3) and TBil (P = 3.38 × 10-5) were significantly associated with insomnia. GWGEIS of both DBil and TBil observed significant G × INSOMNIA effects between insomnia and UDP Glucuronosyltransferase Family 1 (rs6431558, P = 6.26 × 10-11) gene. GWGEIS of TP also detected several significant genes interacting with insomnia, such as KLF15, (rs70940816, P = 6.77 × 10-10) and DOK7, (rs2344205, P = 1.37 × 10-9). Multiple gene ontology (GO) terms were identified for bilirubin, such as GO_URONIC_ACID_METABOLIC_PROCESS (adjusted P = 4.15 × 10-26). CONCLUSION: Our study results suggested negative associations between insomnia and DBil and TBil; and a positive association between insomnia and TP.

4.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 37(3): 287-292, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374242

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of different intensities of aerobic exercise on the morphology of the atrioventricular node and the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and synaptophysin (Syn) in rats. Methods: Three-month-old SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: quiet control group (C), moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group (AE), and high-intensity aerobic exercise group (FE), each with 8 rats. The moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and high-intensity aerobic exercise rat models were rats established by using 8-week treadmill training ways. Results: Compared with the quiet control group, in the moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group, the atrioventricular nodule muscle fibers were evenly distributed, with smaller gaps, a sense of transparency, and collagen tightly wraps around the atrioventricular nodules. The intercalary disc had a clear structure and complete connection, and the capillary tube wall was relatively clear. Thick elastic fibers were more developed, the expression levels of VEGF and VIP in the atrioventricular node were increased significantly (P<0.05), and there was no significant change in the expression of Syn. In the high-intensity aerobic exercise group, the atrioventricular nodule muscle fibers were unevenly distributed and arranged abnormally, connection between cells were disordered, and vacuolated. The intercalary disk was twisted, circling and overlapping, fuzzy, discontinuous, and extremely dilated. The wall was thick and the endothelial cells were arranged sparsely and disorderly. Moreover, high-intensity aerobic exercise significantly inhibited the expressions of VEGF, VIP, and Syn (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training of different intensities has obvious effects on the morphology and structure of the atrioventricular node and the expressions of VEGF, VIP and Syn. Moderate aerobic exercise can maintain and promote the normal morphology and structure of the atrioventricular node, while high-intensity aerobic exercise can damage the morphology and structure of the ventricular node, which is presumably closely related to the arrhythmia induced by high-intensity exercise.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Animal , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo , Animais , Nó Atrioventricular , Células Endoteliais , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sinaptofisina , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
5.
Oncol Rep ; 46(4)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368874

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) CDKN2B­antisense RNA 1 (AS1) functions as a tumor oncogene in numerous cancers. However, the roles and mechanism of CDKN2B­AS1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been explored. The present study aimed to investigate whether and how CDKN2B­AS1 contributes to CRC progression. The data revealed that CDKN2B­AS1 expression was upregulated in CRC tissues. Loss­of­function assays demonstrated that CDKN2B­AS1 in CRC modulated cell proliferation and apoptosis, which was mediated by cyclin D1, cyclin­dependent kinase (CDK) 4, p­Rb, caspase­9 and caspase­3. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assays indicated direct binding of microRNA (miR)­28­5p to CDKN2B­AS1. Moreover, the results herein revealed that the expression of miR­28­5p was negatively correlated with that of CDKN2B­AS1 in CRC tissue. Moreover, CDKN2B­AS1 acted as a miR­28­5p competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to target and regulate the expression of URGCP. These findings indicated that CDKN2B­AS1 plays roles in CRC progression, providing a potential therapeutic target or novel diagnostic biomarker for CRC.

