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1.
Environ Int ; 160: 107074, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995968

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from the incomplete combustion of organic materials are associated with adverse health effects. However, little is known about PAH exposure levels and their influencing factors on a large scale in developing countries. In this study, urinary monohydroxylated metabolites of PAHs (OH-PAHs), including the metabolites of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene, were measured in 1154 samples in the general population nationwide from 26 provincial capitals in China. Concentrations of OH-PAHs ranged from 1.39 to 228 µg/L. OH-Nap, metabolite of naphthalene, was the predominant compound, accounting for 65.1% of totals. People in eastern, southwest and northeast China, such as Shanghai, Kunming, Nanning, and Changchun, suffered more PAH exposure than other regions which might associate with sampling time, living habits of the subjects, and the imbalance of economic development and energy consumption across regions. Urinary OH-PAH concentrations were associated with body mass index, gender, and age, and smoking was the main correlating factor. Inhalation and diet might be the main exposure route of human exposure to PAHs, especially for smokers by inhalation. Hazard indices showed that no subject was exposed to PAHs with potential non-carcinogenic risk. Furthermore, the carcinogenic risk was the most significant health effects, with almost all subjects having carcinogenic risk values higher than the acceptable level of 10-6. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were the main contributors. The results also suggested a possible relationship between PAH exposure and lung cancer in the Chinese population. This first nationwide study on human internal exposure to PAHs provides a large body of scientific information for governmental decision-making about associated human health and the prevention of human exposure to PAHs.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127126, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523476

RESUMO

Mixed bromine/chlorine transformation products (ClyBrxBPAs) of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were recently identified for the first time in an electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling site. To determine whether these compounds can be used as specific molecular markers of e-waste dismantling activities, the environmental occurrences and distributions of TBBPA and its transformation products including debromination products (BrxBPAs) and ClyBrxBPAs were analyzed in soil samples from three sites in China: Guiyu (an e-waste site), Qingyuan (a former e-waste site now mainly used for old wire and cable recycling), and Shouguang (a flame retardant production base). Levels of the target analytes in Guiyu were significantly higher than in Qingyuan and Shouguang. BrxBPAs and ClyBrxBPAs were widely detected in Guiyu at concentrations between 1 and 4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent compound TBBPA. The highest concentration was found in an e-waste dismantling park, with lower concentrations in surrounding area. The levels of ClyBrxBPAs in Qingyuan were much lower, indicating that the ClyBrxBPAs may come from the processing of wires and cables, but not rule out the incubation on their own in soils. None of ClyBrxBPAs were detected in Shouguang. ClyBrxBPAs may thus be useful as specific molecular markers for determining the intensity of e-waste dismantling activities.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Poluentes do Solo , Bromo , China , Cloro , Resíduo Eletrônico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenil Polibromatos , Reciclagem , Poluentes do Solo/análise
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 806(Pt 3): 151206, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710426

RESUMO

Recycling e-waste has been recognized as an important emission source of organophosphate triesters (tri-OPEs) and organophosphate diesters (di-OPEs), but the presence of di-OPEs in atmosphere has not been studied. Herein, tri-OPEs and di-OPEs in atmosphere of an e-waste dismantling park and surrounding area in South China were monitored for three consecutive years. Thirteen tri-OPEs and seven di-OPEs were identified. In 2017, 2018, and 2019, tri-OPE concentrations in e-waste dismantling park were 1.30 × 108, 4.60 × 106, and 4.01 × 107 pg/m3, while di-OPE concentrations were 1.14 × 103, 1.10 × 103, and 0.35 × 103 pg/m3, respectively, which were much higher than the surrounding area. Tri-OPEs and di-OPEs generated during e-waste dismantling affected surrounding area through diffusion. Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPhP) were the predominant congeners of tri-OPEs and di-OPEs, respectively. Additionally, TPhP concentration was extremely higher than other tri-OPEs, so TPhP could be used as an indicator of e-waste dismantling. Spearman correlation analysis showed significant correlations between DPhP and TPhP (R2 = 0.53, p < 0.01), bis-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPP) and tris(2-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) (R2 = 0.49, p < 0.01), as well as dibutyl phosphate (DBP) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) (R2 = 0.53, p < 0.01), indicating that they had the same source. Further, non-carcinogenic risk of them to people via inhalation was acceptable and non-carcinogenic risk of tri-OPEs decreased year by year in surrounding area.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Retardadores de Chama , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Medição de Risco
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34871918

