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1.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 9(2): 169-176, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702120

RESUMO

Preterm birth and its complications are the leading cause of neonatal death. The main underlying pathological mechanisms for preterm complications are disruption of the normal maturation processes within the target tissues, interrupted by premature birth. Cord blood, as a new and convenient source of stem cells, may provide new, promising options for preventing preterm complications. This prospective, nonrandomized placebo controlled study aimed at investigating the effect of autologous cord blood mononuclear cells (ACBMNC) for preventing preterm associated complications. Preterm infants less than 35 weeks gestational age were assigned to receive ACBMNC (5 × 107 cells/kg) intravenous or normal saline within 8 hours after birth. Preterm complication rates were compared between two groups to demonstrate the effect of ACBMNC infusion in reducing preterm complications. Fifteen preterm infants received ACBMNC infusion, and 16 infants were assigned to the control group. There were no significant differences when comparing mortality and preterm complication rates before discharge. However, ACBMNC infusion demonstrated significant decreases in duration of mechanical ventilation (3.2 days vs 6.41 days, P = .028) and oxygen therapy (5.33 days vs 11.31 days, P = .047). ACBMNC infusion was effective in reducing respiratory support duration in very preterm infants. Due to the limited number of patients enrolled, powered randomized controlled trials are needed to better define its efficacy.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5013, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676774

RESUMO

For atomically thin two-dimensional materials, interfacial effects may dominate the entire response of devices, because most of the atoms are in the interface/surface. Graphene/sapphire has great application in electronic devices and semiconductor thin-film growth, but the nature of this interface is largely unknown. Here we find that the sapphire surface has a strong interaction with some of the carbon atoms in graphene to form a C-O-Al configuration, indicating that the interface interaction is no longer a simple van der Waals interaction. In addition, the structural relaxation of sapphire near the interface is significantly suppressed and very different from that of a bare sapphire surface. Such an interfacial C-O-Al bond is formed during graphene growth at high temperature. Our study provides valuable insights into understanding the electronic structures of graphene on sapphire and remote control of epitaxy growth of thin films by using a graphene-sapphire substrate.

3.
Small ; : e1902844, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490630

RESUMO

Bilayer or few-layer 2D materials showing novel electrical properties in electronic device applications have aroused increasing interest in recent years. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of interlayer contact conductance still remains a challenge, but is significant for improving the performance of bilayer or few-layer 2D electronic devices. Here, conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM) experiments are reported to explore the interlayer contact conductance between bilayer graphene (BLG) with various twisted stacking structures fabricated by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The current maps show that the interlayer contact conductance between BLG strongly depends on the twist angle. The interlayer contact conductance of 0° AB-stacking bilayer graphene (AB-BLG) is ≈4 times as large as that of 30° twisted bilayer graphene (t-BLG), which indicates that the twist angle-dependent interlayer contact conductance originates from the coupling-decoupling transitions. Moreover, the moiré superlattice-level current images of t-BLG show modulations of local interlayer contact conductance. Density functional theory calculations together with a theoretical model reproduce the C-AFM current map and show that the modulation is mainly attributed to the overall contribution of local interfacial carrier density and tunneling barrier.

4.
Adv Mater ; 31(43): e1902978, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502709

RESUMO

Contamination is a major concern in surface and interface technologies. Given that graphene is a 2D monolayer material with an extremely large surface area, surface contamination may seriously degrade its intrinsic properties and strongly hinder its applicability in surface and interfacial regions. However, large-scale and facile treatment methods for producing clean graphene films that preserve its excellent properties have not yet been achieved. Herein, an efficient postgrowth treatment method for selectively removing surface contamination to achieve a large-area superclean graphene surface is reported. The as-obtained superclean graphene, with surface cleanness exceeding 99%, can be transferred to dielectric substrates with significantly reduced polymer residues, yielding ultrahigh carrier mobility of 500 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and low contact resistance of 118 Ω µm. The successful removal of contamination is enabled by the strong adhesive force of the activated-carbon-based lint roller on graphene contaminants.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(22): 20249-20256, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083968

