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1.
ANZ J Surg ; 2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the most common biliary tract malignancy, which is characterized by easy local invasion, lymph nodes metastasis, local vascular invasion. Hence, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) can be performed in a limited number of patients. In our study, we reviewed the current studies on laparoscopic surgery (LS) and robotic surgery (RS) for GBC and analysed the limitations and difficulties of MIS for GBC. METHODS: Multiple electronic databases were used for a systematic literature retrieval. All studies involving MIS of GBC were included (up to August 2019). RESULTS: A total of 24 studies were included, of which 18 studies involved LS for GBC and six studies concerned RS of GBC. For LS, 16 studies contained relevant information of T stage, and 323 patients (98.8%) had T3 or lower stage; the average rate of R0 resection, conversion, postoperative complications and mortality was 95.3% (range 80.5-100%), 1.9% (range 0-16.7%), 13.4% (range 0-33.3%) and 1.0% (range 0-10%), respectively. For RS, four studies contained relevant information of T stage, and all patients were T3 or lower stage; the average rate of R0 resection, conversion and postoperative complications was 96.8% (range 81.8-100%), 5.5% (range 0-14.8%) and11.9% (range 0-36.4%), respectively. In addition, no patient had perioperative mortality. CONCLUSIONS: MIS for GBC is limited to highly selected patients and is considered to be technically feasible in experienced surgeons. However, improvements in technical and instrumental are needed to reduce the associated postoperative complications and implantation metastasis, and to promote MIS in the treatment of GBC.

2.
Soc Sci Med ; 258: 113041, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480183

RESUMO

Performing diagnostic tests is a fundamental information-gathering activity in diagnostic process. However, little attention has been paid to the interactional process where a diagnostic test is advised and received, especially in Chinese medical settings. Decision making over prescribing diagnostic tests consists of clinicians' advice and patients' acceptance or resistance/rejection. Drawing on audio-recordings of clinician-patient encounters in Chinese outpatient clinics as data and conversation analysis as a method, we discuss how patient resistance to clinicians' diagnostic test-taking advice is displayed and managed over sequences of interaction. Two types of advice deliveries have been identified: advice either with no diagnostic utterances or with indeterminate diagnostic utterances. We find that patients demonstrate their resistance towards the former type of advice in two ways: questioning clinicians' decisions and proposing an alternative plan. Displaying resistance to the latter type of advice, patients have been found to recurrently resort to one way: proffering additional information about personal experience. Confronted with resistance, clinicians generally proceed to justify decisions by either asserting their epistemic primacy in determining a test or lowering certainty in the original speculative diagnosis. Towards persistent resistance, clinicians mainly employ two techniques to impose acceptance onto patients: repeating the initial advice and terminating forcefully current sequence. This study adds to a growing body of research on resistance in medical settings and contributes to our understanding of the decision making over medical investigations in Chinese outpatient clinic interaction.

3.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 153: 131-140, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502715

RESUMO

WD40 proteins play crucial roles in response to abiotic stress. By screening the genome sequences of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, 225 SmWD40 genes were identified and divided into 9 subfamilies (I-IX). Physiological, biochemical, gene structure, conserved protein motif and GO annotation analyses were performed on SmWD40 family members. The SmWD40-170 was found in 110 SmWD40 genes that contain drought response elements, SmWD40-170 was one of these genes whose response in terms of expression under drought was significant. The expression of SmWD40-170 was also up-regulated by ABA and H2O2. Through observed the stomatal phenotype of SmWD40-170 transgenic lines, the stomatal closure was abolished under dehydration, ABA and H2O2 treatment in SmWD40-170 knockdown lines. Abscisic acid (ABA), as the key phytohormone, elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels under drought stress. The ABA-ROS interaction mediated the generation of H2O2 and the activation of anion channel in guard cells. The osmolality alteration of guard cells further accelerated the stomatal closure. As a second messenger, nitric oxide (NO) regulated ABA signaling, the NO stimulated protein kinase activity inhibited the K+ influx which result in stomatal closure. These NO-relevant events were essential for ABA-induced stomatal closure. The reduction of NO production was also observed in the guard cells of SmWD40-170 knockdown lines. The abolished of stomatal closure attributed to the SmWD40-170 deficiency induced the reduction of NO content. In general, the SmWD40-170 is a critical drought response gene in SmWD40 gene family and regulates ABA- and H2O2-induced stomatal movement by affecting the synthesis of NO.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(9): 1996-2001, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495544