RESUMO

A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PAHs) in human fingernails using liquid-liquid extraction and online purification. After surface decontamination by rinsing with acetone, the fingernails were digested with sodium hydroxide and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of n-hexane and methyl tertbutyl ether. The organic extract was then fractionated using a silica-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to obtain a PAH fraction eluted with n-hexane/dichloromethane (v/v, 95:5) and an OH-PAH fraction eluted with dichloromethane/ethyl acetate (v/v, 50:50). The PAH fraction was directly injected into an online gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GPC-GC-MS/MS) system, enabling rapid determination of 16 PAHs. A parallel online SPE liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was used to determine 12 OH-PAHs. Validation experiments showed that the recovery of PAH and OH-PAH were within range of 67.4%-105.1% (RSD ≤ 10.1%) and 72.8%-102.3% (RSD ≤ 10.9%), respectively, with limits of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.06-0.8 ng/g and 0.15-3.1 ng/g, respectively. Forty-two human fingernail samples from residents of Southern China were analyzed to establish background PAH and OH-PAH levels in this region. Several PAHs and OH-PAHs were detected, at concentrations of 97.5 to 3,687 ng/g for PAHs and 24.2 to 767 ng/g for OH-PAHs. The dominant homologues were two- and three-ring PAH isomers, notably naphthalene (Nap), fluorene (Flu), and phenanthrene (Phe), as well as the corresponding hydroxylated metabolites 2-OH-Nap, OH-Flu, and OH-Phe. Smoking, consuming barbecued food, and age had no significant effects on PAH exposure, but a larger sample would be required to confirm this finding. The online purification strategy presented here expedites cleanup and purification during analysis of human fingernails and should facilitate non-invasive biomonitoring of PAHs in humans, particularly when analyzing large numbers of samples.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; : 127683, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799168

RESUMO

Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing solid wastes and has become an urgent issue due to the potential adverse consequences of exposure to emitted toxic pollutants, especially for these occupational exposed workers and local residents. In this review, the environmental occurrences, emission characteristics, sources, and possible adverse effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from primitive e-waste dismantling activities are summarized. In general, the atmospheric levels of PAHs at typical e-waste sites, e.g., in Guiyu, China, have substantially decreased by more than an order of magnitude compared with levels a decade ago. The PAH concentrations in soil from old e-waste sites in China are also generally lower than those at newly emerged e-waste sites in India, Pakistan and Ghana. However, elevated concentrations of PAHs have been reported in human milk, hair and urine from the populations near these e-waste sites. Source apportionment both from bench-scale studies to field observations has demonstrated that the pyrolysis and combustion processing of electronic circuit board are mainly responsible for the emissions of various PAHs. In addition, some specific PAHs and their derivatives, such as triphenylbenzene, halogenated and oxygenated PAHs, have frequently been identified and could be considered as indicators in routine analysis in addition to the 16 U.S. EPA priority PAHs currently used.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(20): 14026-14036, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596389

RESUMO

Dermal exposure to semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) has recently attracted widespread attention; understanding these exposures is particularly important for people whose skin is frequently exposed to different pollution surfaces. In this study, handwipes were collected from exposed occupational workers and local residents near a typical electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling area; urine samples were also sampled. The wipes were analyzed for three typical SVOCs: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). The median levels of PAHs, OPFRs, and PBDEs in handwipes from e-waste dismantlers were 96.0, 183, and 238 ng, respectively. The analytes were higher in the handwipes collected from workers than those from residents, indicating that they were subjected to greater dermal exposure during primitive e-waste dismantling activities. Among the three SVOCs, the strongest correlation was found between triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) in handwipes and diphenyl phosphate (DPhP) in paired urine; the next strongest correlations were between PAHs and PBDEs and their corresponding urinary metabolites. The results showed that TPhP contributed the highest exposure to e-waste dismantlers via dermal exposure. Our research highlights the importance of dermal exposure to TPhP, which should be considered in future exposure risk assessments.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Retardadores de Chama , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pele/química
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112717, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478981