6.
EMBO Rep ; 22(9): e52247, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358402

RESUMO

Our knowledge of the coordination of fuel usage in skeletal muscle is incomplete. Whether and how microRNAs are involved in the substrate selection for oxidation is largely unknown. Here we show that mice lacking miR-183 and miR-96 have enhanced muscle oxidative phenotype and altered glucose/lipid homeostasis. Moreover, loss of miR-183 and miR-96 results in a shift in substrate utilization toward fat relative to carbohydrates in mice. Mechanistically, loss of miR-183 and miR-96 suppresses glucose utilization in skeletal muscle by increasing PDHA1 phosphorylation via targeting FoxO1 and PDK4. On the other hand, loss of miR-183 and miR-96 promotes fat usage in skeletal muscle by enhancing intramuscular lipolysis via targeting FoxO1 and ATGL. Thus, our study establishes miR-183 and miR-96 as master coordinators of fuel selection and metabolic homeostasis owing to their capability of modulating both glucose utilization and fat catabolism. Lastly, we show that loss of miR-183 and miR-96 can alleviate obesity and improve glucose metabolism in high-fat diet-induced mice, suggesting that miR-183 and miR-96 may serve as therapeutic targets for metabolic diseases.

7.
J Healthc Eng ; 2021: 9994303, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285785

RESUMO

After rapid development and reform, the health level and medical diagnosis and treatment capabilities of Chinese residents have been significantly improved, and high-quality medical resources have significantly improved the life safety and health of the masses. As the most concentrated area of medical equipment in the hospital, the intensive care unit produces the most alarms during the operation of the equipment. The intensive care unit nurses are responsible for heavier nursing work, and the problem of alarming in other departments is more prominent. Therefore, this paper presents an analysis and research on the current situation and influencing factors of the alarm fatigue of nurse medical equipment in the intensive care unit based on intelligent medicine. This article uses a variety of related methods such as literature data method and questionnaire survey method to deeply study the theoretical knowledge of intelligent medical treatment, medical equipment alarm fatigue device, and so on. The logistic regression analysis method is introduced to classify its influencing factors, and the analysis experiment on the influencing factors of the medical equipment alarm fatigue of nurses in the intensive care unit is designed. The nurses' cognition of clinical alarms and the analysis of clinical alarm fatigue questionnaire data are studied. The alarm fatigue of nurses in the intensive care unit is at a severe level, which needs to be taken seriously in the intensive care unit. Unmarried, high-level positions, long working years, high professional titles, and high education are negatively correlated with alarm fatigue (P < 0.05), and those without an alarm habit are positively correlated with alarm fatigue (P < 0.05), and the number of night shifts per month is related to alarm fatigue. There is no correlation between them (P > 0.05).

8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 140: 149-158, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been reported to be associated with increased anxiety and depression behaviors in offspring. However, there is still scant evidence to support the link between MSDP and anxiety/depression. METHODS: Using the subjects from the UK Biobank cohort (n = 371,903-432,881). Logistic regression analyses were first conducted to test the correlation between MSDP and anxiety/depression in offspring. Second, genome-wide gene-environment interaction study (GWGEIS) analyses were conducted by PLINK, using MSDP as environmental factor. Genetic correlation analysis of anxiety/depression and smoking was conducted by the LDSC software using the published genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of four smoking traits (n = 337,334-1,232,091), anxiety (n = 31,880) and depression (n = 490,359). Finally, pathway enrichment analysis was carried out to detect the pathway involved in the development of offspring anxiety caused by the interaction of MSDP × SNPs. RESULTS: Observational analyses showed that anxiety and depression status in offspring were significantly associated with MSDP (all p < 0.0001). Further GWEGI analyses observed significant MSDP-gene interaction effects at UNC80 gene for anxiety (p = 9.09 × 10-9). LDSC did not detect significant genetic correlation between anxiety and smoking traits. Pathway analysis identified 19 significant pathways for anxiety, such as MANALO_HYPOXIA_UP (FDR = 5.50 × 10-4), REACTOME_ADHERENS_JUNCTIONS_INTERACTIONS (FDR = 0.0304) and ONDER_CDH1_TARGETS_2_UP (FDR = 0.0371). CONCLUSION: Our study results suggested the important impact of MDSP on the risk of anxiety in offspring, partly attributing to environment-gene interactions effects.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Proteínas de Transporte , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Fumar , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Endocrine ; 73(3): 702-711, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046847