RESUMO

It was previously proved that the existence of a large amount of hydrogen ions in water-based lubricants can easily lead to a superlubric state; however, it was also shown that these hydrogen ions could cause severe corrosion. As part of a large family of attractive clays, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) possess excellent tribological properties in water-based lubrication systems. In the present work, two different kinds of LDHs are dispersed in polyalkylene glycol (PAG) aqueous solutions, in two distinct forms: ultrathin nanosheets (ULDH-NS) of ca. 60 nm wide and ca. 1 nm thick (single or double layer) and nanoparticles (LDH-NP) of ca. 19.73 nm wide and ca. 8.68 nm thick. We find that the addition of ULDH-NS greatly shortens (as much as 85%) the running-in period prior to reaching the superlubricity regime and increases the ultimate load-bearing capacity by about four times. As compared to the fluid film thickness of the lubricating PAG solution, their ultrathin longitudinal dimension will not impair or influence the fluid film coverage in the contact zone. The analysis of sliding solid surfaces and the atomic force microscope microscale friction test demonstrate that the adsorption of ULDH-NS enables the sliding solid surfaces to be polished and protected because of their relatively weak interlayer interaction and increased adhesion effect. Owing to their superior tribological properties as lubricant additives, ultrathin LDH nanosheets hold great potential for enabling liquid superlubricity in industrial applications in the future.

6.
Nano Lett ; 19(6): 3654-3662, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088050

RESUMO

Contacting interfaces with physical isolation and weak interactions usually act as barriers for electrical conduction. The electrical contact conductance across interfaces has long been correlated with the true contact area or the "contact quantity". Much of the physical understanding of the interfacial electrical contact quality was primarily based on Landauer's theory or Richardson formulation. However, a quantitative model directly connecting contact conductance to interfacial atomistic structures still remains absent. Here, we measure the atomic-scale local electrical contact conductance instead of local electronic surface states in graphene/Ru(0001) superstructure, via atomically resolved conductive atomic force microscopy. By defining the "quality" of individual atom-atom contact as the carrier tunneling probability along the interatomic electron transport pathways, we establish a relationship between the atomic-scale contact quality and local interfacial atomistic structure. This real-space model unravels the atomic-level spatial modulation of contact conductance, and the twist angle-dependent interlayer conductance between misoriented graphene layers.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1512, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944322

RESUMO

Natural vascular plants leaves rely on differences in osmotic pressure, transpiration and guttation to produce tons of clean water, powered by sunlight. Inspired by this, we report a sunlight-driven purifier for high-efficiency water purification and production. This sunlight-driven purifier is characterized by a negative temperature response poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel (PN) anchored onto a superhydrophilic melamine foam skeleton, and a layer of PNIPAm modified graphene (PG) filter membrane coated outside. Molecular dynamics simulation and experimental results show that the superhydrophilicity of the relatively rigid melamine skeleton significantly accelerates the swelling/deswelling rate of the PNPG-F purifier. Under one sun, this rational engineered structure offers a collection of 4.2 kg m-2 h-1 and an ionic rejection of > 99% for a single PNPG-F from brine feed via the cooperation of transpiration and guttation. We envision that such a high-efficiency sunlight driven system could have great potential applications in diverse water treatments.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(5): 2540-2546, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656314

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which possess outstanding optical and electrical properties, are promising semiconductor materials that have attracted significant interest in widespread applications. The frictional behavior of 2D perovskite materials with other transparent conductive materials, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), offers promising developments in optoelectronic devices. Therefore, the understanding of this frictional behavior is essential. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is employed here to measure the frictional behavior between the (001) plane of the 2D organic-inorganic hybrid (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 perovskite and the (111) plane of the ITO. The experimental analyses characterizing the nature of the friction in a single-crystalline heterojunction are reported. Based on the results of the analyses of interfaces between 2D monolayer perovskites and ITO, a strong anisotropy of friction is clearly demonstrated. The anisotropy of friction is observed as a four-fold symmetry with low a frictional coefficient, 0.035, in misaligned contacts, and, 0.015, in aligned contacts in the heterojunction configuration. In addition, atomistic simulations reveal underlying frictional mechanisms in the dynamical regimes. A new phenomenon discovered in the studies establishes that the measured frictional anisotropy surprisingly depends on the number of atomic layers in the 2D perovskite. The frictional anisotropy decreases significantly with the increase in the number of layers up to 16 layers, and then it becomes independent of the thickness. Our results are predicted to be of a general nature and should be applicable to other 2D hybrid perovskite heterojunction configurations, and thus, furthers the development of adaptive and stretchable optoelectronic nanodevices.

