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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465137

RESUMO

Yunnan is the first place where HIV-1 became prevalent in China, and it is also the place with the most complicated HIV-1 genetic diversity in China. On October 23, 2019, a patient newly diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from a hospital in Baosan, Yunnan, was recruited for genetic analysis. Near full-length genome of HIV-1 was amplified from the plasma sample. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this sequence (BS6F24) has a close relationship with CRF86_BC and a unique recombinant form (KY406739), which was formed by recombination of subtypes B and C. Bootscan analysis confirmed that the first part (HXB2:1022-5832) and last part (HXB2:5833-9120) genomes of BS6F24 had the same recombinant structures as KY406739 and CRF86_BC, respectively. A second-generation recombinant form that originated from CRF86_BC and a unique recombinant form were reported for the first time. This indicates the need for continuous monitoring of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 in Yunnan, China.

3.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 246, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535633

RESUMO

Transcriptional factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) can be activated by various intracellular or extracellular stimuli and its dysregulation leads to pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative disorders, infection, and cancer. The carboxyl terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP), a pathogenic gene of spinocerebellar autosomal recessive 16 (SCAR16), plays an important roles in protein degradation, trafficking, and multiple signaling transductions. It has been reported that CHIP participates in the regulation of NF-κB signaling, and the mutant of CHIP (p.T246M) leads to the occurrence of SCAR16. However, the detailed mechanism of CHIP and CHIP (p.T246M) in the regulation of NF-κB signaling in neurological disorders remains unclear. Here, we found that CHIP promoted the activation of NF-κB signaling, while the knockdown had the opposite effect. Furthermore, CHIP interacted with TAK1 and targeted it for K63-linked ubiquitination. Finally, CHIP enhanced the interaction between TAK1 and NEMO. However, CHIP (p.T246M) couldn't upregulate NF-κB signaling, potentiate the ubiquitination of TAK1, and enhance the interactions. Taken together, our study demonstrated for the first time that CHIP positively regulates NF-κB signaling by targeting TAK1 and enhancing its K63-linked ubiquitination.

4.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and accuracy of 3D printing with prenatal three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) in the diagnosis of fetal abnormalities. METHODS: Fetuses initially diagnosed with various abnormalities were included in this retrospective study. The fetuses were examined by 3DUS, modeled, and 3D printed, and the dimensional accuracy of the 3D prints was analyzed. The effectiveness, demand, necessity of 3D printing, and the diagnostic accuracy of different methods were analyzed based on questionnaire responses from 40 senior ultrasound doctors and 40 postgraduate students. RESULTS: A total of 12 fetuses with cleft lip and palate, spinal, heart, or brain abnormalities were included for detailed assessment. All deviations (mean deviation: 0.1 mm) between the original images and the final 3D prints lay within the consistency boundary (-1.12, 1.31 mm) (P > .05). In the subsequent analyses, 90.8% of the doctors and 94.2% of the students strongly agreed that 3D printing could precisely represent and depict fetal abnormalities. The average misdiagnosis rate of the doctors decreased from 5% to 0.4% after the application of 3D printing combined with 3DUS in comparison with 3DUS alone, and the corresponding value for the students dropped from 17.9% to 5.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The errors in modeling and 3D printing based on 3DUS were within acceptable limits, and 3D printing improved the diagnosis of various fetal abnormalities.