RESUMO

The cluster brand is the embodiment of the core competitiveness of an industry. Developing and cultivating cluster brand of ecological agriculture of Dao-di herbs not only helps to optimize the value chain of the Chinese medicinal materials(CMMs) industry cluster, realize the value-added of the CMMs industry cluster, but also enhance the visibility and influence of the industrial cluster, enhance the core competitiveness of the industrial cluster. This has important practical significance for promoting the "orderly" "safe" and "effective" development of the Dao-di herbs. Based on the industry development status of CMMs, this article introduces several concepts related to cluster brands and their relationships, and focuses on the cultivation models and strategies of cluster brand in the CMMs industry. Based on the current status of the development of the CMMs industry, this article introduces several concepts related to cluster brands and their interrelationships. It discusses the cultivation models and strategies of cluster brands in the CMMs industry, industry associations, Chinese medicine companies and individual growers as the support, insists on the ecological cultivation of authentic medicinal materials and the cultivation of cluster brands. Finally, it points out the direction for the high-quality development of the ecological agriculture of CMMs.

6.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543783

RESUMO

This study aims to explore lipidic mechanism towards low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-mediated platinum chemotherapy resistance. By using the lipid profiling technology, LDLR knockdown was found to increase lysosomal lipids and decrease membranous lipid levels in EOC cells. LDLR knockdown also down-regulated ether-linked phosphatidylethanolamine (PE-O, lysosomes or peroxisomes) and up-regulated lysophosphatidylcholine [LPC, lipid droplet (LD)]. This implies that the manner of using Lands cycle (conversion of lysophospholipids) for LDs might affect cisplatin sensitivity. The bioinformatics analyses illustrated that LDLR-related lipid entry into LD, rather than an endogenous lipid resource (eg Kennedy pathway), controls the EOC prognosis of platinum chemotherapy patients. Moreover, LDLR knockdown increased the number of platinum-DNA adducts and reduced the LD platinum amount. By using a manufactured LPC-liposome-cisplatin (LLC) drug, the number of platinum-DNA adducts increased significantly in LLC-treated insensitive cells. Moreover, the cisplatin content in LDs increased upon LLC treatment. Furthermore, lipid profiles of 22 carcinoma cells with differential cisplatin sensitivity (9 sensitive vs 13 insensitive) were acquired. These profiles revealed low storage lipid levels in insensitive cells. This result recommends that LD lipidome might be a common pathway in multiple cancers for platinum sensitivity in EOC. Finally, LLC suppressed both cisplatin-insensitive human carcinoma cell training and testing sets. Thus, LDLR-platinum insensitivity can be due to a defective Lands cycle that hinders LPC production in LDs. Using lipidome assessment with the newly formulated LLC can be a promising cancer chemotherapy method.

7.
Oncologist ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510802

RESUMO

Lutetium-177-dotatate (177 Lu-dotatate), a form of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of advanced somatostatin receptor-positive gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in 2018 based on the promising results of the NETTER-1 trial for grade 1-2 midgut NETs. Here, we present a patient with a grade 3 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and BRCA1 germline mutation who had a significant response to 177 Lu-dotatate.

