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1.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227006

RESUMO

Simultaneously achieving low friction and fine electrical conductance of sliding electrical contacts is a crucial factor but a great challenge for designing high-performance microscale and nanoscale functional devices. Through atomistic simulations, we propose an effective design strategy to obtain both low friction and high conductivity in sliding electrical contacts. By constructing graphene(Gr)/MoS2 two-dimensional (2D) heterojunctions between sliding Cu surfaces, superlubricity can be achieved with a remarkably lowered sliding energy barrier as compared to that of the homogeneous MoS2 lubricated Cu contact. Moreover, by introducing vacancy defects into MoS2 and substituting Cu with active metal Ti, the Schottky and tunneling barriers can be substantially suppressed without losing the superlubricious properties of the tribointerface. Consequently, a high conductivity ohmic contact with low sliding friction could be realized in our proposed Ti-MoS1.5-Gr-Ti system, which provides a potential strategy for tackling the well-known dilemma for high performance sliding electrical contacts.

2.
Parasite ; 27: 12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129760

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a zoonotic fungal pathogen with a high degree of host diversity that can parasitize many animals, including humans. Pigs may play an important role in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi as reservoir hosts. Nevertheless, the genotypes of E. bieneusi in pigs in China remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of E. bieneusi infection amongst pigs raised on farms from four cities of Hainan Province, using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the partial small subunit of the ribosomal RNA gene, and to identify genotypes of E. bieneusi isolates based on sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Among 188 stool samples, E. bieneusi was detected in 46.8% (88/188). Eight genotypes including four known (EbpA, CS-4, MJ14, and CHG19) and four novel (HNP-I - HNP-IV) genotypes were identified. Using phylogenetic analysis, genotypes EbpA, CS4, CHG19, HNP-III, and HNP-IV were clustered into zoonotic Group 1, while the remaining three genotypes (MJ14, HNP-I, and HNP-II) clustered into Group 10. The high prevalence of zoonotic genotypes of E. bieneusi among pigs suggests that pig farming is a potential source of human infection. Additionally, this is the first identification of genotypes in Group 10 in pigs indicating unique epidemic features of E. bieneusi in pigs in Hainan Province, the southernmost part of China.

3.
Aging Cell ; : e13144, 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222058

RESUMO

Recently, we have reported that dentate mossy cells (MCs) control memory precision via directly and functionally innervating local somatostatin (SST) inhibitory interneurons. Here, we report a discovery that dysfunction of synaptic transmission between MCs and SST cells causes memory imprecision in a mouse model of early Alzheimer's disease (AD). Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals that miR-128 that binds to a 3'UTR of STIM2 and inhibits STIM2 translation is increasingly expressed in MCs from AD mice. Silencing miR-128 or disrupting miR-128 binding to STIM2 evokes STIM2 expression, restores synaptic function, and rescues memory imprecision in AD mice. Comparable findings are achieved by directly engineering MCs with the expression of STIM2. This study unveils a key synaptic and molecular mechanism that dictates how memory maintains or losses its details and warrants a promising target for therapeutic intervention of memory decays in the early stage of AD.

4.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluid overload in patients undergoing hemodialysis contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is a global trend to lower dialysate sodium with the goal of reducing fluid overload. METHODS: To investigate whether lower dialysate sodium during hemodialysis reduces left ventricular mass, we conducted a randomized trial in which patients received either low-sodium dialysate (135 mM) or conventional dialysate (140 mM) for 12 months. We included participants who were aged >18 years old, had a predialysis serum sodium ≥135 mM, and were receiving hemodialysis at home or a self-care satellite facility. Exclusion criteria included hemodialysis frequency >3.5 times per week and use of sodium profiling or hemodiafiltration. The main outcome was left ventricular mass index by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The 99 participants had a median age of 51 years old; 67 were men, 31 had diabetes mellitus, and 59 had left ventricular hypertrophy. Over 12 months of follow-up, relative to control, a dialysate sodium concentration of 135 mmol/L did not change the left ventricular mass index, despite significant reductions at 6 and 12 months in interdialytic weight gain, in extracellular fluid volume, and in plasma B-type natriuretic peptide concentration (ratio of intervention to control). The intervention increased intradialytic hypotension (odds ratio [OR], 7.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.1 to 49.8 at 6 months and OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 0.5 to 28.8 at 12 months). Five participants in the intervention arm could not complete the trial because of hypotension. We found no effect on health-related quality of life measures, perceived thirst or xerostomia, or dietary sodium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Dialysate sodium of 135 mmol/L did not reduce left ventricular mass relative to control, despite improving fluid status. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611000975998.

