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1.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 6143-6156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848992

RESUMO

Purpose: Transcriptomic studies on gastroesophageal reflux disease are scarce, and gene expression signatures in nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) remain elusive. The aim of the study was to identify gene expression profiles and potential hub genes in NERD. Patients and Methods: We performed RNA sequencing on biopsy samples from nine consecutive patients with NERD and six healthy controls. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analysed with the DESeq2 R package. A DEG-based protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to filter hub genes using Cytoscape. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) was conducted to identify the coexpression relationships of all modules and explore the relationship between gene sets and clinical traits. Results: In total, 1195 DEGs were identified, including 649 upregulated and 546 downregulated genes involved in regulating the inflammatory response and epithelial cell differentiation. Overlap of the PPI and WGCNA networks identified five shared genes, namely, THY1, BMP2, LOX, KDR and MMP9, as candidate hub genes in NERD. Quantitative PCR analysis of the expression of these five genes confirmed the sequencing results. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that these hub genes had diagnostic potential for NERD patients. Gene set enrichment analysis confirmed that each hub gene was closely associated with the pathophysiological processes of NERD. In addition, a regulatory network comprising 42 transcription factors (TFs), 28 miRNAs and 5 hub genes was established. Conclusion: The five core genes may be promising biomarkers of NERD. The TF/miRNA/hub gene network can improve the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression.

3.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 174635, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800466

RESUMO

Dual activation of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor and the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor has potential as a novel strategy for treatment of diabesity. Here, we created a hybrid peptide which we named 19W, and show that it is more stable in presence of murine plasma than exendin-4 is. In vitro studies were performed to reveal that 19W could stimulate insulin secretion from INS-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, just like the native peptide GIP and exendin-4 do. 19W effectively evoked dose-dependent cAMP production in cells targeting both GLP-1R and GIPR. In healthy C57BL/6J mice, the single administration of 19W significantly improved glucose tolerance. When administered in combination with sodium deoxycholate (SDC), its oral hypoglycemic activity was enhanced. Pharmacokinetics studies in Wistar rats revealed that 19W was absorbed following oral uptake, while SDC increased its bioavailability. A long-term (28 days) exposure study of twice-daily oral administration to high fat-fed (HFF) mice showed that 19W significantly reduced animal food intake, body weight, fasting blood glucose, total serum cholesterol (T-CHO), non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. It also significantly improved glucose tolerance and the pancreatic ß/α cell ratio, and decreased the area of liver fibrosis. These results clearly demonstrate the beneficial action of this novel oral GLP-1/GIP dual receptor agonist to reduce adiposity and hyperglycemia in diabetic mice and to ameliorate liver fibrosis associated with obesity. This dual-acting peptide can be considered a good candidate for novel oral therapy to treat obesity and diabetes.

4.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PPI-refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (RGERD) is characterized as the existence of reflux symptoms resistant to optimized PPI treatment. Alleviated mucosal integrity has been regarded as one of the mechanisms of RGERD. METHODS: RNA sequencing analysis and GSEA were performed. Human biopsy samples, cell lines, and rat models were recruited. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was tested and a FITC-dextran flux assay was performed to detect barrier permeability. Tissue morphology was evaluated using HE staining, while gene expression was measured by qRT-PCR, western blotting, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis. RESULTS: The tight junction protein Claudin-1 is significantly weakened in the RGERD epithelium, while levels of EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 were increased. Forced EZH2 expression in epithelial cells led to H3K27me3 accumulation and Claudin-1 suppression, which consequently caused epithelial barrier dysfunction. Notably, studies on esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis (EGDA) rat models showed the attenuation of Claudin-1 level and barrier function could be rescued by an Ezh2 inhibitor GSK126. ChIP analysis followed by qPCR (ChIP-qPCR) revealed H3K27me3 suppressed CLDN1 via accumulating at the TSS area. CONCLUSION: For the first time, we explored the attenuated tight junction of RGERD, demonstrating a potential underlying mechanism that EZH2-mediated H3K27me3 could impair esophageal epithelial barrier function by suppressing the transcription of CLDN1.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 753548, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803694