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Serum urate is associated with BMD and may be a protective factor. However, the exact association and mechanism are still unclear. We performed a genome-wide gene-environmental interaction study (GWGEIS) to explore the interaction effects between gene and urate on BMD, using data from the UK Biobank cohort. METHODS: A total of 4575 participants for femur total BMD, 4561 participants for L1-L4 BMD, and 237799 participants for heel BMD were included in the present study. Linear regression models were used to test for associations between urate and BMD (femur total BMD, L1-L4 BMD, heel BMD) by R software. GWGEIS was conducted by PLINK 2.0 using a generalize linear model, adjusted for age, sex, weight, smoking behavior, drinking behavior, physical activity and 10 principle components for population structure. RESULTS: Results showed that urate was positively associated with femur total BMD, L1-L4 BMD and heel BMD and similar findings were observed in both the male and female subgroups. GWGEIS identified 261 genome-wide significant (P < 5.00 × 10-8) SNP × urate interaction effects for femur total BMD (rs8192585 in NOTCH4, rs116080577 in PBX1, rs9409991 in COL5A1), 17 genome-wide significant SNP × urate interaction effects for heel BMD (rs145344540 in PDE11A and rs78485379 in DKK2), 17 suggestive genome-wide SNP × urate interaction effects (P < 1.00 × 10-5) for L1-L4 BMD (rs10977015 in PTPRD). We also detected genome-wide significant and suggestive SNP × urate interaction effects for BMD in both the male and female subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: This study reported several novel candidate genes, and strengthen the evidence of the interactive effects between gene and urate on the variations of BMD.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Ácido Úrico , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Densidade Óssea/genética , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reino Unido
10.
Environ Pollut ; 287: 117302, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020259

RESUMO

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a well-known immunotoxic environmental pollutant. However, most immunotoxicology studies of TCDD were based on the animal models and the inner mechanisms have just focused on a few genes/proteins. In this study, the immune functions of THP-1-derived macrophages was measured with in-vitro bioassays after 24-h exposure of TCDD including environmentally relevant concentrations. RNA-seq and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis were used to characterize the immunotoxicity molecular mechanisms. Our study is the first report on the TCDD-induced effects of cell adhesion, morphology, and multiple cytokines/chemokines production on THP-1 macrophages. After TCDD treatment, we observed an inhibited cell adherence, probably attributed to the suppressed mRNA levels of adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD11b, and a decrease in cell pseudopodia and expression of F-actin. The inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-10 and other 8 cytokines/chemokines regulating granulocytes/T cells and angiogenesis were disrupted by TCDD. Alternative splicing event was found to be a sensitive target for TCDD. Using WGCNA, we identified 10 hub genes (TNF, SRC, FGF2, PTGS2, CDH2, GNG11, BDNF, WNT5A, CXCR5 and RUNX2) highly relevant to these observed phenotypes, suggesting AhR less important in the effects TCDD have on THP-1 macrophages than in other cells. Our findings broaden the understanding of TCDD immunotoxicity on macrophages and provide new potential targets for clarifying the molecular mechanisms.