5.
Analyst ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586111

RESUMO

The accurate and sensitive detection of glucose from secretory clinical samples, such as tears and saliva, remains a great challenge. In this research, a novel ultrasensitive glucose detection method consisting of a glucose oxidase (GOx), pistol-like DNAzyme (PLDz), and CRISPR-Cas12a system is proposed. First, the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by GOx leads to the production of H2O2; the self-cleavage activity of PLDz is activated after recognition of the produced H2O2. The two procedures triggered by COx and PLDz play an important role in accurately identifying glucose and converting glucose signals to nucleic acids. The obtained PLDz fragments can be recognized by the Cas12 enzyme and thus activate the trans-cleavage activity of the Cas12a enzyme. Finally, the surrounding reporter probes are cut by the Cas12a enzyme to produce fluorescence signals. In summary, an ultra-sensitive and specific fluorescence method has been developed for glucose detection from secretory clinical samples, which could potentially contribute to the noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 468, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Furin is the key enzyme involved in the cleavage of pro-BNP and plays a critical role in the cardiovascular system through its involvement in lipid metabolism, blood pressure regulation and the formation of atheromatous plaques. NT-proBNP and recently, corin, also a key enzyme in the cleavage of pro-BNP, have been accepted as predictors of prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This cohort study was conducted to investigate the relationship between plasma furin and the prognostic outcomes of AMI patients. METHODS: In total, 1100 AMI patients were enrolled in the study and their plasma furin concentrations were measured. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of cardiovascular (CV) death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and non-fatal stroke. The associations between plasma furin concentration and AMI outcomes were explored using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: The results showed a slight increase in mean cTNT in patients with higher furin concentrations (P = 0.016). Over a median follow-up of 31 months, multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that plasma furin was not significantly associated with MACE (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.93-1.06; P = 0.807) after adjustment for potential conventional risk factors. However, plasma furin was associated with non-fatal MI (HR 1.09; 95% CI 1.01-1.17; P = 0.022) in the fully adjusted model. Subgroup analyses indicated no relationship between plasma furin and MACE in different subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: This study found no association between plasma furin and risk of MACE. Thus, plasma furin may not be a useful predictor of poor prognosis after AMI. However, higher levels of plasma furin may be associated with a higher risk of recurrent non-fatal MI.

7.
Waste Manag ; 135: 182-189, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509770

RESUMO

A low-cost and easy-available silicon (Si) feedstock is of great significance for developing high-performance lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode materials. Herein, we employ waste crystalline Si solar panels as silicon raw materials, and transform micro-sized Si (m-Si) into porous Si (p-Si) by an alloying/dealloying approach in molten salt where Li+ was first reduced and simultaneously alloyed with m-Si to generate Li-Si alloy at the cathode. Subsequently, the as-prepared Li-Si alloy served as the anode in the same molten salt to release Li+ into the molten salt, resulting in the production of p-Si by taking advantage of the volume expansion/contraction effect. In the whole process, Li+ was shuttled between the electrodes in molten LiCl-KCl, without consuming Li salt. The obtained p-Si was applied as an anode in a half-type LIBs that delivered a capacity of 2427.7 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 after 200 cycles with a capacity retention rate of 91.5% (1383.3 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles). Overall, this work offers a straightforward way to convent waste Si panels to high-performance Si anodes for LIBs, giving retired Si a second life and alleviating greenhouse gas emissions caused by Si production.

8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112676, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419644

RESUMO

Chemical hazardous substances in teethers may migrate into infant's body through oral exposure, resulting in a potential health risk. In recent years, researchers have performed a series of studies for detecting target chemicals in teethers and other toys, but the presence of unknown chemicals has not been systematically investigated yet. This paper reports the non-targeted identification of unknown chemical hazards that may have migrated from teethers to infants based on gas chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry. In view of the difficulties that may be encountered in the qualitative analysis of substances, several typical cases and the corresponding reliable solutions are given from the perspective of comprehensive score and retention index, isotope-aided qualitative analysis, chemical ionization identification formula, and fragment ion detail comparison for distinguishing isomers. Finally, 28 substances are identified in 10 teether samples. Among them, phenol, N-methylaniline, 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione and cyclohexanone have higher detection rates. This study not only has valuable reference for the identification of unknown substances, but also has positive guiding role in monitoring potential chemical hazards in toys and promoting the safety of products.

9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 680501, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456859

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have confirmed an association between C-peptide levels with the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. However, whether circulating C-peptide was related to subclinical myocardial injury (SC-MI) remains unknown. Methods: A total of 3,752 participants without a history of cardiovascular diseases were included in our study from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). Multivariable linear regression was performed to explore the correlation between C-peptide and cardiac injury score (CIIS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between C-peptide quartile and SC-MI. Results: Circulating C-peptide was significantly associated with CIIS (ß:0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.17; p = 0.041). Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of circulating C-peptide increased a 1.48-fold risk of SC-MI (Odds ratio = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18-1.87; p = 0.001). Conclusions: The level of C-peptide was independently associated with CIIS and SC-MI, which could serve as a new risk factor of SC-MI.