RESUMO

The circadian clock is vital in the management of our daily physiological as well as metabolic processes. Disturbances of the clock can cause degenerative and age-related diseases. Increasing evidence has indicated that the intervertebral discs contain an internal biological clock related to degeneration. However, to date, no bioactive compounds have been found that can ameliorate intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) by restoring the circadian clock. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a nutritious food with powerful antioxidant properties, as well as entraining biological clock to improve health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective effects of EGCG on nucleus pulposus (NPCs) under oxidative stress is related to the circadian clock. First, we found that EGCG attenuated H2O2-induced extracellular matrix degradation in NPCs and inhibited H2O2-induced NPC apoptosis. Our in vivo experiments also confirmed this finding. Furthermore, EGCG attenuated H2O2-triggered dampening of phase shifts and daily oscillations in circadian clock gene transcription as well as protein expression levels. Intriguingly, core clock gene (Bmal1) knockdown notably blocked the protective effects of EGCG. To our knowledge, this study provides the first convincing evidence that EGCG prevents IDD in a Bmal1-dependent manner. In general, EGCG supplementation can be used as a nutritional prevention strategy for the rehabilitation of degenerative diseases related to the circadian clock.

6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 940, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Simultaneous bilateral distal tibial tubercle high tibial osteotomy (SBDTT-HTO) can result in increased blood loss. The aim of this study is to evaluate the actual hemostatic effect of different tranexamic acid (TXA) treatment regimen in SBDTT-HTO. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study including 54 patients who underwent SBDTT-HTO. The single-dose group (n = 18) received 1 g of intravenous TXA 15-30 min before surgery, the two-dose group (n = 18) received an additional 1 g of intravenous TXA 6 h after surgery, and the multiple-dose group (n = 18) received an additional 1 g intravenous TXA per-day until discharge. Blood loss, hemoglobin levels, occurrence of any adverse events,functional analysis, quality of life, and pain assessmentswere compared among the three groups. RESULTS: The total blood loss, hidden blood loss, drainage volumes, and haemoglobin level in the multiple-dose group all occupy a significant advantage.(p < 0.05). In addition, better quality of life were observed in patients belonging to the multiple-dose group then single-dose group.(p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, for patients undergoing SBDTT-HTO, sequential intravenous TXA administration can effectively and safely reduce blood loss,maintain postoperative Hb levels,and with the advantage of accelerating recovery.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos , Ácido Tranexâmico , Administração Intravenosa , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Osteotomia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Opt Express ; 29(23): 38512-38526, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808903

RESUMO

A portable polarization lidar system based on the division-of-focal-plane scheme has been proposed for all-day accurate retrieval of the atmospheric depolarization ratio. The polarization lidar system has been designed as a T-shaped architecture consisting of a closed transmitter and a detachable large focal receiver, which is capable of outdoor unmanned measurements. The lidar system features low cost, low maintenance and short blind range (∼100 m) by utilizing a 450 nm multimode laser diode as the light source and a polarization image sensor with four polarized channels as the detector. Validation measurements have been carried out on a near horizontal path in ten consecutive days. The linear volume depolarization ratio (LVDR) as well as its measurement uncertainty has been theoretically and experimentally evaluated without employing additional optical components and sophisticated online calibrations. The offset angle can also be accurately retrieved (i.e., -0.06°) from the four-directional polarized lidar profiles with a standard deviation of ±0.02° during the whole measurement period, which contributes negligible influence on the retrieval of the LVDR. It has been found out that the uncertainty of the LVDR was mainly originated from the random noise, which was below 0.004 at nighttime and may reach up to 0.008 during daytime owing to the increasing sunlight background. The performance of the polarization lidar system has been further examined through atmospheric vertical measurements. The low-cost low-maintenance portable polarization lidar system, capable of detecting four-directional polarized lidar signals simultaneously, opens up many possibilities for all-day field measurements of dust, cloud, urban aerosol, oriented particles, etc.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727030

RESUMO

Structural abnormalities and functional changes of renal microvascular networks play a significant pathophysiologic role in the occurrence of kidney diseases. Super-resolution ultrasound imaging has been successfully utilized to visualize the microvascular network and provide valuable diagnostic information. To prevent the burst of microbubbles, a lower mechanical index (MI) is generally used in ultrasound localization microscopy (ULM) imaging. However, high-noise levels lead to incorrect signal localizations in relatively low-MI settings and deep tissue. In this study, we implemented a block-matching threedimensional (BM3D) image-denoising method, after the application of singular value decomposition filtering, to further suppress the noise at various depths. The in vitro flow-phantom results show that the BM3D method helps the significant reduction of the error localizations, thus improving the localization accuracy. In vivo rhesus macaque experiments help conclude that the BM3D method improves the resolution more than other image-based denoising techniques, such as the nonlocal means method. The obtained clutter-filtered images with fewer incorrect localizations can enable robust ULM imaging, thus helping in establishing an effective diagnostic tool.

