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1.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 28, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that prone positioning (PP) can increase PaO2/FiO2 and reduce mortality in moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of our study was to determine whether the early use of PP combined with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) or high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) can avoid the need for intubation in moderate to severe ARDS patients. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study was performed in two teaching hospitals. Non-intubated moderate to severe ARDS patients were included and were placed in PP with NIV or with HFNC. The efficacy in improving oxygenation with four support methods-HFNC, HFNC+PP, NIV, NIV+PP-were evaluated by blood gas analysis. The primary outcome was the rate of intubation. RESULTS: Between January 2018 and April 2019, 20 ARDS patients were enrolled. The main causes of ARDS were pneumonia due to influenza (9 cases, 45%) and other viruses (2 cases, 10%). Ten cases were moderate ARDS and 10 cases were severe. Eleven patients avoided intubation (success group), and 9 patients were intubated (failure group). All 7 patients with a PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg on NIV required intubation. PaO2/FiO2 in HFNC+PP were significantly higher in the success group than in the failure group (125 ± 41 mmHg vs 119 ± 19 mmHg, P = 0.043). PaO2/FiO2 demonstrated an upward trend in patients with all four support strategies: HFNC < HFNC+PP ≤ NIV < NIV+PP. The average duration for PP was 2 h twice daily. CONCLUSIONS: Early application of PP with HFNC, especially in patients with moderate ARDS and baseline SpO2 > 95%, may help avoid intubation. The PP was well tolerated, and the efficacy on PaO2/FiO2 of the four support strategies was HFNC < HFNC+PP ≤ NIV < NIV+PP. Severe ARDS patients were not appropriate candidates for HFNC/NIV+PP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR, ChiCTR1900023564. Registered 1 June 2019 (retrospectively registered).

2.
iScience ; 20: 195-204, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581068

RESUMO

As one of the most promising semiconductor oxide materials, titanium dioxide (TiO2) absorbs UV light but not visible light. To address this limitation, the introduction of Ti3+ defects represents a common strategy to render TiO2 visible-light responsive. Unfortunately, current hurdles in Ti3+ generation technologies impeded the widespread application of Ti3+ modified materials. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and mechanistically distinct approach to generating abundant surface-Ti3+ sites without leaving behind oxygen vacancy and sacrificing one-off electron donors. In particular, upon adsorption of organodiboron reagents onto TiO2 nanoparticles, spontaneous electron injection from the diboron-bound O2- site to adjacent Ti4+ site leads to an extremely stable blue surface Ti3+‒O-· complex. Notably, this defect generation protocol is also applicable to other semiconductor oxides including ZnO, SnO2, Nb2O5, and In2O3. Furthermore, the as-prepared photoelectronic device using this strategy affords 103-fold higher visible light response and the fabricated perovskite solar cell shows an enhanced performance.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(11): 6426-6437, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697970

RESUMO

Six naturally occurring minerals were employed to catalyze the hydrolysis of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in water. After preliminary screening experiments, siderite stood out among these minerals due to its higher activity and selectivity. In comparison with kaolinite, which is known to act as a Lewis acid catalyst, siderite was found to act primarily as a Brönsted acid catalyst in the hydrolysis of MC-LR. More interestingly, we found that the presence of humic acid significantly inhibited catalytic efficiency of kaolinite, while the efficiency of siderite remained high (∼98%). Reaction intermediates detected by LC-ESI/MS were used to indicate cleavage points in the macrocyclic ring of MC-LR, and XPS was used to characterize siderite interaction with MC-LR. Detailed analysis of the in situ ATR-FTIR absorption spectra of MC-LR indicated hydrogen bonding at the siderite-water-MC-LR interface. A metastable ring, involving hydrogen bonding, between surface bicarbonate of siderite and an amide of MC-LR was proposed to explain the higher activity and selectivity toward MC-LR. Furthermore, siderite was found to reduce the toxicity of MC-LR to mice by hydrolyzing MC-LR peptide bonds. The study demonstrates the potential of siderite, an earth-abundant and biocompatible mineral, for removing MC-LR from water.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Animais , Carbonatos , Catálise , Compostos Férricos , Hidrólise , Camundongos , Microcistinas , Oxirredução
4.
Chem Asian J ; 12(16): 2048-2051, 2017 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544566