5.
BMJ Open ; 10(2): e033815, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurological sensorimotor disorder among patients with end stage renal disease. This clinical trial aimed to provide evidence on the efficacy and safety of pramipexole in patients with uremic RLS receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a 12-week, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. In total, 104 patients with uremic RLS receiving PD will be enrolled from four hospitals and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either placebo or pramipexole. We will determine the efficacy of pramipexole in the improvement of International RLS Study Group Rating Scale as the primary outcome, while responder rates for other RLS scales at week 12, change from baseline to week 12 for psychological status, sleep disorder and quality of life and blood pressure represent the secondary outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the ethics committees of Peking University First Hospital, Xinqiao hospital of Army Medical University, Cangzhou Center Hospital and Peking University Shenzhen Hospital. The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03817554.

6.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), central nervous system (CNS) involvement is relatively uncommon. The current study retrospectively investigated the clinical features and outcomes of AAV patients with CNS involvement. METHODS: A total of 497 AAV patients were retrospectively recruited in our center, twenty-nine of which had CNS involvement. Clinical and radiological manifestations and the outcomes of these patients were analyzed. RESULTS: The predominant symptom was sensorimotor impairment. According to the MRI findings, twenty-four patients had cerebral ischemic lesions, four patients had hemorrhagic lesions, and one patient had pituitary mass. With a median follow-up of 25 (range 9-45) months, 23 of 24 patients with cerebral ischemic lesions responded to induction therapy, and symptoms were ameliorated. The remaining one died from acute myocardial infarction 2 months after the diagnosis of cerebral ischemic lesions. Compared with patients without CNS involvement, patients with CNS involvement had significantly higher level of Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (23.5 ± 5.3 versus 18.8 ± 6.5, P < 0.01) and significantly higher proportion of peripheral nervous system involvement (58.6% versus 14.6%, P < 0.01). However, we did not found significant difference of patients' survival between those with and without CNS involvement. CONCLUSION: CNS involvement in Chinese patients with AAV was mainly manifested as cerebral ischemic lesions. Compared with patients without CNS involvement, patients with CNS involvement had a significantly more active disease of AAV, and significantly higher proportion of peripheral nervous system involvement.Key Points• CNS involvement in Chinese patients with AAV was mainly manifested as cerebral ischemic lesions.• Patients with CNS involvement had a significantly more active disease of AAV.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136620, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019017

RESUMO

Human activities have distinctly enhanced the deposition levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) pollutants into terrestrial ecosystems, but whether and to what extents soil carbon (C) and N status have been influenced by elevated N inputs remain poorly understood in the 'real' world given related knowledge has largely based on N-addition experiments. Here we reported soil organic C (OC) and total N (TN) for twenty-seven forests along a gradient of N deposition (22.4-112.9 kg N/ha/yr) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region of northern China, a global hotspot of high N pollution. Levels of soil TN in forests of the BTH region have been elevated compared with investigations in past decades, suggesting that long-term N deposition might cause soil TN increases. Combining with major geographical and environmental factors among the study forests, we found unexpectedly that soil moisture and pH values rather than N deposition levels were major regulators of the observed spatial variations of soil OC and TN contents. As soil moisture and pH values increased with mean annual precipitation and temperature, respectively, soil C and N status in forests of the BTH region might be more responsive to climate change than to N pollution. These evidence suggests that both N deposition and climate differences should be considered into managing ecosystem functions of forest resources in regions with high N pollution.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 93: 62-67, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the immune effect of different types of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) booster doses 2-32 years after primary immunization, explore the influencing factors, and offer guidance regarding the necessity and timing of boosters. METHODS: In total, 1163 participants who were born from 1986 to 2015, received the HepB full-course primary vaccination, were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) negative, and had hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) <10 mIU/mL were enrolled. Individuals were randomly divided into two groups and received a booster dose of HepB. Venous blood samples were collected 30 days later and tested for anti-HBs. RESULTS: In total, 595 and 568 individuals received a single dose of HepB (CHO) and HepB (SC), respectively. Venous blood samples were obtained from 1079 vaccinees (CHO: 554, SC: 525). The seroconversion rates were 93.68% (519/554) and 86.67% (455/525) (p < 0.05), with geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of 426.58 mIU/ml and 223.8 mIU/ml, respectively. This result indicated that BMI, smoking status, vaccine types of booster and prebooster anti-HBs concentration significantly influenced anti-HBs levels. Only BMI, prebooster anti-HBs concentrations and booster types were different between the anti-HBs positive and negative groups. CONCLUSIONS: Participants boostered with HepB (CHO) had a relatively higher seroconversion rate than those boostered with HepB (SC). The high seroconversion rates in the two groups suggested that the subjects remained protected despite low circulating antibodies, so there is currently no urgent need for booster immunization. Factors including BMI ≥ 25 and prebooster anti-HBs concentration <2.5 mIU/mL, which contributed to lower responses to a booster dose, might indicate a greater risk of breakthrough infection.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 59(5): 2978-2987, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037809