9.
Nanoscale ; 13(44): 18570-18577, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730573

RESUMO

The combination of various desired physical properties greatly extends the applicability of materials. Magnetic materials are generally mechanically soft, yet the combination of high mechanical hardness and ferromagnetic properties is highly sought after. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline manganese boride, CrB-type MnB, using the high-pressure and high-temperature method in a large volume press. CrB-type MnB shares the specificity of large numbers of unpaired electrons of manganese ions and strong covalent boron zigzag chains. Thus, manganese mono-boride exhibits "strong" ferromagnetic, magnetocaloric behavior, and possesses high Vickers hardness. We demonstrate that zigzag boron chains in this structure not only play a pivotal role in strengthening mechanical properties but also tuning the exchange correlations between manganese atoms. Nontoxic and Earth-abundant CrB-type MnB is much more incompressible and tougher than traditional ferromagnetic materials. The unique combination of high mechanical hardness, magnetism, and electrical conductivity properties makes it a particularly promising candidate for a wide range of applications.

10.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 994, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the clinical efficacy of a femoral neck system (FNS) and cannulated screws (CS) in the treatment of femoral neck fracture in young adults. METHODS: Data from 69 young adults, who were admitted for femoral neck fracture between March 2018 and June 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to surgical method: FNS and CS. The number of intraoperative fluoroscopies, operative duration, length of hospital stay, fracture healing time, Harris score of hip function, excellent and good rate of hip function, and postoperative complications (infection, cut out the internal fixation, nail withdrawal, and femoral neck shortening) were compared between the two groups. Hip joint function was evaluated using the Harris Hip Scoring system. RESULTS: All 69 patients had satisfactory reduction and were followed up for 12-24 months, with a mean follow-up of 16.91 ± 3.01 months. Mean time to fracture healing was13.82 ± 1.59 and 14.03 ± 1.78 weeks in the FNS and CS groups, respectively. There was a statistical difference in the number of intraoperative fluoroscopies between the 2 groups (P = 0.000). There were no significant differences, in operation duration, hospital length of stay, fracture healing time, complications, Harris Hip Score for hip function and excellent and good rate between the two groups (P > 0.05). The incidence of complications was 6.1%(2/33) in the FNS group lower than 25%(9/36) in the CS group, a difference that was statistically significant (P = 0.032). At the last follow-up, the Harris Hip Score of the hip joint in the FNS group was 90.42 ± 4.82and 88.44 ± 5.91 in the CS group. CONCLUSIONS: Both treatment methods resulted in higher rates of fracture healing and excellent hip function. Compared with CS, the FNS reduced the number of intraoperative fluoroscopies, radiation exposure to medical staff and patients, and short-term complications including femoral neck shortening and bone nonunion.

11.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 579: 97-104, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597998

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a severe skin disease with significant physical and psychological health consequences. As a typical type of immune disease, both innate and adaptive immunity disorders play key roles in the development of psoriasis. Interleukin (IL)-30 was thought as a natural antagonist of gp130-mediated signaling that affects T helper type 1 and 17 cell polarization by inhibiting IL-6 and IL-27 signaling pathways. Here, we found that, in vitro, IL-30 reduced cytokine levels of HaCaT keratinocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), weakened the maturationS of DCs, inhibited DC-mediated T cell proliferation, and blocked the activation of nuclear factor-κB. In vivo, IL-30 inhibited the development of skin disease in two animal models: Krt14-Vegfa and imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like skin disease. Thus, IL-30 may be useful as a therapeutic agent for controlling psoriasis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643868

RESUMO

Many studies have reported high arsenic concentrations in the groundwater and soil of the Jianghan Plain (JHP), an important rice production base in China. However, no comprehensive study on the occurrence and risk of As in groundwater-soil-rice systems in this region has been conducted. In this study, As concentrations in groundwater, soil, rice straw, and rice grain samples were analyzed. Arsenic concentrations were found to range from BDL to 42.88 µg/L (median 0.34 µg/L) in phreatic water, BDL to 41.77 µg/L (median 8.64 µg/L) in soil pore water, 10.20 to 21.90 mg/kg (mean 16.52 mg/kg) in soil, 0.204 to 2.860 mg/kg (mean 0.847 mg/kg) in rice straw, and 0.131 to 0.951 mg/kg (mean 0.449 mg/kg) in rice grain. Arsenic uptake by rice from soils was evaluated according to bioavailable As defined by chemical extraction and diffusive gradients in thin films. The results indicated that owing to the low content of highly mobile As fractions, the less mobile As fraction (mainly bound with amorphous Fe/Al (hydr)oxides) also contributed to bioavailable As, suggesting that amorphous Fe/Al bound As should be considered in analyzing bioavailable As. In terms of the geoaccumulation index and the Chinese paddy soil standard (GB15618-2018) limit (25 mg/kg), As pollution in water and soils in the study area is at a low level and can be considered relatively safe. However, the target hazard quotients and cancer risk assessment indicated that As pollution is at a dangerous level with potential human health risk. According to the bioconcentration factor, the bioavailability of soil is higher in JHP compared with other rice-growing areas owing to the unique hydrogeological conditions and irrigation using groundwater with high As content. Rice planting areas in JHP should be set as far away from large rivers as possible, and groundwater with high As concentrations must be pre-treated prior to irrigation.