8.
ANZ J Surg ; 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To outline our experience with the radical resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) combined with the partial resection of the pancreatic head (RRHCCAPRPH) as a treatment for HCCA with distal bile duct involvement and to appraise the feasibility of this challenging procedure. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2017, 205 patients with HCCA who underwent curative surgery at our hospital were included. Among the patients, extrahepatic bile duct resection combined with hepatectomy (EBDRH), RRHCCAPRPH and hepatopancreaticoduodenectomy (HPD) was performed in 168, 21 and 16 patients, respectively. Clinical pathological factors, post-operative complications and survival were compared between the three groups. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in operative blood loss, operative time, post-operative hospital stay and tumour size between EBDRH group, RRHCCAPRPH group and HPD group (P < 0.05). In terms of post-operative complications, there was no statistical difference between the three groups (P = 0.177). Further analysis showed that the incidence of pancreatic fistula (43.8%) and delayed gastric emptying (25%) after HPD were significantly higher than the other two groups. The median survival time and overall survival rate for 172 patients with R0 resection were 33 months and 85.5% at 1 year, 47.7% at 3 years, 28.4% at 5 years. Furthermore, the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients with EBDRH, RRHCCAPRPH and HPD after R0 resection were 86.2%, 48.7%, 29.2%; 85.0%, 44.0%, 24.7% and 78.6%, 42.9%, 22.9%, respectively (P = 0.948). CONCLUSION: The RRHCCAPRPH in some selected patients can actually replace HPD as a surgical treatment for HCCA with distal bile duct involvement.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401005

RESUMO

The discovery of novel high-nuclearity oxo-clusters considerably promotes the development of cluster science. We report a high-nuclearity oxo-cluster-based compound with acid/alkali-resistance and radiation stabilities, namely, (H3O)7[Cd7Sb24O24(l-tta)9(l-Htta)3(H2O)6]·29H2O (FJSM-CA; l-H4tta = l-tartaric acid), which features a two-dimensionally anionic layer based on the largest Sb-oxo-clusters with 28-metal-ion-core [Cd4Sb24O24]. It is challenging to efficiently capture Sr2+, Ba2+ (analogue of 226Ra), and [UO2]2+ ions from aqueous solutions due to their high water solubility and environmental mobility, while it is unprecedented that a novel Sb-oxo-cluster-based framework material FJSM-CA can efficiently remove these hazardous ions accompanied with intriguing structural transformations. Especially, it shows fast ion-exchange abilities for Sr2+, Ba2+, and [UO2]2+ (reaches equilibrium within 2, 10, and 20 min, respectively) and high exchange capacity (121.91 mg/g), removal rate R (96%), and distribution coefficient KdU (2.46 × 104 mL/g) for uranium. Moreover, the underlying mechanism is clearly revealed, which is attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between exchanged cations and highly negative-charged frameworks and the strong affinity of (COO)- groups for these cations. Proton conduction of the pristine and Sr2+, Ba2+, [UO2]2+-loaded products was investigated. This work highlights the design of new oxo-cluster-based materials for radionuclide remediation and proton conduction performance.

10.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1874(1): 188378, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413572

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas-based genetic perturbation screens have emerged as powerful tools for large-scale identification of new targets for cancer immunotherapy. Various strategies of CRISPR screen have been used for immune-oncology (IO) target discovery. The genomic sequences targeted by CRISPR/Cas system range from coding sequences to non-coding RNA/DNA, including miRNAs, LncRNAs, circRNAs, promoters, and enhancers, which may be potential targets for future pharmacological and therapeutic interventions. Rapid progresses have been witnessed in finding novel targets for enhancing tumor antigen presentation, sensitizing of tumor cells to immune-mediated cytotoxicity, and reinvigorating tumor-specific T cells by using CRISPR technologies. In combination with other strategies, the detailed characteristics of the targets for immunotherapy have been obtained by CRISPR screen. In this review, we present an overview of recent progresses in the development of CRISPR-based screens for IO target identification and discuss the challenges and possible solutions in this rapidly growing field.

11.
Blood ; 135(25): 2302-2315, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384137

RESUMO

Erythropoiesis is a complex multistage process that involves differentiation of early erythroid progenitors to enucleated mature red blood cells, in which lineage-specific transcription factors play essential roles. Erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF/KLF1) is a pleiotropic erythroid transcription factor that is required for the proper maturation of the erythroid cells, whose expression and activation are tightly controlled in a temporal and differentiation stage-specific manner. Here, we uncover a novel role of G-protein pathway suppressor 2 (GPS2), a subunit of the nuclear receptor corepressor/silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor corepressor complex, in erythrocyte differentiation. Our study demonstrates that knockdown of GPS2 significantly suppresses erythroid differentiation of human CD34+ cells cultured in vitro and xenotransplanted in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency/interleukin-2 receptor γ-chain null mice. Moreover, global deletion of GPS2 in mice causes impaired erythropoiesis in the fetal liver and leads to severe anemia. Flow cytometric analysis and Wright-Giemsa staining show a defective differentiation at late stages of erythropoiesis in Gps2-/- embryos. Mechanistically, GPS2 interacts with EKLF and prevents proteasome-mediated degradation of EKLF, thereby increasing EKLF stability and transcriptional activity. Moreover, we identify the amino acids 191-230 region in EKLF protein, responsible for GPS2 binding, that is highly conserved in mammals and essential for EKLF protein stability. Collectively, our study uncovers a previously unknown role of GPS2 as a posttranslational regulator that enhances the stability of EKLF protein and thereby promotes erythroid differentiation.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(51): 6957-6960, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436508

