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1.
Dev Sci ; : e12927, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793739

RESUMO

Mandarin requires neither determiners nor morphological inflections, which casts doubt on Mandarin-speaking children's ability to use function words as a syntactic bootstrapping tool to identify the form class of a new word. This study examined 3- and 5-year-old Mandarin learners' ability to use function words to interpret new words as either nouns or verbs in the absence of the requirement for determiners and inflections in the ambient language. In Experiment 1, 3-, and 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children were exposed to eight novel words embedded in sentence frames differing only in the form class markers used. The 5-year-olds interpreted the novel words as either nouns or verbs depending on the form class markers they heard, while the 3-year-olds learned only the nouns. Experiment 2 confirmed that the 5-year-olds understood the function of the verb-marker. Thus, Mandarin-speaking children can use function words to distinguish nouns versus verbs, and this ability appears between three and five years of age.

2.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 1747021819888982, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686600

RESUMO

Two separate lines of research have examined the influence of song and infant-directed speech (IDS-a speech register that includes some melodic features) on language learning, suggesting that the use of musical attributes in speech input can enhance language learning. However, the benefits of these two types of stimuli have never been directly compared. In this investigation, we compared the effects of song and IDS for immediate word learning and long-term memory of the learned words. This study examines whether the highly musical stimuli (i.e., song) would facilitate language learning more than the less musical stimuli (i.e., IDS). English-speaking adults were administered a word learning task, with Mandarin Chinese words presented in adult-directed speech (ADS), IDS, or song. Participants' word learning performance was assessed immediately after the word learning task (immediate word learning) and then 1 day later (long-term memory). Results showed that both song and IDS facilitated immediate word learning and long-term memory of the words; however, this facilitative effect did not differ between IDS and song, suggesting that the relationship between the degree of musicality and language learning performance is not linear. In addition, song and IDS were found to facilitate the word association process (mapping a label to its referent) rather than the word recognition process. Finally, participants' confidence in their answers might not differ among ADS, IDS, and sung words.

3.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057383

RESUMO

This study examines whether a decrease in brain development is observable after players have reduced their video gaming time over a period of 1 year. Both video gaming experts and non-experts were recruited, whose resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Immediately after the first scan, the participants were instructed to spend no more than 3 h on video gaming weekly for 1 year. The results showed decreased self-reported video gaming skills and decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) in the experts at the end of the study, demonstrating that a reduction in video gaming time over a period of 1 year produced a decrease in brain development. The non-experts served as a control group and had no significant changes. The findings support the adaptive effect of video gaming experience on brain and cognitive development.

4.
Neuropsychologia ; 131: 42-52, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100346

RESUMO

Action Real-time Strategy Gaming (ARSG) is a cognitively demanding task that requires attention, sensorimotor skills, high-level team coordination, and strategy-making abilities. Thus, ARSG can offer important, new insights into learning-related neural plasticity. However, little research has examined how the brain allocates cognitive resources in ARSG. By analyzing power spectrums and electroencephalograph (EEG) functional connectivity (FC) networks, this study compared multiple conditions (resting, movie watching, ARSG, and Life simulation gaming - LSG) in two experiments. Consistent with previous research, we found that brain waves appeared to be de-assimilated after activation. Furthermore, results showed that ARSG was associated with higher activation and workload as indicated by θ-waves, and required higher attention as reflected by ß-waves. Furthermore, as participants began ARSG, the allocation of cognitive resource gradually prioritized the frontal area, which controls attention, decision-making, monitoring, and mnemonic processing, while participants also showed an enhanced ability to process information under the ARSG condition as indicated by network characteristics. These electrophysiological changes observed in ARSG were not found under LSG. Thus, this study applied both power spectrum and EEG FC networks analyses to ARSG research, revealing characteristics of brain waves in typical areas and how the brain gradually changes from low-working load states to high-working load states based on real-time EEG recordings.