Assuntos
Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Macrófagos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Linfócitos T , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
11.
Bone ; 150: 115997, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic chronic osteochondropathy. The clinical manifestations and radiographic features of adult KBD were similar to those of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: We first performed a genetic association scan of 32 OA susceptibility genes with KBD in 898 Han Chinese subjects. The MassARRAY genotyping system (Agena) was used for SNP genotyping. PLINK 1.9 was used for quality control and association testing. Using articular cartilage specimens from 7 adult KBD patients and 4 control subjects, lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi), qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were employed to explore the functional relevance of TP63 to KBD chondrocyte. RESULTS: SNP genotyping and association analysis identified TP63 (rs12107036, P = 0.005, OR = 0.71) and OARD1 (rs11280, P = 0.004, OR = 1.51) were significantly associated with KBD. It was also found that TP63 was significantly up-regulated in KBD articular cartilage in both mRNA and protein level compared with the controls (P < 0.05). TP63 suppression by lentivirus-mediated RNAi notably decreased the abundance of Caspase3 and SOX9 in chondrocytes. Most importantly, compared with the scrambled sequence (shControl) group, the protein level of ACAN was increased in the shTP63 group. The mRNA expression of chondrocyte marker genes (COL2A1 and ACAN) was not significantly changed after TP63 knockdown relative to shControl group. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies TP63 as a novel susceptibility gene for KBD, and demonstrates that the inhibition of TP63 suppresses chondrocyte apoptosis and partly facilitates chondrogenesis. The combination of SNP genotyping and molecular biology techniques provides a useful tool for understanding the biological mechanism and differential diagnosis studies of KBD and OA.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , Doença de Kashin-Bek , Osteoartrite , Adulto , Apoptose , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Condrócitos , Humanos , Doença de Kashin-Bek/genética , Osteoartrite/genética , Fatores de Transcrição , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor
12.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; 22(7): 495-504, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The relationships between gut microbiota and brain-related diseases/traits remains not fully understood. METHOD: A two-stage study was performed to investigate the relationships between gut microbiota and brain-related diseases/traits, and evaluate the potential sex specific effects of gut microbiota. In discovery stage, we systematically scanned the relationships between 515 brain-related diseases/traits and gut microbiota through two-sample Mendelian randomisation analysis. Using ∼500,000 individuals derived from the UK Biobank, polygenetic risk scoring (PRS) analysis was performed to validate the associations detected in discovery stage. To evaluate the potential sex-specific effect of gut microbiota on brain-related disorders, PRS analysis was conducted in female and male, respectively. RESULTS: After systematically scanning diseases or traits, 41 of the 515 brain-related diseases/traits were identified to be associated with gut microbiota, such as Neuroticism score (P2-MR = 0.0018), worrier/anxious feelings (P2-MR = 0.0013), Suffer from 'nerves' (P2-MR = 0.0062) and Nervous feelings (P2-MR = 0.0158). 5 of 41 brain-related diseases or traits were successfully validated in UK Biobank, such as Neuroticism score (PUK = 0.0024, PUK-female = 0.0063, PUK-male = 0.1142), Nervous feelings (PUK = 0.0043, PUK-female = 0.0115, PUK-male = 0.1670) and Worrier/anxious feelings (PUK = 0.0166, PUK-female = 0.0196, PUK-male = 0.2930). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that gut microbiota contributed more to brain-related diseases or traits in females than in males.Key pointsA two-stage study was performed to investigate the relationships between gut microbiota and brain-related diseases/traits.Using the individuals derived from the UK Biobank, polygenetic risk scoring analysis was performed to validate the associations detected in the discovery stage.Our results suggest that gut microbiota contributed more to brain-related diseases or traits in females than in males.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transtornos Mentais , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(17): e25622, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), and Wanfang databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and clinical controlled trials (CCTs) on DFPP for MG from database establishment to June 2019. Two researchers independently screened the articles, extracted the data, and cross checked the results. RevMan 5.3 was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Seven RCTs and 2 CCTs were found comprising 329 patients. The results showed that clinical MG remission rate after DFPP treatment was significantly higher (OR = 4.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.97-9.53; P < .001) and the serum levels of antititin antibody was significantly decreased (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 9.30; 95% CI, 7.51-11.08; P < .001). In addition, the quantitative MG (QMG) score, hospital stay and time to remission of MG symptoms, and acetylcholine receptor antibody (AchRAb) decreased in the DFPP treatment group; however, these outcomes had high heterogeneity among the studies. Only one study has reported on the adverse effects, including hypotension and hematoma. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that DFPP can be recommended for the short-term mitigation of MG. Because our review was limited by the quantity and quality of the included studies, the above conclusions should be verified by additional high-quality studies.


Assuntos
Miastenia Gravis/terapia , Plasmaferese/métodos , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miastenia Gravis/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(6): 422-432, 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751053

RESUMO

Muscle regeneration after damage or during myopathies requires a fine cooperation between myoblast proliferation and myogenic differentiation. A growing body of evidence suggests that microRNAs play critical roles in myocyte proliferation and differentiation transcriptionally. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the orchestration are not fully understood. Here, we showed that miR-130b is able to repress myoblast proliferation and promote myogenic differentiation via targeting Sp1 transcription factor. Importantly, overexpression of miR-130b is capable of improving the recovery of damaged muscle in a freeze injury model. Moreover, miR-130b expression is declined in the muscle of muscular dystrophy patients. Thus, these results indicated that miR-130b may play a role in skeletal muscle regeneration and myopathy progression. Together, our findings suggest that the miR-130b/Sp1 axis may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with muscle damage or severe myopathies.

