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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11503, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661263

RESUMO

Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are collective excitations of free electrons propagating along a metal-dielectric interface. Although some basic quantum properties of SPPs, such as the preservation of entanglement, the wave-particle duality of a single plasmon, the quantum interference of two plasmons, and the verification of entanglement generation, have been shown, more advanced quantum information protocols have yet to be demonstrated with SPPs. Here, we experimentally realize quantum state teleportation between single photons and SPPs. To achieve this, we use polarization-entangled photon pairs, coherent photon-plasmon-photon conversion on a metallic subwavelength hole array, complete Bell-state measurements and an active feed-forward technique. The results of both quantum state and quantum process tomography confirm the quantum nature of the SPP mediated teleportation. An average state fidelity of [Formula: see text] and a process fidelity of [Formula: see text], which are well above the classical limit, are achieved. Our work shows that SPPs may be useful for realizing complex quantum protocols in a photonic-plasmonic hybrid quantum network.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(24): 240501, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412067

RESUMO

Using quantum walks (QWs) to rank the centrality of nodes in networks, represented by graphs, is advantageous compared to certain widely used classical algorithms. However, it is challenging to implement a directed graph via QW, since it corresponds to a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian and thus cannot be accomplished by conventional QW. Here we report the realizations of centrality rankings of a three-, a four-, and a nine-vertex directed graph with parity-time (PT) symmetric quantum walks by using high-dimensional photonic quantum states, multiple concatenated interferometers, and dimension dependent loss to achieve these. We demonstrate the advantage of the QW approach experimentally by breaking the vertex rank degeneracy in a four-vertex graph. Furthermore, we extend our experiment from single-photon to two-photon Fock states as inputs and realize the centrality ranking of a nine-vertex graph. Our work shows that a PT symmetric multiphoton quantum walk paves the way for realizing advanced algorithms.

3.
Opt Express ; 24(7): 6843-60, 2016 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27136982

RESUMO

The design, fabrication, and detailed calibration of essential building blocks towards fully integrated linear-optics quantum computation are discussed. Photonic devices are made from silicon nitride rib waveguides, where measurements on ring resonators show small propagation losses. Directional couplers are designed to be insensitive to fabrication variations. Their offset and coupling lengths are measured, as well as the phase difference between the transmitted and reflected light. With careful calibrations, the insertion loss of the directional couplers is found to be small. Finally, an integrated controlled-NOT circuit is characterized by measuring the transmission through different combinations of inputs and outputs. The gate fidelity for the CNOT operation with this circuit is estimated to be 99.81% after post selection. This high fidelity is due to our robust design, good fabrication reproducibility, and extensive characterizations.

4.
Sci Rep ; 4: 3583, 2014 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24394808

RESUMO

Photonic quantum simulators are promising candidates for providing insight into other small- to medium-sized quantum systems. Recent experiments have shown that photonic quantum systems have the advantage to exploit quantum interference for the quantum simulation of the ground state of Heisenberg spin systems. Here we experimentally characterize this quantum interference at a tuneable beam splitter and further investigate the measurement-induced interactions of a simulated four-spin system by comparing the entanglement dynamics using pairwise concurrence. We also study theoretically a four-site square lattice with next-nearest neighbor interactions and a six-site checkerboard lattice, which might be in reach of current technology.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(4): 1221-6, 2013 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23288900

RESUMO

The counterintuitive features of quantum physics challenge many common-sense assumptions. In an interferometric quantum eraser experiment, one can actively choose whether or not to erase which-path information (a particle feature) of one quantum system and thus observe its wave feature via interference or not by performing a suitable measurement on a distant quantum system entangled with it. In all experiments performed to date, this choice took place either in the past or, in some delayed-choice arrangements, in the future of the interference. Thus, in principle, physical communications between choice and interference were not excluded. Here, we report a quantum eraser experiment in which, by enforcing Einstein locality, no such communication is possible. This is achieved by independent active choices, which are space-like separated from the interference. Our setup employs hybrid path-polarization entangled photon pairs, which are distributed over an optical fiber link of 55 m in one experiment, or over a free-space link of 144 km in another. No naive realistic picture is compatible with our results because whether a quantum could be seen as showing particle- or wave-like behavior would depend on a causally disconnected choice. It is therefore suggestive to abandon such pictures altogether.

6.
Opt Express ; 20(21): 23126-37, 2012 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23188277

RESUMO

We present a high-fidelity quantum teleportation experiment over a high-loss free-space channel between two laboratories. We teleported six states of three mutually unbiased bases and obtained an average state fidelity of 0.82(1), well beyond the classical limit of 2/3. With the obtained data, we tomographically reconstructed the process matrices of quantum teleportation. The free-space channel attenuation of 31 dB corresponds to the estimated attenuation regime for a down-link from a low-earth-orbit satellite to a ground station. We also discussed various important technical issues for future experiments, including the dark counts of single-photon detectors, coincidence-window width etc. Our experiment tested the limit of performing quantum teleportation with state-of-the-art resources. It is an important step towards future satellite-based quantum teleportation and paves the way for establishing a worldwide quantum communication network.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Ópticos , Telecomunicações/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Luz , Teoria Quântica , Espalhamento de Radiação
7.
Nature ; 489(7415): 269-73, 2012 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22951967