RESUMO

Due to the prohibition of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) have become emerging flame retardants. However, knowledge about their occurrence, especially their transformation products, is still limited. This study collected sediment samples from two rivers, i.e., Lianjiang River (located at an e-waste dismantling area) and Xiaoqing River (situated at a flame retardant production base), to investigate the occurrence, composition, and spatiality distribution of OPFRs, TBBPA, and their transformation products. Both targets were detected in the Lianjiang River in the range of 220-1.4 × 104 and 108-3.1 × 103 ng/g dw (dry weight) for OPFRs and TBBPA, and 0.11-2.35 and 4.8-414 ng/g dw for their respective transformation products, respectively. The concentrations of OPFRs and TBBPA in the Xiaoqing River ranged from 4.15 to 31.5 and 0.76-2.51 ng/g dw, respectively, and no transformation products were detected. Different compositional characteristics of OPFRs and distinct spatial distribution from mainstream and tributary observed between the two rivers are attributed to the difference in the local industries. Spatial distribution and principal component analysis indicated that e-waste dismantling activities could be a vital source of local pollution. Besides, the confluence of tributaries seemed to determine the contaminant levels in the Xiaoqing River. Also, concentration ratios and Spearman's correlation between metabolites and parent chemicals were analyzed. Low concentration ratios (3.6 ×10-4 to 0.16) indicated a low transformation degree, and Spearman's correlation analysis suggested transformation products were partly stemming from commercial products. Considering the limited study of these transformation products, more studies on their sources, transform mechanism, and toxicity are required.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Retardadores de Chama , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Organofosfatos , Bifenil Polibromatos
8.
Anal Methods ; 13(39): 4623-4633, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542118

RESUMO

Household dust is a sink for multiple toxic chemicals with known or suspected potential health effects. However, most dust exposure studies focus on a few chemicals, which may limit overall understanding of human exposure characteristics because people spend most of their time indoors. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a multi-residue analysis of 20 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 8 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs), 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs), 8 synthetic musks (Musks), and 7 organophosphate esters (OPEs) in indoor dusts. After extraction with acetone/hexane (v/v, 1 : 1), all target compounds were fractionated with a Florisil solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge into two fractions: PAHs, PBDEs, HBCDs, OCPs and Musks, which were eluted with hexane/dichloromethane, and OPEs eluted with ethyl acetate. Further clean-up using acidified silica 44% cartridges was then performed to enable determination of PBDEs and HBCDs. Instrumental analysis of the target chemicals was performed using gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). A newly-optimized GC-MS/MS method was employed for the simultaneous determination of PAHs, OCPs, and Musks. The lower limit of quantification (LOQ) values of PAHs, OCPs, and Musks were 0.14-0.92 ng g-1, 0.06-0.38 ng g-1 and 0.07-0.40 ng g-1, respectively. PBDEs were quantified by GC-MS with electron capture negative ionization, and HBCDs and OPEs by LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative and positive ion mode, respectively. Recovery experiments showed that the average recoveries and relative standard deviations were 99-113% and 1-14% for PBDEs, 89-105% and 1-6% for HBCDs, 71-120% and 3-17% for PAHs, 71-112% and 2-17% for OCPs, 77-120% and 2-13% for Musks, and 80-127% and 1-14% for OPEs. Validation experiments showed that the method achieved good accuracy. The developed method was used to analyze SRM 2585 and real indoor dust samples to demonstrate its suitability for routine analysis. The target contaminants were widely detected in SRM 2585 and indoor dust collected from Wuhan of Central China, with PAHs the major species, followed by OPEs, OCPs, and PBDEs.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Praguicidas , Compostos Policíclicos , Cromatografia Líquida , Poeira/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 117975, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416499