RESUMO

Herein we first report a dual-responsive peptide substrate (Comp. 1) for preparing self-assembled nanomaterials triggered by pH and legumain. The dual-responsive self-assembly of Comp. 1 in glioma cells enables its long retention time in lysosomes, S phase arrest, and cell growth locking. We verified that the blocked degradation of HIF-1α in lysosomes played a key role in cell cycle arrest and decreased DNA replication. This work illustrates the disturbance of lysosomal function by self-assembled nanomaterials as a promising strategy for inhibiting glioma cell growth.

13.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420685

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key regulators or a range of diseases and chronic conditions such as cancers, but how they function in the context of ovarian cancer (OC) is poorly understood. The Coding-Potential Assessment Tool was used to assess the likely protein-coding potential of SNHG7. SNHG7 expression was elevated in ovarian tumour tissues measured by qRT-PCR. The online database JASPAR was used to predict the transcription factors binding to SNHG7. Twenty-four-well Transwell plates were used for invasion assays. RNA immunoprecipitation was performed to determine RNA-protein associations. EdU assay was introduced to detect cell proliferation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to confirm the directly interaction between DNA and protein. We discovered that in the context of OC there is a significant up-regulation of the lncRNA SNHG7. Knocking down this lncRNA disrupted both OC cell invasion and proliferation, while its overexpression had the opposite effect. SP1 binding sites were present in the SNHG7 promoter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) confirmed direct SP1 binding to this region, activating SNHG7 transcription. We found that at a mechanistic level in OC cells, KLF2 is a probable SNHG7 target, as we found that SHNCCC16 directly interacts with EZH2 and thus represses KLF2 expression. In summary, this research demonstrates that lncRNA SNHG7 is an SP1-activated molecule that contributes to OC progression by providing a scaffold whereby EZH2 can repress KLF2 expression.

15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 102: 267-275, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360277

RESUMO

CD46 is an important immune regulatory receptor with multiple functions. However, studies on the function of teleost CD46, especially the different CD46 isoforms are limited. In this study, we identified three membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46) gene isoforms from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) and tentatively named as PaCD46 isoforms. PaCD46 isoforms were generated by alternative splicing and all consisted of four conserved short consensus repeats (SCRs), and the variable serine-threonine-proline-rich domain, transmembrane hydrophobic domain, and cytoplasmic tail. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isoforms clustered together with other fish CD46 and then with higher animal CD46. Western blotting analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) revealed three bands, all of which had much larger molecular weights than the theoretical values of the three PaCD46 isoforms. Moreover, three PaCD46 isoforms were individually expressed on HEK293 cells, and Western blotting showed the similar band profile to that of PBMC. The recombinant extracellular domain of the PaCD46 isoforms, obtained by expression in Pichia pastoris, significantly reduced hemolysis activity of ayu sera. Furthermore, each of the three PaCD46 isoforms respectively protected the HEK293 cells expressing the isoform. The isoforms were also identified for their protection of autologous PBMC from complement activation. These results provided the first evidence that PaCD46 isoforms may be complement regulatory proteins to prevent complement-induced damage to self-tissue.