RESUMO

In aqueous TiO2 photocatalytic hydroxylation of weakly polar aromatics, a series of inverse H/D KIEs of 0.7-0.8 were observed, which is different than the normal H/D kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) usually observed for polar aromatics. This result indicated that the oxidation started by photo-induced hvb+ can be the rate-determining step.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(5): 2083-2089, 2017 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088853

RESUMO

TiO2-based dye-sensitization cycle is one of the basic strategies for the development of solar energy applications. Although the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of dye-sensitized devices has been improved through constant attempts, the intrinsically fatal factor that leads to the complete failure of the PCE of TiO2-mediated dye-sensitized devices has not yet been determined. Here, by using isotopically labeled MAS-1H NMR, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy (separate H/D and 48Ti/49Ti experiments), and ESR, we revealed that the accumulative formation of Ti-H species on the TiO2 surface is the intrinsic cause of the PCE failure of TiO2-based dye-sensitization devices. Such a Ti-H species is generated from the reduction of hydrogen ions (mostly released from dye carboxyl groups or organic electrolyte) accompanied by electron injection on the surface of TiO2, which deteriorates the PCE mainly by reducing the electrical conductivity of the TiO2 (by a maximum of ∼80%) and the hydrophilic nature of the TiO2 surface (contact angle increased).

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 53(4): 787-790, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28000814

RESUMO

It is widely believed that anatase TiO2 {001} and {101} surfaces acts as the oxidative and reductive sites in photocatalytic reactions, respectively, which is attributed to their different intrinsic surface structures. However, we demonstrate that the photocatalytic redox preferences of TiO2 {001} and {101} surfaces are determined by the adsorbate-reconstructed surface structure instead of their intrinsic surface structures, which can be modulated by surface protonation/deprotonation.

7.
Chem Asian J ; 11(24): 3568-3574, 2016 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27759949

RESUMO

HO-adduct radicals have been investigated and confirmed as the common initial intermediates in TiO2 photocatalysis and Fenton degradations of water-insoluble aromatics. However, the evolution of HO-adduct radicals to phenols has not been completely clarified. When 4-d-toluene and p-xylene were degraded by TiO2 photocatalysis and Fenton reactions, respectively, a portion of the 4-deuterium or 4-CH3 group (18-100 %) at the attacked ipso position shifted to the adjacent position of the ring in the formed phenols (NIH shift; NIH is short for the National Institutes of Health, to honor the place where this phenomenon was first discovered). The results, combined with the observation of a key dienyl cationic intermediate by in situ attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, indicate that, for the evolution of HO-adduct radicals, a mixed mechanism of both the carbocation intermediate pathway and O2 -capturing pathway occurs in both aqueous TiO2 photocatalysis and aqueous Fenton reactions.

8.
Molecules ; 21(7)2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27376262

RESUMO

As one of the most promising materials for solar water oxidation, hematite has attracted intense research interest for four decades. Despite their desirable optical band gap, stability and other attractive features, there are great challenges for the implementation of hematite-based photoelectrochemical cells. In particular, the extremely low electron mobility leads to severe energy loss by electron hole recombination. Elemental doping, i.e., replacing lattice iron with foreign atoms, has been shown to be a practical solution. Here we review the significant progresses in metal and non-metal element doping-promoted hematite solar water oxidation, focusing on the role of dopants in adjusting carrier density, charge collection efficiency and surface water oxidation kinetics. The advantages and salient features of the different doping categories are compared and discussed.