16.
Micron ; 145: 103061, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773439

RESUMO

The gall midge Gephyraulus lycantha (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a serious gall-forming pest that causes devastating damage in the wolfberry, Lycium barbarum (Solanaceae) in Northwest China. In the present study, the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennae and the antennal sensilla of G. lycantha were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the moniliform antenna of G. lycantha consisted of a scape, pedicel, and flagellum, and exhibited obvious sexual dimorphism. The male antennae were significantly longer than those of females. Moreover, male flagellomeres were spheroidal nodes separated by slender internodes, whereas those of females were cylindrical with no obvious internodes. There were sex and individual differences in antennal segment number. Male antennae had 10 - 16 flagellomeres, most of which had 15, while female antennae consisted of 8 - 14 flagellomeres, most of which had 12. Moreover, a pair of antennae in the same individual had different numbers of flagellomeres. Four types of sensilla were observed along the surface of the antennae, including sensilla chaetica, sensilla trichodea, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla circumfila. Among the types of sensilla, sensilla chaetica were the longest and most prominent sensilla discovered on the antennal flagellum in both sexes. Sensilla trichodea were widely distributed over the antennal surface, including the scape, pedicel, and flagellum. Sensilla coeloconica were categorized into four subtypes: sensilla coeloconica Ⅰ, sensilla coeloconica Ⅱ, sensilla coeloconica Ⅲ, and sensilla coeloconica IV; however, sensilla coeloconica IV was absent in females. Sensilla circumfila were found only on cecidomyiidae insect antennae and were attached to the surface by a series of stalks, forming loops around each flagellomere. The numbers of all four types of sensilla on the male antennal windward side were significantly higher than those on the leeward side. The probable biological functions of these sensilla were discussed herein based on their morphology and ultrastructure. These results provide an important basis for further research on chemical communication and strategies for the control of G. lycantha, and it will be able to serve future group Taxonomy studies (species of cecidomyiidae), providing new taxonomic characters (general ultrastructural morphology, number of sensilla and antennal segments, distribution of different types of setae, types and subtypes sensilla), which varies between species and subspecies.

17.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247308, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606818

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Autonomic imbalance plays a crucial role in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated atrial fibrillation (AF). Here, we investigated the potential neural mechanism of AF induced by OSA. METHODS: Ten dogs were divided into control group (n = 5) and OSA group (n = 5). The chronic OSA model was established by repeat apnea-ventilation cycles for 4 hours a day for 12 weeks. During the process of model establishment, arterial blood gases, atrial effective refractory period (AERP), AF inducibility, normalized low-frequency power (LFnu), normalized high-frequency power (HFnu), and LFnu/ HFnu were evaluated at baseline, 4th week, 8th week, and 12th week. Nerve activities of left stellate ganglion (LSG) and left vagal nerve(LVN) were recorded. Tyrosine hydroxylase(TH), choline acetyltransferase(CHAT), PGP9.5, nerve growth factor(NGF), and c-Fos were detected in the left atrium, LSG, and LVN by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Moreover, high-frequency stimulations of LSG and LVN were conducted to observe the AF inducibility. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the OSA group showed significantly enhanced neural activity of the LSG, increased AF inducibility, and shortened AERP. LFnu and LFnu/HFnu were markedly increased in the OSA group, while no significant difference in HFnu was observed. TH-positive and PGP9.5-positive nerve densities were significantly increased in the LSG and left atrium. Additionally, the protein levels of NGF, c-Fos, and PGP9.5 were upregulated both in the LSG and left atrium. AF inducibility was markedly increased under LSG stimulation without a stimulus threshold change in the OSA group. CONCLUSIONS: OSA significantly enhanced LSG and left atrial neural remodeling, and hyperactivity of LSG may accelerate left atrial neural remodeling to increase AF inducibility.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Nervo Vago/fisiopatologia , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Remodelamento Atrial , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Humanos , Masculino , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/metabolismo , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Nervo Vago/metabolismo
18.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(9): 6581-6596, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615478