RESUMO

We have synthesized and structurally characterized three tetra-(p-tolyl)antimony(III)-containing heteropolytungstates, [{(p-tolyl)SbIII}4(A-α-XW9O34)2]n- [X = PV (1-P), AsV (1-As), or GeIV (1-Ge)], in aqueous solution using conventional, one-pot procedures. The polyanions 1-P, 1-As, and 1-Ge were fully characterized in the solid state and in solution and were shown to be soluble and stable in aqueous medium at pH 7. Biological studies demonstrated that all three polyanions possess significant antibacterial and antitumor activities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1-P, 1-As, and 1-Ge were determined against four kinds of bacteria, including the two pathogenic bacteria strains, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. The three novel polyanions also showed high cytotoxic potency in the human cell lines A549 (non-small cell lung cancer), CH1/PA-1 (ovarian teratocarcinoma), and SW480 (colon carcinoma).

10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 11, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NAD kinases (NADKs) are the only known enzymes that directly phosphorylate NAD(H) to generate NADP(H) in different subcellular compartments. They participate in multiple life activities, such as modulating the NADP/NAD ratio, maintaining the intracellular redox balance and responding to environmental stresses. However, the functions of individual NADK in plants are still under investigation. Here, a rice NADK, namely, OsNADK1, was identified, and its functions in plant growth regulation and stress tolerance were analysed by employing a series of transgenic plant lines. RESULTS: OsNADK1 is a cytosol-localized NADK in rice. It was expressed in all rice tissues examined, and its transcriptional expression could be stimulated by a number of environmental stress treatments. Compared with wild-type (WT) rice, the mutant plant osnadk1 in which OsNADK1 was knocked out was a dwarf at the heading stage and had decreased NADP(H)/NAD(H), ascorbic acid (ASA)/dehydroascorbate (DHA) and reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios, which led to increased oxidation states in the rice cells and sensitivity to drought. Moreover, certain stress-related genes showed differential expression patterns in osnadk1 under both normal growth and drought-stress conditions compared with WT. Among these genes, OsDREB1B and several WRKY family transcription factors, e.g., OsWRKY21 and OsWRKY42, showed correlated co-expression patterns with OsNADK1 in osnadk1 and the plants overexpressing or underexpressing OsNADK1, implying roles for these transcription factors in OsNADK1-mediated processes. In addition, overexpression of OsNADK1 enhanced the drought tolerance of rice plants, whereas loss of function of the gene reduced the tolerance. Furthermore, the proline content was dramatically increased in the leaves of the OsNADK1-overexpressing lines under drought conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, the results suggest that an OsNADK1-mediated intracellular redox balance is involved in the tolerance of rice plants to drought.