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds with two or more benzene rings whose hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PAHs) are excreted in urine. Human PAH exposure is therefore commonly estimated based on urinary OH-PAH concentrations. However, no study has compared PAH exposure estimates based on urinary OH-PAHs to measurements of PAH levels in blood samples. Estimates of PAH exposure based solely on urinary OH-PAHs may thus be subject to substantial error. To test this hypothesis, paired measurements of parent PAHs in serum and OH-PAHs in urine samples from 480 participants in Guangzhou, a typical developed city in southern China, were used to investigate differences in the estimates of human PAH exposure obtained by sampling different biological matrices. The median PAH concentration in serum was 4.05 ng mL-1, which was lower than that of OH-PAHs in urine (8.33 ng mL-1). However, serum pyrene levels were significantly higher than urinary levels of its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene. Concentrations of parent PAHs in serum were not significantly correlated with those of their metabolites in urine with the exception of phenanthrene, which exhibited a significant negative correlation. Over 28% of the participants had carcinogenic risk values above the acceptable cancer risk level of 10-6. Overall, estimated human exposure and health risks based on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels were only 13.6% of those based on serum pyrene measurements, indicating that estimates based solely on urine sampling may substantially understate health risks due to PAH exposure.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Biomarcadores , Carcinógenos , China , Cidades , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
10.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 223: 112279, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425416

RESUMO

A novel highly selective and sensitive turn-on fluorescent chemosensor PCE to recognize Zn2+ has been developed. The sensor PCE displays a remarkable fluorescent enhancement at 456 nm (λex = 340 nm) with Zn2+ without the interference of other biologically important relevant metal ions in aqueous acetonitrile solution. Job's plot and mass spectral studies divulge such the interaction of PCE by Zn2+ was 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The association constant and detection limit of PCE to recognize Zn2+ was found to be 0.948 × 104 M-1 and 4.82 × 10-7 M respectively. The nature of turn-on fluorescence sensor was supported by TD-DFT calculations. And the synthesized probe PCE was able to image intracellular Zn2+ in living cells using confocal imaging techniques. PCE-Zn ensemble showed the remarkable fluorescence enhancement with ATP selectively among other biologically important phosphates. 31P NMR experiments suggesting that the triphosphates unit of ATP is intact with the PCEZn. PCE-Zn ensemble can be utilized for monitoring ATP in live cells.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Pirenos/química , Zinco/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Corantes Fluorescentes/análise , Células HeLa , Humanos , Íons/química , Limite de Detecção , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Teoria Quântica , Bases de Schiff/química , Zinco/metabolismo
11.
Environ Int ; 156: 106721, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161905

RESUMO

Commercial cooking has higher intensity and more severe instantaneous cooking pollution from volatile organic chemicals compared to home cooking, making health risk assessment of occupational exposure for chefs a priority. In this study, chefs from three cooking styles of kitchens, including steaming, frying, and grilling, were selected to investigate the external and internal exposures, health risks and effects of several typical aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene and naphthalene). Naphthalene was found to be the most concentrated contaminant in air samples among the different kitchens, while benzene had the lowest concentration. The concentration of toluene in frying kitchens was significantly higher than that in steaming kitchens. Air concentrations of toluene in frying kitchens, as well as benzene concentrations in grilling kitchens exceeded the standard level according to indoor air quality standard (GB/T18883-2002). Regarding the metabolites of pollutants in urine, the content of S-benzylmercapturic acids (S-BMA) for frying chefs was significantly higher than that for other cooking styles of chefs, which was consistent with the relatively higher air concentrations of toluene. There was a good correlation between internal and external exposure of the pollutants. The level of oxidative stress was influenced by 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHN) and S-BMA, indicating the potential health risks of these occupational exposed chefs. This study indicates the need to improve the monitoring of typical aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as to investigate their potential health effects in large-scale groups, and improve the ventilation in kitchens.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Benzeno/toxicidade , China , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Naftalenos/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Tolueno/toxicidade , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117059, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845288