5.
Neural Plast ; 2019: 1940123, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804989

RESUMO

Electronic-sports (e-sports) is a form of organized, online, multiplayer video game competition, which requires both action skills and the ability and process of forming and adapting a strategy (referred to as strategization hereafter) to achieve goals. Over the past few decades, research has shown that video gaming experience has an important impact on the plasticity of the sensorimotor, attentional, and executive brain areas. However, little research has examined the relationship between e-sports experience and the plasticity of brain networks that are related to strategization. Using resting-state fMRI data and the local functional connectivity density (lFCD) analysis, this study investigated the relationship between e-sports experience (League of Legends [LOL] in this study) and brain plasticity by comparing between top-ranking LOL players and lower-ranking (yet experienced) LOL players. Results showed that the top-ranking LOL players had superior local functional integration in the executive areas compared to lower-ranking players. Furthermore, the top-ranking players had higher lFCD in the default mode areas, which have been found related to various subprocesses (e.g., memory and planning) essential for strategization. Finally, the top-ranking players' lFCD was related to their LOL expertise rank level, as indicated by a comprehensive score assigned by the gaming software based on players' gaming experience and expertise. Thus, the result showed that the local functional connectivity in central executive and default mode brain areas was enhanced in the top-ranking e-sports players, suggesting that e-sports experience is related to the plasticity of the central executive and default mode areas.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Esportes/fisiologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Vis Exp ; (140)2018 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346396

RESUMO

Sentence comprehension relies on the ability to rapidly integrate different types of linguistic and non-linguistic information. However, there is currently a paucity of research exploring how preschool children with autism understand sentences using different types of cues. The mechanisms underlying sentence comprehension remains largely unclear. The present study presents a protocol to examine the sentence comprehension abilities of preschool children with autism. More specifically, a visual world paradigm of eye-tracking is used to explore the moment-to-moment sentence comprehension in the children. The paradigm has multiple advantages. First, it is sensitive to the time course of sentence comprehension and thus can provide rich information about how sentence comprehension unfolds over time. Second, it requires minimal task and communication demands, so it is ideal for testing children with autism. To further minimize the computational burden of children, the present study measures eye movements that arise as automatic responses to linguistic input rather than measuring eye movements that accompany conscious responses to spoken instructions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares , Linguagem , Pré-Escolar , China , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção da Fala
7.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 47, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487514

RESUMO

A central issue in cognitive science is understanding how learning induces cognitive and neural plasticity, which helps illuminate the biological basis of learning. Research in the past few decades showed that action video gaming (AVG) offered new, important perspectives on learning-related cognitive and neural plasticity. However, it is still unclear whether cognitive and neural plasticity is observable after a brief AVG session. Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures, this study examined the plasticity of visual selective attention (VSA) associated with a 1 h AVG session. Both AVG experts and non-experts participated in this study. Their VSA was assessed prior to and after the AVG session. Within-group comparisons on the participants' performance before and after the AVG session showed improvements in response time in both groups and modulations of electrophysiological measures in the non-experts. Furthermore, between-group comparisons showed that the experts had superior VSA, relative to the non-experts, prior to the AVG session. These findings suggested an association between the plasticity of VSA and AVG. Most importantly, this study showed that the plasticity of VSA was observable after even a 1 h AVG session.

8.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 47(1): 241-260, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105015

RESUMO

The present study investigated whether and how fast young children can use information encoded in morphological markers during real-time event representation. Using the visual world paradigm, we tested 35 adults, 34 5-year-olds and 33 3-year-olds. The results showed that the adults, the 5-year-olds and the 3-year-olds all exhibited eye gaze patterns that reflected a rapid use of morphological cues during real-time event representation. There was no difference in the time course of the eye gaze patterns of the 5-year-olds and those of the adults, indicating that 5-year-old children already have adult-like processing abilities and they can use morphological cues as effectively as adults during real-time event representation. However, a 400 ms delay was observed in the eye gaze patterns by the 3-year-olds as compared to the 5-year-olds and the adults. We proposed that the observed difference might reflect a difference in the general cognitive processing abilities between the three age groups. Due to the immature cognitive processing abilities of 3-year-olds, it took longer for them to progress their eye movements to the target pictures as compared to older children and adults.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação
9.
Neural Plast ; 2017: 7543686, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706740

RESUMO

With action video games (AVGs) becoming increasingly popular worldwide, the cognitive benefits of AVG experience have attracted continuous research attention over the past two decades. Research has repeatedly shown that AVG experience can causally enhance cognitive ability and is related to neural plasticity in gray matter and functional networks in the brain. However, the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of white matter (WM) network still remains unclear. WM network modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinating the communication between brain regions and acting as the framework of neural networks. And various types of cognitive deficits are usually accompanied by impairments of WM networks. Thus, understanding this relation is essential in assessing the influence of AVG experience on neural plasticity and using AVG experience as an interventional tool for impairments of WM networks. Using graph theory, this study analyzed WM networks in AVG experts and amateurs. Results showed that AVG experience is related to altered WM networks in prefrontal networks, limbic system, and sensorimotor networks, which are related to cognitive control and sensorimotor functions. These results shed new light on the influence of AVG experience on the plasticity of WM networks and suggested the clinical applicability of AVG experience.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Substância Branca/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Jogos de Vídeo , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cognition ; 159: 139-155, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27951429