11.
Nutr Rev ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995220

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Fish oil and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties, but their effect on psoriasis and its comorbidities remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this quantitative systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fish oil and its components in the treatment of psoriasis and its comorbidities. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China Network Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database, and Wanfang databases were searched from inception to March 30, 2019. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials were eligible for inclusion if they measured the effect of fish oil and its components in the treatment of patients with psoriasis. DATA EXTRACTION: Eighteen randomized controlled trials involving 927 study participants were included. RESULTS: Monotherapy with fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs had no effect on the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score (P = 0.47), lesion area (P = 0.34), or pruritus (P = 0.62). Fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs combined with conventional treatments, however, resulted in a decreased PASI score (mean difference [MD], -3.92; 95%CI, -6.15 to -1.69; P = 0.0006) and lesion area (MD, -30.00; 95%CI, -33.82 to -26.18; P < 0.0001). Safety evaluation suggested no between-group differences. Fish oil and its components reduced certain risk factors for obesity, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disease in patients with psoriasis and also regulated several inflammatory mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, when combined with conventional treatments, fish oil and its components may have beneficial effects on psoriasis and its comorbidities, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disease. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42019128631.

12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(5): 920-930, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922164

RESUMO

By choosing pyridostatin (PDS) with high thermal stabilization towards mixed-type G-quadruplexes as the monomer in dimers, three novel polyether-tethered PDS dimers (1a-c) were first synthesized and their interaction with human telomere G-quadruplex dimers (G2T1) was studied. Through the regulation of the linker length in PDS dimers, the dimer with a medium-length polyether linker (1b) showed higher binding selectivity and thermal stabilization (ΔTm = 29.5 °C) towards antiparallel G2T1 over G-quadruplex monomers (G1). Furthermore, the dimer with the longest-length polyether linker (1c) showed higher binding selectivity and thermal stabilization towards mixed-type G2T1 over mixed-type G1, c-kit 1, c-kit 2, c-myc and ds DNA. This work provides new insights into the development of G2T1 binders, especially mixed-type G2T1 binders, which could be promoted by a polymer formed with a mixed-type G-quadruplex binder. In addition, dimer 1c exhibited stronger telomerase inhibition than dimers 1a and 1b.

13.
FASEB J ; 34(1): 1107-1121, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914708

RESUMO

The nucleolus is best known for its cellular role in regulating ribosome production and growth. More recently, an unanticipated role for the nucleolus in innate immunity has recently emerged whereby downregulation of fibrillarin and nucleolar contraction confers pathogen resistance across taxa. The mechanism of this downregulation, however, remains obscure. Here we report that rather than fibrillarin itself being the proximal factor in this pathway, the key player is a fibrillarin-stabilizing deubiquitinylase USP-33. This was discovered by a candidate-gene search of Caenorhabditis elegans in which CED-3 caspase was revealed to execute targeted cleavage of USP-33, thus destabilizing fibrillarin. We also showed that cep-1 and ced-3 mutant worms altered nucleolar size and decreased antimicrobial peptide gene, spp-1, expression rendering susceptibility to bacterial infection. These phenotypes were reversed by usp-33 knockdown, thus linking the CEP-1-CED-3-USP-33 pathway with nucleolar control and resistance to bacterial infection in worms. Parallel experiments with the human analogs of caspases and USP36 revealed similar roles in coordinating these two processes. In summary, our work outlined a conserved cascade that connects cell death signaling to nucleolar control and innate immune response.

14.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(2): 273-288, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968175

RESUMO

Cleistogenes songorica is a cultivated turfgrass species that employs a mixed breeding system. To determine the morphological differences and molecular mechanisms of the chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers of this species, we evaluated seed traits and analyzed six transcription factor (TF) families related to floral development. The seed traits from the CH and CL flowers were significantly different. In total, 12 CsAP2, 13 CsSPL, 9 CsGRF, 21 CsMYB, 15 CsMADS, and 1 CsLFY differentially expressed genes were identified from the transcriptome of the C. songorica flowers, which was further supported by evolutionary relationships and conserved motifs. All collinear gene pairs had a Ka/Ks ratio <1. Analysis of the promoters and miRNAs of the TFs revealed that the members of the six TF families may coregulate the divergence of CH and CL flowers during evolution. Two CsAP2, 8 CsSPL, 6 CsGRF, 3 CsMYB (targeted by miR172s, miR156s, miR396a/b and miR159a/b, respectively), and 15 CsMADS genes as well as 1 CsLFY gene may be involved in the development of CH and CL flowers. This study is the first to analyze the differences between CH and CL flowers at the TF-family level, which will help in the understanding of dimorphic turfgrasses.