Assuntos
Eletrodos , Compostos Férricos/química , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos , Luz Solar , Água/química , Eletroquímica , Fotoquímica
9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(8): 2705-11, 2016 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26859244

RESUMO

Hematite is a promising material for solar water splitting; however, high efficiency remains elusive because of the kinetic limitations of interfacial charge transfer. Here, we demonstrate the pivotal role of proton transfer in water oxidation on hematite photoanodes using photoelectrochemical (PEC) characterization, the H/D kinetic isotope effect (KIE), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We observed a concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) characteristic for the rate-determining interfacial hole transfer, where electron transfer (ET) from molecular water to a surface-trapped hole was accompanied by proton transfer (PT) to a solvent water molecule, demonstrating a substantial KIE (∼3.5). The temperature dependency of KIE revealed a highly flexible proton transfer channel along the hydrogen bond at the hematite/electrolyte interface. A mechanistic transition in the rate-determining step from CPET to ET occurred after OH(-) became the dominant hole acceptor. We further modified the proton-electron transfer sequence with appropriate proton acceptors (buffer bases) and achieved a greater than 4-fold increase in the PEC water oxidation efficiency on a hematite photoanode.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(20): 5905-9, 2015 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25809908

RESUMO

The hole-driving oxidation of titanium-coordinated water molecules on the surface of TiO2 is both thermodynamically and kinetically unfavorable. By avoiding the direct coordinative adsorption of water molecules to the surface Ti sites, the water can be activated to realize its oxidation. When TiO2 surface is covered by the H-bonding acceptor F, the first-layer water adsorption mode is switched from Ti coordination to a dual H-bonding adsorption on adjacent surface F sites. Detailed in situ IR spectroscopy and isotope-labeling studies reveal that the adsorbed water molecules by dual H-bonding can be oxidized to O2 even in the absence of any electron scavengers. Combined with theoretical calculations, it is proposed that the formation of the dual H-bonding structure can not only enable the hole transfer to the water molecules thermodynamically, but also facilitate kinetically the cleavage of O-H bonds by proton-coupled electron transfer process during water oxidation.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(5): 3024-31, 2015 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25648875

RESUMO

Aldehyde pollution has been receiving increasing environmental concern recently. In this study, the photooxidation of aldehydes to carboxylates on the TiO2 surface was studied by an oxygen-isotope-labeling method. The solvent H2O was found to contribute much to the oxygen source of the formed carboxylate, which cannot be explained if the conventional O2-involved free radical chain reaction is the only mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidation of aldehydes. We also observed that, unlike in the TiO2 photocatalytic system, the aldehyde oxidation in homogeneous solutions initiated by single electron oxidant (•)OH and SO4(•-) radicals inserted a small O atom of H2O into the product acids. The detailed experiments, combined with DFT calculation, revealed the existence of a new pathway for the oxidation of aldehyde on TiO2, in which, analogous to oxidation of aldehyde by dehydrogenase, the aldehyde undergoes a hydration first and subsequently is oxidized through a two-electron transfer process. The present study highlights the multielectron characteristic of TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation and can have implications for the oxidation of aldehyde in the environment.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/análise , Aldeídos/química , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Titânio/química , Água/química , Marcação por Isótopo , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos
12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(7): 2052-6, 2015 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25529248

RESUMO

An efficient redox reaction between organic substrates in solution and photoinduced h(+) vb /e(-) cb on the surface of photocatalysts requires the substrates or solvent to be adsorbed onto the surface, and is consequentially marked by a normal kinetic solvent isotope effect (KSIE ≥ 1). Reported herein is a universal inverse KSIE (0.6-0.8 at 298 K) for the reductive dehalogenation of aromatic halides which cannot adsorb onto TiO2 in a [D0 ]methanol/[D4 ]methanol solution. Combined with in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy investigations, a previously unknown pathway for the transformation of these aromatic halides in TiO2 photocatalysis was identified: a proton adduct intermediate, induced by released H(+) /D(+) from solvent oxidation, accompanies a change in hybridization from sp(2) to sp(3) at a carbon atom of the aromatic halides. The protonation event leads these aromatic halides to adsorb onto the TiO2 surface and an ET reaction to form dehalogenated products follows.