13.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate and validate the prognostic value of nomogram models for predicting disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). METHODS: In this retrospective study, 223 patients (age 54.38 ± 10.93 years) with pathologically confirmed ccRCC who underwent resection and lymph node dissection between March 2010 and September 2018 were investigated. All patients were randomly divided into training (n = 155) and validation (n = 68) cohorts. Radiomics features were extracted from computed tomography (CT) images in the unenhanced, corticomedullary, and nephrographic phases. Radiomic score was calculated and combined with clinicopathological factors for model construction and nomogram development. Clinicopathological factors and imaging features were collected at initial diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between the radiomics signature and prognosis outcomes. RESULTS: There were four prognostic factors for predicting DFS and five factors for predicting OS in our nomogram model (P < 0.05). The radiomics signature correlated independently with DFS (hazard ratio = 27; P < 0.001) and OS (hazard ratio = 25; P < 0.001). The nomogram showed excellent performance (C-index = 0.825) for predicting DFS. The combined nomogram also showed the highest C-index for OS (C-index = 0.943), which was verified in the validation dataset. CONCLUSION: The combined nomogram model based on radiomics, clinicopathological factors, and preoperative CT features can accurately perform prognosis and survival analysis and can potentially be used for preoperative non-invasive survival prediction in ccRCC patients.

14.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 602, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linear blisters (LBs) often occur around dressings when negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is used to cover open wounds. Tension blisters may increase the wound infection incidence rate, delay the start of operation, and prolong the duration of hospital stay. Currently, there are no established methods for the prevention of LB formation around dressings, which remains to be a major concern in clinical applications. Therefore, we developed a novel, simple, reproducible, and convenient method for preventing LB formation around NPWT dressings. METHOD: Fifty-three cases of Gustilo type II and III open fractures under NPWT were considered. NPWT was used on every wound after debridement. All patients were divided into a conventional group (27 cases, 33 wounds) and a novel group (26 cases, 27 wounds) based on the difference in the NPWT dressing appearance. A healthy volunteer with intact skin was also included to perform the detailed process of NPWT. LBs occurring on intact skin around the dressings were observed and recorded when the dressing was removed 3 days after the operation. The occurrence of LB formation and wound infection was considered as categorical data and compared between the two groups using a chi-square test. The duration of hospital stay was considered as numerical data and compared between the two groups using two independent t tests. RESULTS: The percentage of occurrence of LB formation around dressings in the conventional group was 27.3%, whereas it was merely 3.7% in the novel group (P = 0.037). The infection incidence rate in the conventional group was 30.3%, whereas that in the novel group was 25.9%; however, no statistical difference was observed between the two groups (P = 0.708). The average duration of hospital stay in the conventional group was 14.39 ± 4.55 days, whereas that in the novel group was 11.04 ± 3.47 days (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Thus, changing the NPWT dressing appearance can prevent LB formation around dressings, providing an effective method to improve NPWT application. Modified NPWT dressings also shorten the duration of hospital stay, but do not significantly decrease the incidence of wound infection.