RESUMO

Non-invasive human biomonitoring methods using hair and fingernails as matrices are widely used to assess the exposure of organic contaminants. In this work, a total of 72 human fingernails were collected from workers and near-by residents from a typical electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling site, and were analyzed for human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their mono-hydroxyl metabolites (OH-PAHs). The concentrations of PAHs and OH-PAHs were obtained as 7.97-551 and 39.5-3280 ng/g for e-waste workers (EW workers), 7.05-431 and 27.3-3320 ng/g for non-EW workers, 7.93-289 and 124-779 ng/g for adult residents, and 8.88-1280 and 181-293 ng/g for child residents, respectively. The composition profiles of PAHs in the human fingernails of the four groups were similar, with isomers of Phe, Pyr and Fluo being the predominated congeners, while 2-OH-Nap accounted for more than 70% of the total OH-PAHs. These contaminants were found most in the fingernails of EW workers, followed by non-EW workers, adult residents, and child residents, indicating e-waste dismantling activities are the major sources of PAH exposure. However, significantly higher levels of PAHs with 4-6 rings were observed only in workers as opposed to the residents, and a significant correlation between 3-OH-Flu (p < 0.05) and 2-OH-Phe (p < 0.01) in the fingernails and urine was observed, but no significant correlation was found between the concentration of OH-PAHs in matched hair and fingernail samples. In addition, the levels of PAHs in fingernails increased with the age of EW workers. This is the first study to explore the accumulation and distribution of PAHs and OH-PAHs in human fingernails, which would provide valuable insight into non-invasive biomonitoring and health risk assessment of PAHs.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Criança , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Unhas/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 275: 130022, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647682

RESUMO

The dismantling of electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) can release various Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), impacting the surrounding ambient environment. We investigated the spatio-temporal characteristics and health risks of the ambient VOCs emitted in a typical e-waste dismantling region by conducting multi-site sampling campaigns in four seasons. The pollution of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in the e-waste dismantling park has relation to e-waste dismantling by seasonal trend analysis. The highest concentrations of most VOCs occurred in winter and autumn, while the lowest levels were observed in summer and spring. The spatial distribution map revealed the e-waste dismantling park to be a hotspot of BTEX, 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), while two major residential areas were also the hotspots of BTEX. The e-waste emission source contributed 20.14% to the total VOCs in the e-waste dismantling park, while it was absent in the major residential and rural areas. The cancer risk assessment showed that six VOCs exceeded 1.0 × 10-6 in the e-waste dismantling park, while only three or four compounds exceeded this risk in other areas. The noncancer risks of all compounds were below the safety threshold. This study supplements the existing knowledge on VOC pollution from e-waste dismantling and expands the research scope of chemical pollution caused by e-waste.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Resíduo Eletrônico , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Tolueno/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
14.
Environ Pollut ; 279: 116941, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756240

RESUMO

Phthalates (PAEs) are popular synthetic chemicals used as plasticizers and solvents for various products, such as polyvinyl chloride or personal care products. Human exposure to PAEs is associated with various diseases, resulting in PAE biomonitoring in humans. Inhalation, dietary ingestion, and dermal absorption are the major human exposure routes. However, estimating the actual exposure dose of PAEs via an external route is difficult. As a result, estimation by internal exposure has become the popular analytical methods to determine the concentrations of phthalate metabolites (mPAEs) in human matrices (such as urine, serum, breast milk, hair, and nails). The various exposure sources and patterns result in different composition profiles of PAEs in biomatrices, which vary from country to country. Nevertheless, the mPAEs of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are predominant in the urine. These mPAEs have greater potential health risks for humans. Children have been observed to exhibit higher exposure risks to several mPAEs than adults. Besides age, other influencing factors for phthalate exposure are gender, jobs, and residential areas. Although many studies have reported biological monitoring of PAEs, only a few reviews that adequately summarized the reports are available. The current review appraised available studies on mPAE quantitation in human biomatrices and estimated the dose and health risks of phthalate exposure. While some countries lack biomonitoring data, some countries' data do not reflect the current PAE exposure. Thence, future studies should involve frequent PAE biomonitoring to accurately estimate human exposure to PAEs, which will contribute to health risk assessments of human exposure to PAEs. Such would aid the formulation of corresponding regulations and restrictions by the government.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Monitoramento Biológico , Criança , Dibutilftalato , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Plastificantes
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111569, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396098