13.
Molecules ; 19(10): 16291-311, 2014 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25310153

RESUMO

During the last several decades TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation using the molecular oxygen in air has emerged as a promising method for the degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants and selective transformations of valuable organic chemicals. Despite extensive studies, the mechanisms of these photocatalytic reactions are still poorly understood due to their complexity. In this review, we will highlight how the oxygen-18 isotope labeling technique can be a powerful tool to elucidate complicated photocatalytic mechanisms taking place on the TiO2 surface. To this end, the application of the oxygen-18 isotopic-labeling method to three representative photocatalytic reactions is discussed: (1) the photocatalytic hydroxylation of aromatics; (2) oxidative cleavage of aryl rings on the TiO2 surface; and (3) photocatalytic decarboxylation of saturated carboxylic acids. The results show that the oxygen atoms of molecular oxygen can incorporate into the corresponding products in aqueous solution in all three of these reactions, but the detailed incorporation pathways are completely different in each case. For the hydroxylation process, the O atom in O2 is shown to be incorporated through activation of O2 by conduction band electrons. In the cleavage of aryl rings, O atoms are inserted into the aryl ring through the site-dependent coordination of reactants on the TiO2 surface. A new pathway for the decarboxylation of saturated carboxylic acids with pyruvic acid as an intermediate is identified, and the O2 is incorporated into the products through the further oxidation of pyruvic acid by active species from the activation of O2 by conduction band electrons.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Oxigênio/química , Fotoquímica , Titânio/química , Catálise , Descarboxilação , Hidrólise , Oxirredução , Propriedades de Superfície
14.
Chemistry ; 20(35): 11163-70, 2014 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25066816

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide with surface-loaded palladium (Pd-TiO2) was able to easily remove all ten bromine atoms from decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) within 1 h under the irradiation of sunlight or an artificial light source. By contrast, fewer than three bromine atoms were eliminated on the pristine TiO2 even with prolonged irradiation (5 h). During the photocatalytic debromination, moreover, the formed BDE intermediates exhibited a significant difference between the Pd-TiO2 and pristine TiO2 systems, and much less position selectivity for the debromination on Pd-TiO2 was observed than that on the pristine TiO2 surface. For another polybrominated diphenyl ether (BDE15), pristine TiO2 was incapable of its photocatalytic reduction, whereas the loading of Pd enabled its debromination to diphenyl ether within 20 min. In addition, an evident induction period appeared in the photocatalytic debromination of BDE15 on Pd-TiO2. The experiments imply that the Pd-cocatalyzed effect changes significantly the photocatalytic reductive debromination pathways.

15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(15): 12844-51, 2014 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25068504

RESUMO

Hematite has been receiving increasing attention for its application in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation but usually exhibits poor efficiency. We fabricated a stable gradient-structured FeOx(PO4)y layer on hematite by diffusively incorporating phosphate onto the surface layer of hematite films at a low temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profile and Fe K-edge grazing-incidence X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis demonstrated the formation of a ∼50 nm overlayer with a gradient phosphorus distribution and structural evolution from the outer surface to the depth. The as-prepared photoanodes showed highly improved PEC water oxidation performance. Up to 8.5-fold enhancement in the photocurrent density at 1.23 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode was achieved relative to the pristine anode. This strategy is applicable for hematite photoanodes prepared by different methods and with different morphologies and structures. The improvement in the water oxidation activity is mainly attributed to the enhanced separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, which is derived from the increased hole diffusion length in the gradient-structured overlayer. This work develops a simple and universal method to boost the PEC water oxidation efficiency with versatile hematite photoanodes.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(24): 8714-21, 2014 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24850419