10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112612, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371455

RESUMO

Excessive fluoride exposure and epigenetic change can induce numerous adverse health outcomes, but the role of epigenetics underneath the harmful health effects induced by fluoride exposure is unclear. In such gap, we evaluated the associations between fluoride exposure and genome-wide DNA methylation, and identified that novel candidate genes associated with fluoride exposure. A total of 931 school-age children (8-12 years) in Tongxu County of Henan Province (China) were recruited in 2017. Urinary fluoride (UF) concentrations were measured using the national standardized ion selective electrode method. Participants were divided into a high fluoride-exposure group (HFG) and control group (CG) according to the UF concentrations. Candidate differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were screened by Infinium-Methylation EPIC BeadChip of DNA samples collected from 16 participants (eight each from each group). Differentially methylated genes (DMGs) containing DMRs associated with skeletal and neuronal development influenced by fluoride exposure were confirmed using MethylTarget™ technology from 100 participants (fifty each from each group). DMGs were verified by quantitative methylation specific PCR from 815 participants. Serum levels of hormones were measured by auto biochemical analyzer. The mediation analysis of methylation in the effect of fluoride exposure on hormone levels was also performed. A total of 237 differentially methylated sites (DMSs) and 212 DMRs were found in different fluoride-exposure groups in the epigenome-wide phase. Methylation of the target sequences of neuronatin (NNAT), calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha (CALCA) and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 showed significant difference between the HFG and CG. Each 0.06% (95% CI: -0.11%, -0.01%) decreased in NNAT methylation status correlated with each increase of 1.0 mg/L in UF concentration in 815 school-age children using QMSP. Also, each 1.88% (95% CI: 0.04%, 3.72%) increase in CALCA methylation status correlated with each increase of 1.0 mg/L in UF concentration. The mediating effect of NNAT methylation was found in alterations of ACTH levels influenced by fluoride exposure, with a ß value of 11.7% (95% CI: 3.4%, 33.4%). In conclusion, long-term fluoride exposure affected the methylation pattern of genomic DNA. NNAT and CALCA as DMGs might be susceptible to fluoride exposure in school-age children.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fluoretos , Criança , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 189: 837-846, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403672

RESUMO

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a member of the genus Pestivirus, which causes serious economic losses. The re-emergence of the disease in Japan in 2018 has increased awareness of CSFV. In this study, Balb/c mice were immunized with plant-derived E2 protein, and four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 4B11, 7B3, 11A5 and 6F3 were generated. Two of these mAbs, 4B11 and 7B3, effectively blocked CSFV infection of PK-15 cells. Both mAbs recognized a novel linear epitope, 256CLIGNTTVKVHASDER271. The neutralizing ability of anti-CSFV serum decreased 63%, when pre-incubated with the linear peptide at 200 µg/mL. Structural analysis showed that this linear epitope is present at the border of Domain C and Domain D on the surface of the E2 protein. Alignment of amino acid sequences showed that the epitope was conserved in different subgroups of CSFV but not in other members of the Pestivirus genus. Consistently with the analysis above, this epitope distinguished antibodies against CSFV from those against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Our study provides an ideal candidate peptide for new vaccine design and differential diagnosis of CSFV. These findings will contribute to the control and eradication of classical swine fever.

12.
Adv Mater ; 33(36): e2102096, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302395

RESUMO

Elastomers presenting good elasticity, ductility, and chemical resistance at low temperatures can serve as superior performers for explorations in extremely cold environments. However, no commercially available elastomer to date can comprehensively fulfill those demands. Here, a perfluoropolyether (PFPE)-based network crosslinked by dynamic urethane chemistry is demonstrated, which may satisfy the demands of application in ultracold environments. As the crucial constitute in such a crosslinked network, PFPE provides the elastomer with excellent elasticity at a temperature down to -110 °C and outstanding ductility within the cryogenic temperature range. Importantly, the high proportion of fluorocarbon segment also provides wonderful compatibility to most organic solvents, accounting for the low-swelling characteristics of the elastomer in sealing applications. Furthermore, the dynamic crosslinking feature allows the cured elastomer to be reprocessed like thermoplastic polymers, which affords great promise to recycle and reuse the elastomer after its disposal. Inherently, this elastomer would inspire a worldwide interest in the design of elastic devices that are adaptable to extremely low temperature.