RESUMO

Previous research has shown the absorption of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the human gastrointestinal tract, but limited attention has been given to the influence of nutrients on PBDE absorption from food matrices. We investigated the effects of nutrients (oil, starch, protein, and dietary fiber) on the absorption and transport of PBDEs in a Caco-2 cell model and bioaccessibility of PBDEs by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion method. The results showed that the accumulation ratios of PBDE congeners in Caco-2 cells were higher in the nutrient addition groups (oil: 26.7-50.6%, starch: 27.0-58.7%, protein: 12.1-44.1%, and dietary fiber: 28.2-55.1%) than the control group (7.17-36.1%), whereas the transport ratios were lower (oil: 2.30-7.20%, starch: 1.55-9.15%, protein: 1.04-8.78%, and dietary fiber: 0.85-7.04%) than control group (3.78-11.1%). Additionally, the PBDE bioaccessibility could be increased by adding the nutrients, particularly oil and starch. This study clarified the differences in PBDE absorption in the presence of nutrients using the in vitro digestion and Caco-2 cell model. The findings showed that nutrients were an important factor that promoted PBDE absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is important to focus on a novel dietary strategy of food consumption with contaminant compounds to protect human health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Células CACO-2 , Dieta , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Nutrientes
16.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116091, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234377

RESUMO

Although studies have reported that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can transfer from mothers to fetuses, the underlying transplacental transport and barrier mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, we conducted a series of comprehensive experiments in humans, Sprague-Dawley rats, and a BeWo cell monolayer model, as well as a molecular docking study. PBDEs in mothers can transfer to fetuses with a ratio of approximately 0.46, suggesting that the placenta could not efficiently acts as a barrier to PBDE transplacental transport. Similar results were observed in pregnant rats, although varying times were required for different congeners to reach a steady-state in fetuses. The transport ratios at pregnancy day 14 in rats were generally higher than those at pregnancy day 18, which demonstrated that the barrier capacity of immature placentas was lower than that of mature placentas. None concentration-dependent transplacental transport was observed in BeWo cells with efflux ratios of 1.73-2.32, which suggested passive diffusion mechanisms govern the influx of PBDEs through placenta. The accumulated ratios of PBDEs and the inhibitor assay indicated that the effluent channel of P-glycoprotein was partially inhibited by PBDEs. Using molecular docking studies, three pocket sites were identified for different congeners in P-glycoprotein, which demonstrated that the inhibition of P-glycoprotein efflux pump through the pocket sites.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Bifenil Polibromatos , Animais , Feminino , Feto , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Placenta , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116123, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272806

RESUMO

Interest in the potential human health of semi-volatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in indoor and outdoor environments has made the exposure assessment and source appointment a priority. In this study, paired indoor and outdoor atmospheric fine particle (PM2.5) samples were collected from 15 homes representing five typical urban cities in southern China. Four typical SVOCs, including 16 congeners of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 13 congeners of organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and 8 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and its three debrominated congeners were analyzed. The highest total concentrations were found for OPFRs, followed by PAHs, PBDEs, and TBBPA. The indoor concentrations of two alkyl-OPFR isomers, tributylphosphate (TBP) and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), were 4.3 and 11 times higher, respectively, than those of outdoors (p < 0.05). Additionally, the ratios of indoor to outdoor concentrations of alkyl-OPFR isomers varied greatly, suggesting that these compounds originated mainly from different household goods and products used in individual homes. The outdoor concentrations of PAHs and highly brominated PBDEs (BDE-209) typically exceeded the indoor concentrations. Significant correlations were also found between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 samples for PAHs and BDE-209, indicating that outdoor sources such as vehicle exhausts and industrial activities strongly influence their atmospheric occurrence. Additionally, the concentrations of debrominated TBBPA derivatives were higher than those of TBBPA in over 33% of both indoor and outdoor air particle samples. Nevertheless, our results indicated that inhalation exposure to typical SVOCs posed no non-carcinogenic risks to the human body. Although we observed notable differences in the sources, occurrences, and distributions of typical SVOC congeners, more studies using matched samples are still needed to unambiguously identify important indoor and outdoor sources in order to accurately assess the contributions of different sources and the associated human exposure risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Humanos
18.
Environ Pollut ; 272: 115990, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199068