RESUMO

The molecules O2 and H2O dominate the cleavage of aromatic sp(2) C-C bonds, a crucial step in the degradation of aromatic pollutants in aqueous TiO2 photocatalysis, but their precise roles in this process have remained elusive. This can be attributed to the complex oxidative species involved and to a lack of available models for reactions with a high yield of direct products. Here, we used oxygen-18 isotope labeled O2 and H2O to observe the aromatic ring-opening reaction of the model compound 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (DTBC), which was mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis in an aqueous acetonitrile solution. By analyzing the primary intermediate products (∼75% yield), especially the seven-membered ring anhydrides that were formed, we obtained direct evidence for the oxygen atom of dioxygen insertion into a C-C bond of the aromatic ring. This indicates that molecular oxygen is the ultimate ring-opening agent in TiO2 photocatalysis and that it undergoes single O atom incorporation rather than the previously proposed molecular oxygen 1,2-addition processes. The ratio of intradiol to extradiol products depends on the particle size of TiO2 catalysts used, which suggests that the O2 activation is correlated with the available coordination sites on the TiO2 surface in the photocatalytic cleavage of the aromatic ring.

17.
Chemistry ; 20(21): 6277-82, 2014 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24764202

RESUMO

Epoxidation of olefins with H2O2 is one of the most important reactions in organic synthesis. We found that anatase TiO2 can be a good catalyst for the epoxidation of cyclooctene with H2O2 at room temperature. However, the catalyst deactivated quickly in the presence of excess amount of H2O2 because of the formation of inactive side-on Ti-η(2)-peroxide species on the surface of TiO2, the presence of which was confirmed by isotope-labelled resonance UV Raman spectroscopy and kinetics studies. Interestingly, the epoxidation reaction could be dramatically accelerated under irradiation of UV light with λ≥350 nm. This phenomenon is attributed to the photo-assisted removal of the inactive peroxide species, through which the active sites on the surface of anatase TiO2 are regenerated and the catalytic epoxidation of cyclooctene with H2O2 is resumed. This finding provides an alternative for sustained epoxidation reactions on TiO2 at room temperature. Moreover, it also has significant implications on the deactivation pathway and possible solutions in Ti-based heterogeneous catalysis or photocatalysis.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 16(14): 6550-4, 2014 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24584573

RESUMO

Pt/TiO2 sensitized by the cheap and organic ortho-dihydroxyl-9,10-anthraquinone dyes, such as Alizarin and Alizarin Red, achieved a TON of approximately 10 000 (TOF > 250 h(-1) for the first ten hours) during >80 hours of visible light irradiation (>420 nm) for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution when triethanolamine was used as the sacrificial donor. The stability and activity enhancements can be attributed to the two highly serviceable redox reactions involving the 9,10-dicarbonyl and ortho-dihydroxyl groups of the anthracene ring, respectively.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(6): 4160-9, 2014 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24564368

RESUMO

The fabrication of microstructures/nanostructures of a uniform yet well-defined morphology has attracted broad interest from a variety of fields of advanced functional materials, especially catalysts. Most of the conventional methods generally suffer from harsh synthesis conditions, requirement of bulky apparatus, or incapability of scalable production, etc. To meet these formidable challenges, it is strongly desired to develop a facile, cost-effective, scalable method to fulfill a morphology purification. By a precipitation reaction between AgNO3 and KI, we report that irregular AgI structures, or their mixture with towerlike AgI architectures could be fabricated. Compared to the former, the mixed structures exhibit enhanced catalytic reactivity toward the photodegradation of Methyl Orange pollutant. However, its catalytic durability, which is one of the most crucial criteria that are required by superior catalysts, is poor. We further show that the irregular structures could be facilely removed from the mixture via a KI-assisted chemical dissolution, producing AgI of a uniform towerlike morphology. Excitingly, after such simple morphology purification, our towerlike AgI displays not only a boosted catalytic durability but also an enhanced catalytic reactivity. Our chemical dissolution-based morphology purification protocol might be extended to other systems, wherein high-quality advanced functional materials of desired properties might be developed.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(18): 2344-6, 2014 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24448585

RESUMO

An iron(iii)-mediated photocatalytic method for the conversion of aryl, heteroaryl and polycyclic aromatic bromides to the corresponding chlorides with high selectivity has been achieved successfully. The mild reaction conditions and high chloride utilization efficiency promise a bright future for chlorination reactions.

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