9.
Nanoscale ; 11(2): 485-494, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543248

RESUMO

Defect/active site control is crucial for tuning the chemical, optical, and electronic properties of MoS2, which can adjust the performance of MoS2 in application areas such as electronics, optics, catalysis, and molecular sensing. This study presents an effective method of inducing defect/active sites, including micro/nanofractured structures and S atomic vacancies, on monolayer MoS2 flakes by using femtosecond laser pulses, through which physical-chemical adsorption and charge transfer between foreign molecules (O2 or R6G molecules) and MoS2 are enhanced. The enhanced charge transfer between foreign molecules (O2 or R6G) and femtosecond laser-treated MoS2 can enhance the electronic doping effect between them, hence resulting in a photoluminescence photon energy shift (reaching 0.05 eV) of MoS2 and Raman enhancement (reaching 6.4 times) on MoS2 flakes for R6G molecule detection. Finally, photoluminescence control and micropatterns on MoS2 and surface-enhanced-Raman-scattering (SERS) enhancement of MoS2 for organic molecule detection are achieved. The proposed method, which can control the photoluminescence properties and arbitrary micropatterns on MoS2 and enhance its chemicobiological sensing performance for organic/biological molecules, has advantages of simplicity, maskless processing, strong controllability, high precision, and high flexibility, highlighting the superior ability of femtosecond laser pulses to achieve the property control and functionalization of two-dimensional materials.

10.
Nano Lett ; 18(9): 6030-6036, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165022

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have seen a broad range of applications in electronic and optoelectronic applications; however, full realization of this potential hitherto largely hinges on the quality and performance of the electrical contacts formed between 2D materials and their surrounding metals/semiconductors. Despite the progress in revealing the charge injecting mechanisms and enhancing electrical conductance using various interfacial treatments, how the microstructure of contact interfaces affects local electrical conductivity is still very limited. Here, using conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM), for the first time, we directly confirm the conjecture that the electrical conductivity of physisorbed 2D material-metal/semiconductor interfaces is determined by the local electronic charge transfer. Using lattice-resolved conductivity mapping and first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the electronic charge transfer, thereby electrical conductivity, can be fine-tuned by the topological defects of 2D materials and the atomic stacking with respect to the substrate. Our finding provides a novel route to engineer the electrical contact properties by exploiting fine atomic interactions; in the meantime, it also suggests a convenient and nondestructive means of probing subtle interactions along 2D heterogeneous interfaces.

11.
ACS Nano ; 12(8): 7638-7646, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060665

RESUMO

Interlayer friction between the atomic planes of 2D materials and heterostructures is a promising probe of the physics in their interlayer couplings and superlubricity. However, it is still challenging to measure the interlayer friction between well-defined 2D layers. We propose an approach of thermally assisted mechanical exfoliation and transfer to fabricate various 2D flake-wrapped atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips and to directly measure the interlayer friction between 2D flakes in single-crystalline contact. First, superlubricity between different 2D flakes and layered bulk materials is achieved with a friction coefficient as low as 10-4. The rotation angle dependence of superlubricity is observed for friction between graphite layers, whereas it is not observed between graphite and h-BN because of the incommensurate contact of the mismatched lattices. Second, the interlayer lateral force map between ReS2 layers is measured with atomic resolution, showing hexagonal patterns, as further verified by theoretical simulations. The tribological system constructed here offers an experimental platform to study interlayer couplings and friction between 2D flakes and layered bulk materials.

12.
Nanoscale ; 10(22): 10576-10583, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808195

RESUMO

The moiré superlattice formed between graphene and a transition metal substrate is capable of tuning the frictional properties of graphene. For instance, a moiré superlattice scale modulation on the lateral force will be experienced by the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). However, the origin of this long-range force modulation still needs to be clarified. In this study, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out to investigate the indentation processes of a one-Ar-atom tip and a 10-atom Ir tip, sliding on graphene/Re(0001) and graphene/Pt(111) moiré superlattices, respectively. The calculation results indicate that the interfacial interaction between graphene and a transition metal substrate determines the morphological corrugation of graphene and the characteristics of the lateral force modulation. Moreover, when the tip-graphene interaction is strong enough, it will influence the evolutions of the adsorption energy Ead and tip sliding trajectory. Thus, the moiré superlattice scale lateral force modulation of graphene on a transition metal substrate originates from the joint effects of the graphene-substrate interfacial interaction and tip-graphene interaction.