Assuntos
Flores/genética , Poaceae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Fenótipo , Plantas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Sementes/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
15.
Food Chem ; 309: 125667, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679851

RESUMO

This research firstly investigated the inhibitory effect of isoquercitrin (ISQ) on Ovalbumin (OVA) glycation. The mechanism was elucidated through the interaction between OVA and ISQ, and changes in glycation sites and degree of each site as deduced by spectroscopy, spectrometry and molecular docking. ISQ significantly inhibited OVA glycation by attenuating the conformational change induced by glycation. It quenched the fluorescence of Trp via static mechanism, and exposed Trp residues to a more hydrophobic surroundings. Formation of OVA-ISQ complex was a endothermic processing driven by hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. LC-Orbitrap-MS/MS revealed that ISQ altered the location of glycation and alleviated the glycation degree of most sites. Molecular docking results indicated that ISQ inserted into the hydrophobic pocket of OVA with six hydrogen bonds and one π-π stacking formed between ISQ and the amino acid residues of OVA, leading to the altered glycation activity of some sites.


Assuntos
Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ovalbumina/metabolismo , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Sítios de Ligação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glicosilação , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ovalbumina/química , Peptídeos/análise , Ligação Proteica , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Termodinâmica
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867290

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two important zoonotic pathogens that can infect humans and a broad range of animal hosts. However, few studies have been conducted to study infection of the two pathogens in domestic geese until now. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of natural infection, and the species or genotype distribution of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in farm-raised and free-ranging geese from Hainan Province of China. In total, 266 fecal samples of geese were collected (142 farm-raised and 124 free-ranging geese). Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were identified by nested PCR and sequencing analysis of the SSU rRNA and the ITS region of the rRNA genes. A total of 4.1% (12/226) of the geese were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., with 0.7% identified in the farm-raised geese and 7.0% in the free-ranging geese. Two bird-adapted species/genotypes were identified: C. baileyi (n = 1) and Cryptosporidium goose genotype I (n = 11). Meanwhile, E. bieneusi was found in 13.9% (37/266) of geese, with 8.9% identified in the farm-raised and 21.8% in the free-ranging geese. Eleven genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified constituted with six known genotypes: D (n = 13), I (n = 5), CHG2 (n = 1), CHG3 (n = 5), and CHG5 (n = 1), and five novel genotypes named HNE-I to V (one each). All of the genotypes identified in the geese here belonged to zoonotic Groups 1 or 2. This study is the first to demonstrate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in domestic geese from Hainan, China, and provides baseline data that will be useful for controlling and preventing these pathogens in goose farms. The geese infected with E. bieneusi, but not with Cryptosporidium, should be considered potential public health threats.

17.
Parasite ; 26: 62, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670656

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an important pathogen commonly found in humans and animals. Farmed animals with close contact to humans are important hosts of E. bieneusi. The role of goats in the transmission of E. bieneusi, however, remains unclear. In this study, 341 fresh fecal samples of black goats were collected from five locations in Hainan Province, China. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was identified and genotyped by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by constructing a neighbor-joining tree of the ITS gene sequences. The average prevalence of E. bieneusi in black goats was 24.0% (82/341) with rates ranging from 6.3% (4/63) to 37.2% (32/86) across the locations (χ2 = 17.252, p < 0.01). Eight genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified, including six known genotypes: CHG5 (n = 47); CHG3 (n = 23); CHG2 (n = 4); CM21 (n = 3); D (n = 2); and AHG1 (n = 1), and two novel genotypes termed HNG-I (n = 1) and HNG-II (n = 1). In the phylogenetic tree, genotype D was clustered into Group 1 and the other identified genotypes were included in Group 2. This represents the first report identifying E. bieneusi in black goats from Hainan Province, with a high prevalence and wide occurrence demonstrated. The two new genotypes identified provide additional insights into the genotypic variations in E. bieneusi. Due to the small percentage of zoonotic genotypes in these animals, there is minimal risk of zoonotic transmission of E. bieneusi.