RESUMO

Aerobic exercise increases M2 AChR, which thus improves cardiac function in cardiovascular disease (CVD) rats. This study aimed to determine whether aerobic exercise could ameliorate pressure overload-induced heart hypertrophy through M2 AChR, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. Mice were used to establish the myocardial hypertrophy model by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), and subjected to 2, 4, and 8 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and choline intervention (14 mg/kg/day). Our results showed that 4 and 8 weeks of exercise and choline intervention reduced excessive mitochondrial fission and autophagy of myocardial mitochondria, thereby improving the ultrastructure and function of mitochondria after TAC. Moreover, 8-week exercise and choline intervention have enhanced parasympathetic function and promoted the expression of M2 AChR. In addition, 8-week exercise and choline intervention also inhibited the protein expression of myocardial MFN2, PERK/eIF2α/ATF4, and NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1ß signaling pathways, thereby effectively reducing mitochondrial fusion, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammation. Taken together, these data suggest that pressure overload led to cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction, and decreased parasympathetic function in cardiac tissues. Aerobic exercise attenuated cardiac dysfunction by modulating the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial quality control, and induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation, thereby reducing cardiac hypertrophy and improving cardiac function in impaired heart tissues following TAC, which was likely mediated by M2 AChR activation.

19.
Biol Psychiatry ; 89(9): 888-895, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders are among the largest and fastest-growing categories of the global disease burden. However, limited effort has been made to further elucidate associations between socioeconomic factors and psychiatric disorders from a genetic perspective. METHODS: We randomly divided 501,882 participants in the UK Biobank cohort with socioeconomic Townsend deprivation index (TDI) data into a discovery cohort and a replication cohort. For both cohorts, we first conducted regression analyses to evaluate the associations between the TDI and common psychiatric disorders or traits, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, self-harm, and depression (based on self-reported depression and Patient Health Questionnaire scores). We then performed a genome-wide gene-by-environment interaction study using PLINK 2.0 with the TDI as an environmental factor to explore interaction effects. RESULTS: In the discovery cohort, significant associations were observed between the TDI and psychiatric disorders (p < 4.00 × 10-16), including anxiety (odds ratio [OR] = 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-1.10), bipolar disorder (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.36-1.48), self-harm (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.19-1.23), self-reported depression (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.20-1.24), and Patient Health Questionnaire scores (ß = .07, SE = 0.004). We observed similar significant associations in the replication cohort. In addition, multiple candidate loci were identified by the genome-wide gene-by-environment interaction study, including rs10886438 at 10q26.11 (GRK5) (p = 5.72 × 10-11) for Patient Health Questionnaire scores and rs162553 at 2p22.2 (CYP1B1) (p = 2.25 × 10-9) for self-harm. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the relevance of the TDI to psychiatric disorders. The genome-wide gene-by-environment interaction study identified several candidate genes interacting with the TDI, providing novel clues for understanding the biological mechanism of associations between the TDI and psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Esquizofrenia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Sleep Breath ; 25(2): 807-818, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is closely related to atrial fibrillation (AF), and OSA-induced atrial structural remodelling is the basis of AF maintenance. However, the process of atrial structural remodelling during the progression of acute OSA to chronic OSA is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in the atrial myocardium in acute sleep apnoea (6 h) and chronic sleep apnoea (12 weeks) by echocardiography, atrial myocardium morphology analysis, PAS staining, TUNEL staining, Masson's trichrome staining and analyses of ultrastructural changes. METHODS: Eighteen adult beagle dogs under general anaesthesia were used to establish an OSA model. The animals were divided into the control group, acute OSA group and chronic OSA group, and there were six animals in each group. Cardiac ultrasounds of dogs from the three groups were examined. Left and right atrial muscle tissues were taken for HE staining, PAS staining, TUNEL staining, Masson's trichrome staining and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: In the acute OSA model, the left atrial diameter of the dogs began to increase 3 h after ventilation, and this difference was more obvious at 6 h. The morphology of the myocardial cells did not change significantly, but mitochondrial swelling was observed in some atrial myocytes at 3 h. In the chronic OSA model, the left atrial diameter gradually increased, the volume of the right and left atria increased, the glycogen and collagen volume fractions and apoptosis ratio were significantly increased in atrial myocytes, mitochondria swelling and lengthening occurred in some atrial myocytes, the matrix became lighter, the mitochondrial ridge density decreased and the myofilament arrangement was disordered. The disc was distorted and not continuous, and there was some cardiomyocyte necrosis. CONCLUSION: With the prolongation of apnoea, the atrium gradually enlarges, myocardial cells become disordered, glycogen aggregates, the number of necrotic cells increases, fibrosis worsens, mitochondrial abnormalities occur and the arrangement of the discs are disordered, providing a basis for the maintenance of AF.

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