13.
Anal Chem ; 93(29): 10152-10159, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254788

RESUMO

The reliable identification of fentanyl and its analogs is of great significance for public security. However, with the growing prevalence of fentanyl compounds, current analytical strategies cannot fully meet the need for fast and high-throughput detection. In this study, a simple, rapid, and on-site analytical protocol was developed based on a miniature mass spectrometer. A dramatically simplified workflow was implemented using matrix-assisted ionization, bypassing complex sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation. The tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) capability afforded by the miniature ion trap mass spectrometer facilitated the investigation of fragmentation patterns for 49 fentanyl analogs during collision-induced dissociation, revealing valuable information on marker fragment ions and characteristic neutral loss. Calculations on Laplacian bond order values further verified the mass spectrometric behavior. A computation-assisted expandable mass spectral library was constructed in-house for fentanyl compounds. Smart suspect screening was carried out based on the full-scan MS and MS/MS data. The present study demonstrates an appealing potential for forensic applications, enabling streamlined screening for the presence of illicit fentanyl compounds at the point of seizures of suspect samples.


Assuntos
Fentanila , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Medicina Legal , Íons , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
14.
Brain ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244727

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain is a major health problem that affects up to 7-10% of the population worldwide. Currently, neuropathic pain is difficult to treat due to its elusive mechanisms. Here we report that orphan G protein-coupled receptor 151 (GPR151) in nociceptive sensory neurons controls neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury. GPR151 was mainly expressed in nonpeptidergic C-fiber dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and highly upregulated after nerve injury. Importantly, conditional knockout of Gpr151 in adult nociceptive sensory neurons significantly alleviated chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain-like behavior but did not affect basal nociception. Moreover, GPR151 in DRG neurons was required for CCI-induced neuronal hyperexcitability and upregulation of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), which is necessary for microglial activation in the spinal cord after nerve injury. Mechanistically, GPR151 coupled with P2X3 ion channels and promoted their functional activities in neuropathic pain-like hypersensitivity. Knockout of Gpr151 suppressed P2X3-mediated calcium elevation and spontaneous pain behavior in CCI mice. Conversely, overexpression of Gpr151 significantly enhanced P2X3-mediated calcium elevation and DRG neuronal excitability. Furthermore, knockdown of P2X3 in DRGs reversed CCI-induced CSF1 upregulation, spinal microglial activation, and neuropathic pain-like behavior. Finally, the co-expression of GPR151 and P2X3 was confirmed in small-diameter human DRG neurons, indicating the clinical relevance of our findings. Together, our results suggest that GPR151 in nociceptive DRG neurons plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and could be a potential target for treating neuropathic pain.

15.
Brain Behav ; 11(8): e2278, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disease with high morbidity in the elderly population. 6-OHDA-induced cell senescence is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of PD. Ramelteon is an oral hypnotic agent that specifically targets the receptors of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the human hypothalamus. Here, an investigation is made to see whether Ramelteon possesses a beneficial effect against 6-OHDA-induced cellular senescence in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. METHODS: The release of LDH was detected to assess cytotoxicity and flow cytometry was conducted to evaluate the cell cycle. The telomerase activity and the SA-ß-Gal assay were performed to determine the state of cell senescence. Oxidative stress was evaluated by detecting the release of H2 O2 . The expressions of p21, p53, and Nrf2 were measured using the qRT-PCR and Western blotting assay. siRNA technology was used to knock down the expression level of Nrf2 in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. RESULTS: First, it was found that Ramelteon mitigated cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase in 6-OHDA-challenged SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. Second, treatment with Ramelteon alleviated cellular senescence in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells by increasing telomerase activity and reducing the activity of SA-ß-gal. It was also found that Ramelteon reduced the expressions of p21 and p53. Notably, Ramelteon attenuated 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress by increasing the expression of Nrf2. Silencing of Nrf2 abolished the protective effects of Ramelteon against 6-OHDA-induced cellular senescence. Based on these findings, it was concluded that Ramelteon alleviated 6-OHDA-induced cellular senescence by increasing the expression of Nrf2 in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. CONCLUSION: Ramelteon protected against 6-OHDA-induced cellular senescence in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Senescência Celular , Humanos , Indenos , Oxidopamina/toxicidade
16.
Andrologia ; 53(10): e14194, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328658