RESUMO

The majority of the world's languages rely on both segmental (vowels, consonants) and suprasegmental (lexical tones) information to contrast the meanings of individual words. However, research on early language development has mostly focused on the acquisition of vowel-consonant languages. Developmental research comparing sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental features in young tone learners is extremely rare. This study examined 2- and 3-year-old monolingual tone learners' sensitivity to vowels and tones. Experiment 1a tested the influence of vowel and tone variation on novel word learning. Vowel and tone variation hindered word recognition efficiency in both age groups. However, tone variation hindered word recognition accuracy only in 2-year-olds, while 3-year-olds were insensitive to tone variation. Experiment 1b demonstrated that 3-year-olds could use tones to learn new words when additional support was provided, and additionally, that Tone 3 words were exceptionally difficult to learn. Experiment 2 confirmed a similar pattern of results when children were presented with familiar words. This study is the first to show that despite the importance of tones in tone languages, vowels maintain primacy over tones in young children's word recognition and that tone sensitivity in word learning and recognition changes between 2 and 3years of age. The findings suggest that early lexical processes are more tightly constrained by variation in vowels than by tones.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Percepção da Fala , Estimulação Acústica , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Fonética , Nível de Percepção Sonora
11.
Neural Plast ; 2016: 9803165, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26885408

RESUMO

Action video games (AVGs) have attracted increasing research attention as they offer a unique perspective into the relation between active learning and neural plasticity. However, little research has examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of neural network mechanisms. It has been proposed that AVG experience is related to the integration between Salience Network (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN), which are responsible for attention and working memory, respectively, two cognitive functions essential for AVG playing. This study initiated a systematic investigation of this proposition by analyzing AVG experts' and amateurs' resting-state brain functions through graph theoretical analyses and functional connectivity. Results reveal enhanced intra- and internetwork functional integrations in AVG experts compared to amateurs. The findings support the possible relation between AVG experience and the neural network plasticity.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(47): 14563-8, 2015 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26553987

RESUMO

Emotional responses to biologically significant events are essential for human survival. Do human emotions lawfully track changes in the acoustic environment? Here we report that changes in acoustic attributes that are well known to interact with human emotions in speech and music also trigger systematic emotional responses when they occur in environmental sounds, including sounds of human actions, animal calls, machinery, or natural phenomena, such as wind and rain. Three changes in acoustic attributes known to signal emotional states in speech and music were imposed upon 24 environmental sounds. Evaluations of stimuli indicated that human emotions track such changes in environmental sounds just as they do for speech and music. Such changes not only influenced evaluations of the sounds themselves, they also affected the way accompanying facial expressions were interpreted emotionally. The findings illustrate that human emotions are highly attuned to changes in the acoustic environment, and reignite a discussion of Charles Darwin's hypothesis that speech and music originated from a common emotional signal system based on the imitation and modification of environmental sounds.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Emoções , Som , Adulto , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Tempo de Reação , Fala
13.
Sci Rep ; 5: 9763, 2015 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25880157

RESUMO

Research has shown that distinct insular subregions are associated with particular neural networks (e.g., attentional and sensorimotor networks). Based on the evidence that playing action video games (AVGs) facilitates attentional and sensorimotor functions, this study examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of insular subregions and the functional networks therein that are related to attentional and sensorimotor functions. By comparing AVG experts and amateurs, we found that AVG experts had enhanced functional connectivity and grey matter volume in insular subregions. Furthermore, AVG experts exhibited increased functional connectivity between the attentional and sensorimotor networks, and the experience-related enhancement was predominantly evident in the left insula, an understudied brain area. Thus, AVG playing may enhance functional integration of insular subregions and the pertinent networks therein.