15.
Breast Care (Basel) ; 16(4): 368-375, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602942

RESUMO

Background: Fulvestrant 500 mg monotherapy is recommended as the first-line endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). It is also used in MBC maintenance treatment. However, few studies have compared the efficacy of fulvestrant during the initial treatment with that during maintenance treatment. Patients and Methods: MBC patients who were treated with fulvestrant either as initial therapy for metastatic disease or after progression following one line of chemotherapy between January 2016 and December 2017 were identified from the database of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Results: The study included 135 MBC patients who were treated with fulvestrant; 116 patients who received fulvestrant as first-line treatment were divided into 2 groups: the no-chemotherapy treatment (NCT) group received fulvestrant as initial therapy during disease progression, and the chemotherapy treatment (CT) group received fulvestrant as maintenance following disease stabilization or response to previous chemotherapy. The median PFS was 16 months in NCT patients and 8 months in the CT group. Patients who had a longer disease-free survival, no visceral metastasis and one metastasis site, benefited from fulvestrant as first-line treatment during disease progression. Patients with 2 or more metastasis sites benefited from chemotherapy as first-line treatment and fulvestrant as maintenance treatment. Conclusions: Fulvestrant monotherapy showed good clinical activity and safety in patients with MBC who were treated upon disease progression and in those receiving maintenance therapy.

16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(21): 14676-14688, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677945

RESUMO

High levels of geogenic ammonium in groundwater is a highly neglected nitrogen pool in coastal aquatic systems. Although organic matter (OM) mineralization is known to significantly influence geogenic ammonium enrichment, the detailed mechanism underlying ammonium enrichment based on dissolved organic matter (DOM) characterization in coastal aquifer systems remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the optical and molecular signatures of DOM coupled with hydrogeochemistry and multiple isotopes (H/O/C/N) to elucidate in detail the mechanisms underlying the anomalously high ammonium in the coastal confined aquifer system of the Pearl River Delta, which exhibits the highest reported geogenic ammonium concentration in groundwater on the Earth. We identified three DOM fluorescent components, a marine humic-like component (C1) and two other humic-like components (C2 and C3). The autochthonous OM was first processed to the C1 component, which was further transformed to C2 and C3 components. In terms of molecular classes, the processing pathway from bacterial- or algal-derived OM to aliphatic compounds and highly unsaturated-low O compounds was identified, and highly unsaturated-low O compounds were accumulated as the main products. Compounds containing two or three N atoms were processed, and compounds with one N atom gradually accumulated, which was further degraded into CHO compounds. The ammonium (up to 179 mg/L as N) was gradually enriched due to the decomposition of CHO+3N to CHO+2N, CHO+1N, and CHO compounds. Owing to the longer residence time and less frequent fresh water flushing, the produced ammonium was retained in the aquifer as a "long-term result". The contrasting DOM characteristics, together with the differing depositional and hydrogeological conditions, give rise to the higher levels of geogenic ammonium in coastal confined aquifer systems compared with inland alluvial-lacustrine confined aquifer systems. To our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize DOM and its relationship with geogenic ammonium in coastal aquifer systems.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Água Subterrânea , Água Doce , Nitrogênio , Rios
17.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 150(4): 2401, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717505

RESUMO

Acoustic vortex beams, which have both linear and angular momentum, can be used to make precise acoustic tweezers. Limited by the symmetry of a normal vortex beam, these tweezers are usually used for trapping or rotating particles in two dimensions. Here, the three-dimensional spiral motion of two soft particles of different sizes was realized using a vortex beam with a twisted focus, which was synthesized by a silicone binary-phase logarithmic-spiral zone plate. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements demonstrated that the beam had anisotropic focuses of crescent transverse intensity profiles and a screw phase dislocation with a singularity at the center. Experiments showed that a small particle (k0r ≈ 1.3) can follow the twisted intensity of the beam, but a large particle (k0r ≈ 4.7) spirals up away from the twisted field pattern. This is attributed to the dominant gradient force for the small particle, whereas the scattering effect induced a scattering force combined with a gradient force for the large particle. This focused twisted beam, which was generated with a structured silicone plate, and the three-dimensional spiral motion of microparticles, advance the development of simple, compact, and disposable acoustic devices for the precise and diverse manipulation of microparticles.

18.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714041

RESUMO

Liquid-phase exfoliation can be developed for the large-scale production of two-dimensional materials for photonic applications. Although atomically thin 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) show enhanced nonlinear optical properties or photoluminescence quantum yield relative to the bulk phase, these properties are weak in the absolute sense due to the ultrashort optical path, and they are also sensitive to layer-dependent symmetry properties. Another practical issue is that the chemical stability of some TMDs (e.g., Weyl semimetals) decreases dramatically as the thickness scales down to monolayer, precluding application as optical components in air. To address these issues, a way of exfoliating TMDs that ensures instantaneous passivation needs to be developed. Here, we employed a polymer-assisted electrochemical exfoliation strategy to synthesize PVP-passivated TMDs monolayers that could be spin coated and restacked into organic-inorganic superlattices with well-defined X-ray diffraction patterns. The segregation of restacked TMDs (e.g., MoS2) by PVP allows the inversion asymmetry of individual layers to be maintained in these superlattices, which allows second harmonic generation and photoluminescence to be linearly scaled with thickness. PVP-passivated monolayer 1T'-MoTe2 saturable absorber fabricated from these flakes exhibits fast response and recovery time (<150 fs) and pulse stability. Continuous-wave mode-locking based on 1T'-MoTe2 saturable absorber in a fiber ring laser cavity has been realized, attaining a fundamental repetition rate of 3.15 MHz and pulse duration as short as 867 fs at 1563 nm.