16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(11): 6997-7007, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356975

RESUMO

Reactive membranes based on hydroxyl radical generation are hindered by the need for chemical dosing and complicated module and material design. Herein, we utilize an electrochemical approach featuring in situ generation of reactive (radical) chlorine species (RCS) through anodization of chloride ions for membrane self-cleaning. A hybridized carbon nanotube (CNT)-functionalized ceramic membrane (h-CNT/CM), possessing high hydrophilicity, permeability, and conductivity, was fabricated. Using carbamazepine (CBZ) as a probe, we confirmed the presence of RCS in the electrified h-CNT/CM. The rapid and complete degradation of CBZ in a single-pass ultrafiltration indicates a high localized RCS concentration within the three-dimensional porous CNT interwoven layer. We further demonstrate that the electrogeneration of RCS is a critical prestep for free chlorine (HClO and ClO-) formation. The self-cleaning efficiency of the membrane after fouling with a model organic foulant (alginate) was assessed using an electrified cross-flow membrane filtration system. The fouled h-CNT/CM exhibits a near complete water flux recovery following a short (1 min) self-cleaning with an applied voltage of 3 or 4 V and feed solutions of 100 or 10 mM sodium chloride, respectively. Considering the superior performance of the RCS-mediated self-cleaning compared to conventional membrane chemical cleaning using sodium hypochlorite, our results exemplify an effective strategy for in situ electrogeneration of RCS to achieve a highly efficient membrane self-cleaning.

17.
HPB (Oxford) ; 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis was performed by analyzing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the potential prognostic value of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) for patients with resected biliary tract cancers (BTCs). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant articles published. Only RCTs affected by tumors of gallbladder, intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal bile ducts were considered. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The study identified 1192 patients who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. ACT had nearly reached a significant better OS (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.77-1.01; P = 0.07) and achieved a significant better RFS (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99; P = 0.04). The effectiveness of ACT for OS was significantly modified by fluorouracil-based ACT (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70-0.99; P = 0.04), but not by gemcitabine-based ACT (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74-1.12; P = 0.36). The survival benefit was also not modified by primary disease site, resection margin status, and lymph node status. CONCLUSIONS: ACT is correlated with favorable relapse-free survival compared with non-ACT for resected BTCs patients. Fluorouracil-based ACT could be viewed as a standard practice for resected BTCs patients regardless of the primary cancer site, lymph node or margin status.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(5)2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455912

RESUMO

The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...].

19.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Survival benefit of combination over single-agent chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) was demonstrated in younger patients in clinical trials. The authors aimed to evaluate whether this survival benefit of combination chemotherapy is present in elderly patients with metastatic PDAC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors identified elderly patients (age 65 y or older) with stage IV PDAC and extracted available clinical information from a prospectively maintained institutional pancreatic cancer registry from 2007 to 2016. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for multivariable survival analyses. Survival outcomes for the entire cohort and by age group I (elderly, 65 to 75 y) and age group II (very elderly, older than 75 y) were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 606 patients were included with a median age of 73.8 years. Among them, 239 patients (39%) received combination chemotherapy and 152 patients (25.1%) received single-agent chemotherapy as first-line treatment. Combination chemotherapy was associated with significantly longer median overall survival compared with single-agent chemotherapy (10.9 vs. 7.5 mo, P<0.001) with hazard ratio 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.81; P=0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level. Analyses by age groups indicated that very elderly patients (age group II) benefited from combination chemotherapy compared with single-agent chemotherapy with hazard ratio 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.31-1; P=0.049), comparable with the age group I (Page-treatment interaction=0.81). CONCLUSION: Elderly patients, even those older than 75 years, with metastatic PDAC benefited from combination chemotherapy.

20.
Water Environ Res ; 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306497

RESUMO

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a novel process of deammonification that exhibits superior ecological and economic potential compared to that of traditional heterotrophic processes. Although this process has been successfully implemented in treating high-strength nitrogen-contaminated wastewater, it still faces many challenges in treating mainstream municipal wastewater. This review aims to provide an overview of the status and challenges of mainstream anammox-based processes. The different configurations and crucial factors are discussed in this review. Finally, the future needs for feasible application are stated. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Factors restricting mainstream application of anammox-based processes are reviewed. Control strategies for selecting and maintaining anammox bacteria are discussed. Recent advances in nitrite production via partial nitrification or denitrification are summarized. Future needs for the feasible application of anammox-based nitrogen removal technology for mainstream municipal wastewater treatment are outlined.

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