Assuntos
Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Jogos de Vídeo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Radiografia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Rep ; 4: 5854, 2014 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25068398

RESUMO

This study examined the relation between long-term music training and child development based on 250 Chinese elementary school students' academic development of first language (L1), second language (L2), and mathematics. We found that musician children outperformed non-musician children only on musical achievement and second language development. Additionally, although music training appeared to be correlated with children's final academic development of L1, L2, and mathematics, it did not independently contribute to the development of L1 or mathematical skills. Our findings suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings on the non-musical cognitive benefits of music learning.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística/educação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Matemática/educação
15.
Sci Rep ; 3: 2860, 2013 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24091591

RESUMO

A key unresolved question in cognitive science is whether the brain uses asynchronous or synchronous patterns of information transmission. Using an auditory learning task combined with electrophysiological recordings, we reveal for the first time that cognitive plasticity during learning transforms an asynchronous into a synchronous transmission pattern to achieve rapid, error-free performance. We also present a new model showing how the brain may resolve its information processing and transmission dilemma.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurosci Bull ; 29(6): 731-6, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23852557

RESUMO

In the current study we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the relation between musical tempo perception and the oscillatory activity in specific brain regions, and the scalp EEG networks in the theta, alpha, and beta bands. The results showed that the theta power at the frontal midline decreased with increased arousal level related to tempo. The alpha power induced by original music at the bilateral occipital-parietal regions was stronger than that by tempo-transformed music. The beta power did not change with tempo. At the network level, the original music-related alpha network had high global efficiency and the optimal path length. This study was the first to use EEG to investigate multi-oscillatory activities and the data support the tempo-specific timing hypothesis.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Música , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Ritmo beta/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia
17.
Neuroreport ; 24(4): 186-9, 2013 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23348593

RESUMO

An interdisciplinary research field, music perception involves various disciplines, such as psychology, neuroscience, and even physics. Research on music perception offers us a window into the mechanism of the brain. In music perception, the same distance of key shift in different directions tends to be perceived as different degrees of change. It, however, still remains unclear whether directional asymmetry is specific to key shift perception or a general phenomenon of key perception. Using both behavioral and electroencephalogram methods, this study examined Chinese nonmusicians' subjective ratings and electroencephalogram γ-band activity related to a piece of music performed at three different key levels and presented in three separate performances, none of which contained a key shift. This study showed that directional asymmetry is a general phenomenon of key level perception rather than specific to key shift perception. Furthermore, a counterclockwisely modulated key is related to stronger γ-band spectral power than a clockwisely modulated key.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Música , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Perspect Psychol Sci ; 8(3): 316-39, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26172975

RESUMO

The intermodal preferential looking paradigm (IPLP) has proven to be a revolutionary method for the examination of infants' emerging language knowledge. In the IPLP, infants' language comprehension is measured by their differential visual fixation to two images presented side-by-side when only one of the images matches an accompanying linguistic stimulus. Researchers can examine burgeoning knowledge in the areas of phonology, semantics, syntax, and morphology in infants not yet speaking. The IPLP enables the exploration of the underlying mechanisms involved in language learning and illuminates how infants identify the correspondences between language and referents in the world. It has also fostered the study of infants' conceptions of the dynamic events that language will express. Exemplifying translational science, the IPLP is now being investigated for its clinical and diagnostic value.

19.
Psychophysiology ; 49(10): 1394-400, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22905969

RESUMO

A stimulus contains multiple attributes. Under certain circumstances, some information can be transmitted to the next cognitive stage before the processing of other information. An examination of partial information transmission is essential in improving our understanding of the mechanism of information processing. By manipulating two attributes, namely, pitch and intensity, this study examined whether the transmission speed of an attribute could be influenced by its perceptual discriminability. Using a choice go/no-go paradigm, this study presented adults with two pieces of pure tones and measured their LRPs. Results showed that pitch and intensity were transmitted earlier as partial information in the high pitch- and intensity-discriminability conditions, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrated that the transmission speed of a certain attribute could be modulated by its perceptual discriminability.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cognição/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychophysiology ; 49(9): 1179-90, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22748083

RESUMO

Using event-related potentials, this study measured the access of suprasegmental (tone) and segmental (vowel) information in spoken word recognition with Mandarin idioms. Participants performed a delayed-response acceptability task, in which they judged the correctness of the last word of each idiom, which might deviate from the correct word in either tone or vowel. Results showed that, compared with the correct idioms, a larger early negativity appeared only for vowel violation. Additionally, a larger N400 effect was observed for vowel mismatch than tone mismatch. A control experiment revealed that these differences were not due to low-level physical differences across conditions; instead, they represented the greater constraining power of vowels than tones in the lexical selection and semantic integration of the spoken words. Furthermore, tone violation elicited a more robust late positive component than vowel violation, suggesting different reanalyses of the two types of information. In summary, the current results support a functional dissociation of tone and vowel processing in spoken word recognition.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Linguagem , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fala
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