13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1542, 2018 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670215

RESUMO

Topographic nanomanufacturing with a depth precision down to atomic dimension is of importance for advancement of nanoelectronics with new functionalities. Here we demonstrate a mask-less and chemical-free nanolithography process for regio-specific removal of atomic layers on a single crystalline silicon surface via shear-induced mechanochemical reactions. Since chemical reactions involve only the topmost atomic layer exposed at the interface, the removal of a single atomic layer is possible and the crystalline lattice beneath the processed area remains intact without subsurface structural damages. Molecular dynamics simulations depict the atom-by-atom removal process, where the first atomic layer is removed preferentially through the formation and dissociation of interfacial bridge bonds. Based on the parametric thresholds needed for single atomic layer removal, the critical energy barrier for water-assisted mechanochemical dissociation of Si-Si bonds was determined. The mechanochemical nanolithography method demonstrated here could be extended to nanofabrication of other crystalline materials.

14.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(5)2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702560

RESUMO

MoS2 nanosheets can be used as solid lubricants or additives of lubricating oils to reduce friction and resist wear. However, the atomic scale mechanism still needs to be illustrated. Herein, molecular simulations on the indentation and scratching process of MoS2 monolayer supported by Pt(111) surface were conducted to study the anti-pressure and friction reduction mechanisms of the MoS2 monolayer. Three deformation stages of Pt-supported MoS2 monolayer were found during the indentation process: elastic deformation, plastic deformation and finally, complete rupture. The MoS2 monolayer showed an excellent friction reduction effect at the first two stages, as a result of enhanced load bearing capacity and reduced deformation degree of the substrate. Unlike graphene, rupture of the Pt-supported MoS2 monolayer was related primarily to out-of-plane compression of the monolayer. These results provide a new insight into the relationship between the mechanical properties and lubrication properties of 2D materials.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(1): 192-197, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127743

RESUMO

To achieve sustainable production of hydrogen (H2 ) through water splitting, establishing efficient and earth-abundant electrocatalysts is of great necessity. Morphology engineering of graphene is now shown to modulate the electronic structure of carbon skeleton and in turn endow it with excellent ability of proton reduction. Three-dimensional (3D) graphene networks with a high density of sharp edge sites are synthesized. Electrocatalytic measurements indicate that the obtained 3D graphene networks can electrocatalyze H2 evolution with an extremely low onset potential of about 18 mV in 0.5 m H2 SO4 solution, together with good stability. A combination of control experiments and density functional theory (DFT) investigations indicates that the exceptional H2 evolution performance is attributed to the abundant sharp edge sites of the advanced frameworks, which are responsible for promoting the adsorption and reduction of protons.

16.
Front Neurol ; 8: 524, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29075232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different types of medications are currently used in vestibular migraine (VM) prophylaxis, although recommendations for use are generally based on expert opinion rather than on solid data from randomized trials. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of venlafaxine, flunarizine, and valproic acid in a randomized comparison trial for VM prophylaxis. METHODS: Subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups (venlafaxine group, flunarizine group, and valproic acid group). To assess the efficacy of treatment on vertigo symptoms, the following parameters were assessed at baseline and 3 months after treatment: Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) scores, number of vertiginous attacks in the previous month, and Vertigo Severity Score (VSS). Adverse events also were evaluated. RESULTS: A decrease in DHI total scores was shown following treatment with all three medications, with no obvious differences between the groups. Treatment effects differed, however, in the DHI physical, functional, and emotional domains with only venlafaxine showing a decreased effect in all of three domains. Flunarizine and valproic acid showed an effect in only one DHI domain. Venlafaxine and flunarizine showed decreased VSS scores (p = 0 and p = 0.03, respectively). Although valproic acid had no obvious effect on VSS (p = 0.27), decreased vertigo attack frequency was observed in this group (p = 0). Venlafaxine also had an effect on vertigo attack frequency (p = 0), but flunarizine had no obvious effect (p = 0.06). No serious adverse events were reported in the three groups. CONCLUSION: Our data confirm the efficacy and safety of venlafaxine, flunarizine, and valproic acid in the prophylaxis of VM, venlafaxine had an advantage in terms of emotional domains. Venlafaxine and valproic acid also were shown to be preferable to flunarizine in decreasing the number of vertiginous attacks, but valproic acid was shown to be less effective than venlafaxine and flunarizine to decrease vertigo severity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-OPC-17011266 (http://www.chictr.org.cn/).