19.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0085921, 2021 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612663

RESUMO

Asthma is a multifactorial disorder, and microbial dysbiosis enhances lung inflammation and asthma-related symptoms. Probiotics have shown anti-inflammatory effects and could regulate the gut-lung axis. Thus, a 3-month randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled human trial was performed to investigate the adjunctive efficacy of probiotics in managing asthma. Fifty-five asthmatic patients were randomly assigned to a probiotic group (n = 29; received Bifidobacterium lactis Probio-M8 powder and Symbicort Turbuhaler) and a placebo group (n = 26; received placebo and Symbicort Turbuhaler), and all 55 subjects provided details of their clinical history and demographic data. However, only 31 patients donated a complete set of fecal and blood samples at all three time points for further analysis. Compared with those of the placebo group, co-administering Probio-M8 with Symbicort Turbuhaler significantly decreased the fractional exhaled nitric oxide level at day 30 (P = 0.049) and improved the asthma control test score at the end of the intervention (P = 0.023). More importantly, the level of alveolar nitric oxide concentration decreased significantly among the probiotic receivers at day 30 (P = 0.038), and the symptom relief effect was even more obvious at day 90 (P = 0.001). Probiotic co-administration increased the resilience of the gut microbiome, which was reflected by only minor fluctuations in the gut microbiome diversity (P > 0.05, probiotic receivers; P < 0.05, placebo receivers). Additionally, the probiotic receivers showed significantly changes in some species-level genome bins (SGBs), namely, increases in potentially beneficial species Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Prevotella sp. CAG and decreases in Parabacteroides distasonis and Clostridiales bacterium (P < 0.05). Compared with that of the placebo group, the gut metabolic potential of probiotic receivers exhibited increased levels of predicted microbial bioactive metabolites (linoleoyl ethanolamide, adrenergic acid, erythronic acid) and serum metabolites (5-dodecenoic acid, tryptophan, sphingomyelin) during/after intervention. Collectively, our results suggested that co-administering Probio-M8 synergized with conventional therapy to alleviate diseases associated with the gut-lung axis, like asthma, possibly via activating multiple anti-inflammatory pathways. IMPORTANCE The human gut microbiota has a potential effect on the pathogenesis of asthma and is closely related to the disease phenotype. Our trial has demonstrated that co-administering Probio-M8 synergized with conventional therapy to alleviate asthma symptoms. The findings of the present study provide new insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of asthma, mechanisms of novel therapeutic strategies, and application of probiotics-based therapy.

20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 912: 174571, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656605

RESUMO

The role of resolvin D1 (RvD1) in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the potential role of RvD1 in acid-induced DNA damage in esophageal epithelial cells, patients with refractory GERD and a rat model of acid reflux. Weak acid exposure induced longer comet tails, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, oxidative DNA damage and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells and RvD1 (0.1 µM) blocked all these effects. Mechanistic analyses showed that apart from ROS-reducing effects, RvD1 possessed a strong capacity to promote DNA damage repair, augmenting cell cycle checkpoint activity and DSB repair by modulating phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in cells. We also detected the surface expression of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2), a receptor for RvD1, in the esophageal epithelial cells, and inhibition of FPR2 abrogated the protective effects of RvD1 on cells. Furthermore, a positive correlation between RvD1 and PTEN was observed predominantly in the esophageal epithelium from patients with refractory GERD (r = 0.67, P < 0.05). Additionally, RvD1 administration upregulated PTEN, suppressed DNA DSBs and alleviated microscopic damage in the rat model of gastric reflux. FPR2 gene silencing abolished the therapeutic effects of RvD1 on the rat model. Taken together, RvD1 binding to FPR2 protects the esophageal epithelium from acid reflux-induced DNA damage via a mechanism involving the inhibition of ROS production and facilitation of DSB repair. These findings support RvD1 as a promising approach that may be valuable for the treatment of GERD.

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