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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36710650

RESUMO

Over the last decade, sono-activation of enzymes as an emerging research area has received considerable attention from food researchers. This kind of relatively new application of ultrasound has demonstrated promising potential in facilitating the modern food industry by broadening the application of various food enzymes, improving relevant industrial unit operation and productivity, as well as increasing the yield of target products. This review aims to provide insight into the fundamental principles and possible industrialization strategies of the sono-activation of food enzymes to facilitate its commercialization. This review first provides an overview of ultrasound application in the activation of food protease, carbohydrase, and lipase. Then, the recent development on ultrasound activation of food enzymes is discussed on aspects including mechanisms, influencing factors, modification effects, and its applications in real food systems for free and immobilized enzymes. Despite the far fewer studies on sono-activation of immobilized enzymes compared with those on free enzymes, we endeavored to summarize the relevant aspects in three stages: ultrasound pretreatment of free enzyme/carrier, assistance in immobilization process, and modification of the already immobilized enzyme. Lastly, challenges for the scalability of ultrasound in these target areas are discussed and future research prospects are proposed.

2.
Front Oncol ; 12: 1010088, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408183

RESUMO

Introduction: It is still unclear whether radiotherapy affects the long-term survival of breast cancer (BC) patients after immediate breast reconstruction (IBR). This study aims to evaluate the actual prognostic impact of radiotherapy on BC patients undergoing IBR, and to construct survival prediction models to predict the survival benefit of radiotherapy. Methods: Data on eligible BC patients were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Competing risk models were used to assess breast cause-specific death (BCSD) and non-breast cancer cause-specific death (NBCSD). Kaplan-Meier curve, Cox risk regression model and forest map were used to evaluate and demonstrate overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Survival prediction nomograms were used to predict OS and BCSS probabilities. Results: A total of 22,218 patients were selected, 24.9% received radiotherapy and 75.1% were without radiotherapy. Competing risk models showed that whether BCSD or NBCSD, the cumulative long-term risk of death in the radiotherapy group was higher than that in the non-radiotherapy group. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that patients with different lymph node metastasis had different radiotherapy benefits. Multivariate stratified analysis showed that radiotherapy after autologous reconstruction was associated with poor BCSS in patients with stage N0, and radiotherapy after autologous reconstruction and combined reconstruction improved OS and BCSS in patients with stage N3. The C-indexes of nomogram (between 0.778 and 0.847) and calibration curves showed the good prediction ability of survival prediction model. Conclusions: Radiotherapy can improve OS and BCSS in N3 stage BC patients undergoing immediate autologous reconstruction after mastectomy. The practical nomograms can be used to predict OS and BCSS of patients with or without radiotherapy, which is helpful for individualized treatment.

3.
Foods ; 11(19)2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36230096

RESUMO

In this paper, emulsions stabilized by Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides (TFP) were prepared and the physiochemical properties were assessed. Results showed that the TFP emulsions illustrated the highest emulsifying activity (EAI) and emulsifying stability (ESI) when the concentration of TFP and oil were 0.8% and 10% (wt%). The higher pH value was in favor of the emulsifying properties, while the addition of NaCl impaired the stability, and the greater the concentration, the lower the EAI and ESI. Besides, the emulsifying and rheological properties and stability analysis were evaluated in comparison with gum arabic, pectin, and carboxymethyl cellulose emulsions. It was discovered that TFP illustrated better storage and freeze-thaw stability, which was proved by the result of zeta-potential and particle size. The rheological measurement revealed that all the emulsions behaved as pseudoplastic fluids, while TFP displayed a higher viscosity. Meanwhile, TFP emulsions tended to form a more stable network structure according to the analysis of the parameters obtained from the Herschel-Bulkley model. FTIR spectra suggested that the O-H bond could be destructed without the formation of new covalent bonds during the emulsion preparation. Therefore, this study would be of great importance for the research of emulsions stabilized by TFP as a natural food emulsifier.