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(46): 40959-40968, 2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083163

RESUMO

Nanoscale wear is one of the key factors hindering the performance and lifetime of micro- and nanosystems, such as the scanning tip wear in atomic force microscopy (AFM), the head-disk interface in magnetic storage system, and the moving components in micro- or nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS). Here, we propose to construct the graphene/graphene interfacial architecture to suppress the nanoscale wear. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the atomic roughness of the sliding surfaces with either stepped or amorphous structure can lead to strong inhomogeneity of the local contact pressure distribution. By coating graphene on both sides of the frictional surfaces, the local contact pressure fluctuations due to the atomic roughness are suppressed. Moreover, this trend is more evident with the increasing layer number of the graphene coating. Furthermore, the nanoscratching simulation suggests that the rupture of graphene is driven by the inhomogeneous pressure distribution-induced lateral atomic interlocking between the rough tip and substrate and the consequent in-plane lattice deformation and C-C bond breaking during sliding. By coating graphene on the rough amorphous carbon tip, the critical normal load for wear failure of graphene is significantly increased, due to the weakening effect of the atomic interlocking by improving the contact conditions with atomically smooth graphene/graphene sliding interface. This investigation reveals a strategy for reducing nanowear by suppressing the local contact pressure fluctuations via graphene/graphene sliding interface architecture, which provides a theoretical guidance for designing wear-resistant coatings for the longevity of AFM probes and MEMS/NEMS systems.

18.
Nanoscale ; 9(30): 10846-10853, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726941

RESUMO

Graphene and other two-dimensional materials have been proved to be able to offer low friction. Here we assembled van der Waals heterostructures with graphene and molybdenum disulphide monolayers. The Raman spectrum together with a modified linear chain model indicate a two-orders-of-magnitude decrease in the interlayer lateral force constant, as compared with their homogeneous bilayers, indicating a possible routine to achieve superlubricity. The decrease in the interlayer lateral force constant is consistent with the ultrasmall potential energy corrugation during sliding, which is derived from density functional theory calculations. The potential energy corrugation is found to be determined by the sliding-induced interfacial charge density fluctuation, suggesting a new perspective to understand the physical origin of the atomic scale friction of two-dimensional materials.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(8): 7447-7455, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28156099

RESUMO

Edge-active site control of MoS2 is crucial for applications such as chemical catalysis, synthesis of functional composites, and biochemical sensing. This work presents a novel nonthermal method to simultaneously tune surface chemical (edge-active sites) and physical (surface periodic micro/nano structures) properties of MoS2 using temporally shaped femtosecond pulses, through which shape-controlled gold nanoparticles are in situ and self-assembly grown on MoS2 surfaces to form Au-MoS2 hybrids. The edge-active sites with unbound sulfurs of laser-treated MoS2 drive the reduction of gold nanoparticles, while the surface periodic structures of laser-treated MoS2 assist the shape-controllable growth of gold nanoparticles. The proposed novel method highlights the broad application potential of MoS2; for example, these Au-MoS2 hybrids exhibit tunable and highly sensitive SERS activity with an enhancement factor up to 1.2 × 107, indicating the marked potential of MoS2 in future chemical and biological sensing applications.

20.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14029, 2017 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28195130

RESUMO

Superlubricity of graphite and graphene has aroused increasing interest in recent years. Yet how to obtain a long-lasting superlubricity between graphene layers, under high applied normal load in ambient atmosphere still remains a challenge but is highly desirable. Here, we report a direct measurement of sliding friction between graphene and graphene, and graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) under high contact pressures by employing graphene-coated microsphere (GMS) probe prepared by metal-catalyst-free chemical vapour deposition. The exceptionally low and robust friction coefficient of 0.003 is accomplished under local asperity contact pressure up to 1 GPa, at arbitrary relative surface rotation angles, which is insensitive to relative humidity up to 51% RH. This ultralow friction is attributed to the sustainable overall incommensurability due to the multi-asperity contact covered with randomly oriented graphene nanograins. This realization of microscale superlubricity can be extended to the sliding between a variety of two-dimensional (2D) layers.

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