RESUMO

The quantum internet is predicted to be the next-generation information processing platform, promising secure communication and an exponential speed-up in distributed computation. The distribution of single qubits over large distances via quantum teleportation is a key ingredient for realizing such a global platform. By using quantum teleportation, unknown quantum states can be transferred over arbitrary distances to a party whose location is unknown. Since the first experimental demonstrations of quantum teleportation of independent external qubits, an internal qubit and squeezed states, researchers have progressively extended the communication distance. Usually this occurs without active feed-forward of the classical Bell-state measurement result, which is an essential ingredient in future applications such as communication between quantum computers. The benchmark for a global quantum internet is quantum teleportation of independent qubits over a free-space link whose attenuation corresponds to the path between a satellite and a ground station. Here we report such an experiment, using active feed-forward in real time. The experiment uses two free-space optical links, quantum and classical, over 143 kilometres between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife. To achieve this, we combine advanced techniques involving a frequency-uncorrelated polarization-entangled photon pair source, ultra-low-noise single-photon detectors and entanglement-assisted clock synchronization. The average teleported state fidelity is well beyond the classical limit of two-thirds. Furthermore, we confirm the quality of the quantum teleportation procedure without feed-forward by complete quantum process tomography. Our experiment verifies the maturity and applicability of such technologies in real-world scenarios, in particular for future satellite-based quantum teleportation.

8.
Opt Express ; 19(23): 22723-30, 2011 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22109153

RESUMO

We realize quantum gates for path qubits with a high-speed, polarization-independent and tunable beam splitter. Two electro-optical modulators act in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer as high-speed phase shifters and rapidly tune its splitting ratio. We test its performance with heralded single photons, observing a polarization-independent interference contrast above 95%. The switching time is about 5.6 ns, and a maximal repetition rate is 2.5 MHz. We demonstrate tunable feed-forward operations of a single-qubit gate of path-encoded qubits and a two-qubit gate via measurement-induced interaction between two photons.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 107(46): 19708-13, 2010 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21041665

RESUMO

Bell's theorem shows that local realistic theories place strong restrictions on observable correlations between different systems, giving rise to Bell's inequality which can be violated in experiments using entangled quantum states. Bell's theorem is based on the assumptions of realism, locality, and the freedom to choose between measurement settings. In experimental tests, "loopholes" arise which allow observed violations to still be explained by local realistic theories. Violating Bell's inequality while simultaneously closing all such loopholes is one of the most significant still open challenges in fundamental physics today. In this paper, we present an experiment that violates Bell's inequality while simultaneously closing the locality loophole and addressing the freedom-of-choice loophole, also closing the latter within a reasonable set of assumptions. We also explain that the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes can be closed only within nondeterminism, i.e., in the context of stochastic local realism.

10.
J Physiol ; 556(Pt 3): 711-26, 2004 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14966302

RESUMO

Capacitance measurements of exocytosis were applied to functionally identified alpha-, beta- and delta-cells in intact mouse pancreatic islets. The maximum rate of capacitance increase in beta-cells during a depolarization to 0 mV was equivalent to 14 granules s(-1), <5% of that observed in isolated beta-cells. Beta-cell secretion exhibited bell-shaped voltage dependence and peaked at +20 mV. At physiological membrane potentials (up to approximately -20 mV) the maximum rate of release was approximately 4 granules s(-1). Both exocytosis (measured by capacitance measurements) and insulin release (detected by radioimmunoassay) were strongly inhibited by the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine (25 microm) but only marginally (<20%) affected by the R-type Ca(2+) channel blocker SNX482 (100 nm). Exocytosis in the glucagon-producing alpha-cells peaked at +20 mV. The capacitance increases elicited by pulses to 0 mV exhibited biphasic kinetics and consisted of an initial transient (150 granules s(-1)) and a sustained late component (30 granules s(-1)). Whereas addition of the N-type Ca(2+) channel blocker omega-conotoxin GVIA (0.1 microm) inhibited glucagon secretion measured in the presence of 1 mm glucose to the same extent as an elevation of glucose to 20 mm, the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine (25 microm) had no effect. Thus, glucagon release during hyperglycaemic conditions depends principally on Ca(2+)-influx through N-type rather than L-type Ca(2+) channels. Exocytosis in the somatostatin-secreting delta-cells likewise exhibited two kinetically separable phases of capacitance increase and consisted of an early rapid (600 granules s(-1)) component followed by a sustained slower (60 granules s(-1)) component. We conclude that (1) capacitance measurements in intact pancreatic islets are feasible; (2) exocytosis measured in beta-cells in situ is significantly slower than that of isolated cells; and (3) the different types of islet cells exhibit distinct exocytotic features.


Assuntos
Capacitância Elétrica , Exocitose/fisiologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Somatostatina/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/fisiologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo N/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio Tipo N/fisiologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo R/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio Tipo R/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Eletrofisiologia , Exocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/citologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Nifedipino/farmacologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Toxina Pertussis/farmacologia , Vesículas Secretórias/ultraestrutura , Células Secretoras de Somatostatina/citologia , Venenos de Aranha/farmacologia , ômega-Conotoxina GVIA/farmacologia
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