RESUMO

To explore a new method of in vitro culture and purification of rat corpus cavernosum endothelial cells (CCECs). Male Sprague-Dawley rats' penile tissue were digested with elastase or collagenase combined with mechanical extrusion to isolate and culture the CCECs. The fixed-point digestion method was used to purify the primary cells. High-purity CCECs were successfully isolated. Following the digestion of the primary CCECs by elastase or collagenase coupled with mechanical extrusion, the cells were paving stone- and cobblestone-shaped over 10 days. The cell purity yielded in the second generation (P2) CCECs after using the fixed-point digestion method was significantly high. Compared with primary CCECs extracted by elastase digestion combined with the mechanical extrusion method, CCECs cultured by collagenase digestion yielded higher purity and a more stable morphology after fixed-point digestion and purification. Immunofluorescence staining of the third generation CCECs and the expression results of endothelial cell-associated marker antibodies CD31 and VWF were positive, and flow cytometry showed the purity of CCECs was 96.9%. Enzymatic digestion combined with mechanical extrusion and fixed-point digestion is a simple, economical method for in vitro culture and purification of CCECs, which is conducive to studying the pathophysiological mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and erectile dysfunction.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais , Disfunção Erétil , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Digestão , Humanos , Masculino , Pênis , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Hepatol Int ; 15(5): 1103-1108, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a significant global health problem and > 42-52% of patients are infected during perinatal period. Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) have been widely recognized as the main compounds used for antiviral treatment of hepatitis B. The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of TAF in reducing HBV vertical transmission. METHODS: A total of 72 pregnant women, who met the inclusion criteria, were randomly divided into the TDF (300 mg/day, n = 36) and TAF (25 mg/day, n = 36) groups. Clinical and laboratory data were analyzed and compared between the two groups. RESULTS: No significant differences in alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were noted between the two groups after treatment. The serum HBV DNA viral load and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) levels of the two groups were significantly decreased following treatment, whereas the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. The levels of urine retinol-binding protein and ß2-microglobulin had no significant change after TAF treatment (p > 0.05), but increased significantly after TDF treatment (p < 0.05). All drug concentrations were undetectable in umbilical cord blood (UCB) and breast milk samples of the TAF group, while the drug concentration of UCB and breast milk samples in the TDF group was 2.98 ± 1.44 and 19.16 ± 15.26 ng/ml, respectively. All infants were tested negative for serum hepatitis B surface antigen, HBV DNA, and HBeAg. CONCLUSIONS: Both TAF and TDF effectively block the mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B. TAF was superior to TDF with regard to renal safety and breastfeeding.

19.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(10): 1259-1268, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197923

RESUMO

Rapid and accurate pathogen identification is necessary for appropriate treatment of pneumonia. Here, we describe the use of shotgun metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of bronchoalveolar lavage for pathogen identification in pneumonia in a large-scale multicenter prospective study with 159 patients enrolled. The results of mNGS were compared with standard methods including culture, staining, and targeted PCR, and the clinical impact of mNGS was evaluated. A positive impact was defined by a definitive diagnosis made using the mNGS results, or change of management because of the mNGS results, leading to a favorable clinical outcome. Overall, mNGS identified more organisms than standard methods (117 versus 72), detected 17 pathogens that consistently were missed in all cases by standard methods, and had an overall positive clinical impact in 40.3% (64 of 159) of cases. mNGS was especially useful in identification of fastidious and atypical organisms causing pneumonia, contributing to detection of definitive pathogens in 45 (28.3%) cases in which standard results were either negative or insufficient. mNGS also helped reassure antibiotic de-escalation in 19 (11.9%) cases. Overall, mNGS led to a change of treatment in 59 (37.1%) cases, including antibiotic de-escalation in 40 (25.2%) cases. This study showed the significant value of mNGS of bronchoalveolar lavage for improving the diagnosis of pneumonia and contributing to better patient care.

20.
Elife ; 102021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318750

RESUMO

Sensorimotor transformation, a process that converts sensory stimuli into motor actions, is critical for the brain to initiate behaviors. Although the circuitry involved in sensorimotor transformation has been well delineated, the molecular logic behind this process remains poorly understood. Here, we performed high-throughput and circuit-specific single-cell transcriptomic analyses of neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain structure implicated in early sensorimotor transformation. We found that SC neurons in distinct laminae expressed discrete marker genes. Of particular interest, Cbln2 and Pitx2 were key markers that define glutamatergic projection neurons in the optic nerve (Op) and intermediate gray (InG) layers, respectively. The Cbln2+ neurons responded to visual stimuli mimicking cruising predators, while the Pitx2+ neurons encoded prey-derived vibrissal tactile cues. By forming distinct input and output connections with other brain areas, these neuronal subtypes independently mediated behaviors of predator avoidance and prey capture. Our results reveal that, in the midbrain, sensorimotor transformation for different behaviors may be performed by separate circuit modules that are molecularly defined by distinct transcriptomic codes.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mesencéfalo/metabolismo , Córtex Sensório-Motor/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/citologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Colículos Superiores
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