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and certain ingredients in personal care products, such as parabens, bisphenols, triclosan and phthalate metabolites, have become ubiquitous in the world. Concerns of human exposure to these pollutants have increased during recent years because of various adverse health effects of these chemicals. Multiple compounds including parabens, bisphenols, triclosan, phthalate metabolites (mPAEs) and hydroxyl PAHs (OH-PAHs) in urine samples from Guangzhou were determined simultaneously to identify the human exposure pathways without external exposure data combined with data analysis, and the toxicants posed the highest risk to human health were screened in the present study. The detection frequencies for the chemicals exceeded 90%. Among the contaminants, mPAEs showed the highest concentrations, followed by OH-PAHs, with triclosan present at the lowest concentrations. Mono-n-butyl phthalate, methylparaben, bisphenol A, and hydroxynaphthalene represented the most abundant mPAE, parabens, bisphenol, and OH-PAH compounds, respectively. The present PAHs are mainly exposed to human through inhalation, while the chemicals added to personal care products are mainly exposed to human through oral intake and dermal contact. The urine samples from suburban subjects showed significantly higher OH-PAH levels than the urine samples from urban subjects, and females had lower OH-PAH levels than males. Urinary concentrations of the analyzed contaminants were significantly correlated with age, body mass index, residence time, as well as the frequencies of alcohol consumption and swimming. Risk assessments based on Monte Carlo simulation indicated that approximately 30% of the subjects suffered non-carcinogenic risks from mPAEs and OH-PAHs, with mPAEs accounting for 89% of the total risk.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Triclosan , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Biomarcadores , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parabenos/análise , Fenóis , Ácidos Ftálicos
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123390, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659584

RESUMO

Monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs), phthalate metabolites (mPAEs), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the urine of school children aged 8-11 years from Shenzhen, China were measured in order to investigate oxidative stress damage from co-exposure to PAHs and PAEs. The concentrations of OH-PAHs and mPAEs in urine were 0.36-36.5 (median: 3.86) and 9.48-1609 (median: 240) ng/mL respectively. Gender and age did not influence urinary concentrations of ΣOH-PAHs and ΣmPAEs, but geographical variations (i.e., urban versus suburban) were observed. Levels of 8-OHdG were positively correlated with urinary OH-PAHs and mPAEs, with correlation coefficients (r) varying between 0.160 and 0.365 (p < 0.05). OH-PAHs made a greater contribution to oxidative DNA damage than mPAEs when these two types of pollutants were present at the same concentrations. Human health risks were assessed using the hazard quotient and the hazard index for the cumulative risk of a complex of chemicals. The results demonstrated that risks from PAHs could be neglected, but that 29.5 % of school children may be subject to obvious health risks from PAEs, especially diethylhexyl phthalate.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , China , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácidos Ftálicos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115497, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889513

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate temporal trends of "old" and "new" persistent halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs) in Taihu Lake, the third largest freshwater lake in China, and the associated health risks. Five fish species were consecutively collected from the lake every year during 2011-2018. HOPs including 37 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 10 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), 19 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 10 new brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), were measured. The results showed that all the HOPs were detected, with MCCPs and NBFRs showing the highest and lowest concentrations, respectively. The levels of SCCPs and MCCPs were several orders of magnitude higher than those of the other HOPs. There were obvious increasing trends for SCCPs, MCCPs, and hexachlorobenzene, but a decreasing trend for PBDEs. No obvious increasing or decreasing trends were observed for the other HOPs. The present study indicated that the use of NBFRs to replace PBDEs was not yet clearly observed. Fish consumption did not result in non-carcinogenic risks, but posed low carcinogenic risks, with PCBs and DDTs being the highest-risk contaminants because of historical residues. This is the first study for the temporal variations of the HOPs in the lake.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Bifenilos Policlorados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Lagos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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