18.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 528, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected disease that is spread to humans by the bites of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Although this vector-borne disease has been eliminated in most parts of China, it still poses a significant public health burden in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Understanding of the spatial epidemiology of the disease remains vague in the local community. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal distribution of VL in the region in order to assess the potential threat of the disease. METHODS: Based on comprehensive infection records, the spatiotemporal patterns of new cases of VL in the region between 2005 and 2015 were analysed. By combining maps of environmental and socioeconomic correlates, the boosted regression tree (BRT) model was adopted to identify the environmental niche of VL. RESULTS: The fitted BRT models were used to map potential infection risk zones of VL in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, revealing that the predicted high infection risk zones were mainly concentrated in central and northern Kashgar Prefecture, south of Atushi City bordering Kashgar Prefecture and regions of the northern Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture. The final result revealed that approximately 16.64 million people inhabited the predicted potential infection risk areas in the region. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a better understanding of the potential endemic foci of VL in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region with a 1 km spatial resolution, thereby enhancing our capacity to target the potential risk areas, to develop disease control strategies and to allocate medical supplies.

19.
Inorg Chem ; 58(23): 15864-15871, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725279

RESUMO

We have prepared the indium(III)-centered, all-acetate-capped polyoxopalladate(II) nanocube [InPd12O8(OAc)16]5- (InPd12Ac16), which can be further used as precursor to form the phosphate-capped (i) double-cube [In2Pd23O17(OH)(PO4)12(PO3OH)]21- (In2Pd23P13) and (ii) monocube [InPd12O8(PO4)8]13- (InPd12P8). All three novel polyoxopalladates (POPs) were synthesized using conventional one-pot techniques in aqueous solution and characterized in the solid state (single-crystal XRD, IR, elemental analysis), in solution (115In, 31P, and 13C NMR), and in the gas phase (ESI-MS).

20.
Orthop Surg ; 11(6): 1101-1108, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical and oncological results of combination treatment of short-term preoperative denosumab (the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand inhibitor) with surgery in unresectable or recurrent cases of giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB). METHODS: Between 2016 and 2018, 11 eligible patients (1 man, 10 women, mean age 38.1 years) with grade 3 GCTB were treated with a combination of short-term (six doses) preoperative denosumab and surgery in a single institution. The clinical, radiological, and pathological alteration after the denosumab treatment were compared. The oncological results of the combination therapy were also recorded. Meanwhile, adverse effects or complications of denosumab, if any, were reported. RESULTS: The median follow-up time after surgical procedure was 30 months (range 13-45 months). After 3-4 denosumab injections, pain relief was observed in all patients. In two spine patients, the neurological status improved after four doses of treatment. Intraoperatively, the margin of the tumor became clear and the intensity of the tumor increased while the blood supply around and within the lesion decreased. Within the lesion, the typically soft and loose tissue were replaced by the tough and dense fibro-osseous tissue. The mean diameter of the lesion before and after treatment was 61.55 ± 22.49 mm and 51.81 ± 21.12 mm, respectively, and the T-score was 1.02 (P = 0.32). Variable calcification was observed at the periphery and within the lesion. A total of three patients experienced local recurrence in this study. In the resection group, only one extremity patient had soft tissue recurrence that was treated with en-bloc excision. In the curettage group, two of three sacral tumor patients had local occurrence. Both refused re-operation and restarted the monthly denosumab injection thereafter, and the lesions remained stable at the final follow up. Finally, no adverse effects or complications related to denosumab treatment were found. CONCLUSION: For the unresectable or recurrent GCTB cases, short-term (six doses) preoperative use of denosumab improved clinical symptoms, decreased the tumor size, and increased the tumor density. The changes in tumors, in turn, simplified the tumor removal manipulation and, subsequently, decreased the local recurrence for the resection surgery. For the curettage, the denosumab-induced changes had mixed impacts, and shorter term (fewer than six doses) usage may be more appropriate. Our six-dose regime was deemed safe, while the safety of long-term use remains unknown.

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