4.
Biomaterials ; 290: 121852, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270058

RESUMO

Nanocarriers have great potential to enhance drug delivery efficiency and therapeutic effect for various cancers. However, premature drug leakage and non-specific targeting still limit the delivery efficiency. Here, we present a smart on-demand targeting nanotheranostic system (PO-PB@SPIOs) with stimuli-responsive releasing property to improve the delivery efficiency for ovarian cancer. This delivery system prevents premature drug leakage via boronate ester linkages and shields the targeting moieties (phenylboronic acid) from non-specific binding when circulating in the blood. The PO-PB@SPIOs would release the tumor-targeting payload (PB) in response to the tumor microenvironment. Then, PB was able to target the overexpressed sialic acids on tumor cells. The significant improvement of delivery efficiency was demonstrated in vivo by a significantly enhanced signal in near-infrared-fluorescence (NIRF)/magnetic-resonance (MR) imaging (5-fold higher) and a remarkable photo-thermal therapeutic effect (complete cure rate (CCR) up to 80%). Furthermore, due to the on-demand targeting and stimuli-responsive releasing strategy, this nanotheranostic system shows a greater delivery efficiency even than the active-targeting small molecules or control nanoformulations. We believe this delicate design has great potential to develop novel drug nanoformulation.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Feminino , Humanos , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanomedicina Teranóstica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Microambiente Tumoral
5.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(27): 9879-9885, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36186175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer poses a great threat to females worldwide. There are various therapies available to cure this common disease, such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. Implantable venous access ports (IVAP, referred to as PORT) have been widely used for breast cancer chemotherapy. Venous malformations are possible conditions encountered during PORT implantation. Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a common superior vena cava malformation. Most patients have normal right superior vena cava without affecting hemodynamics, so patients often have no obvious symptoms. CASE SUMMARY: We incidentally found that two patients had PLSVC while a PORT was implanted via the internal jugular vein. Due to chemotherapy for breast cancer, PORT was successfully implanted under the guidance of ultrasound into these 2 patients. Positive chest X-ray examination after the operation showed that the catheter ran beside the left mediastinum and the end was located in the seventh thoracic vertebra. The patients had no catheter-related complications and successfully completed the course of chemotherapy. Ultrasonography found that the ratio of PORT outer diameter to PLSVC inner diameter was less than 0.45, which was in line with the recommendations of relevant literature and operating guidelines. The purpose of this article is to introduce two rare cases and review the relevant literature. CONCLUSION: Correct assessment of PLSVC status and ultrasound-guided PORT placement generally does not affect breast cancer patients chemotherapy.

6.
Cancer Med ; 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106621

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immediate postmastectomy reconstruction for breast cancer has been widely used due to its unique esthetic and psychological effects. However, no other population-based study has investigated the effects of different reconstruction types on the survival in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). METHODS: We selected patients who met the eligibility criteria from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry (N = 9760). We then assessed the effect of different reconstructive surgical approaches (implant, autologous, implant and autologous combined reconstruction) on the overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) by using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. The nomograms were used to predict OS and BCSS. And the competitive risk model was used to assess breast cancer-specific death (BCSD) and non-breast cancer-specific death (NBCSD). RESULTS: Statistical analysis suggested that the three reconstruction methods had better OS and BCSS with lower hazard than mastectomy alone (log-rank test, p < 0.05). Multivariate stratified analysis showed that patients aged 40-60 years had the greatest improvement in OS (Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.646; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.439-0.950; p = 0.026) with combined reconstruction. BCSS could be improved only by implant reconstruction (AHR, 0.672; 95% CI, 0.514-0.878; p = 0.004). In addition, autologous reconstruction (AHR, 0.570; 95% CI, 0.350-0.929; p = 0.024) and implant reconstruction (AHR, 0.538; 95% CI, 0.339-0.853; p = 0.008) improved OS in patients >60 years of age. The survival prediction model quantified the survival benefits of TNBC patients undergoing different surgeries. Moreover, the C-indexes showed the good predictive ability of the nomograms. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that for TNBC patients, there is a survival benefit of immediate postmastectomy reconstruction compared with mastectomy alone. Among them, implant reconstruction has the most obvious advantage.

7.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 5601-5607, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172625

RESUMO

Background: With the widespread use of steroids and immunosuppressants in mainland China, disseminated strongyloidiasis is becoming a severely underestimated tropical disease due to the lack of disease-specific manifestations and well-established diagnostic methods. Case Presentation: Here, we report a 70-year-old woman who was diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome due to autonomic disturbance, symmetrical bulbar palsy, and lower-motor-nerve damage in the extremities; her symptoms continued to worsen after hormone and immunoglobulin therapy. Later, parasitic larvae were found in the patient's gastric fluid, and metagenomic Next Generation Sequencing (mNGS) detection of bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid also found a large number of Strongyloides roundworms. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated strongyloidiasis. The patient was given albendazole for anthelmintic treatment, but died two days after being transferred to the ICU due to the excessive strongyloidiasis burden. Conclusion: This case highlights the combined application of mNGS and traditional testing in the clinical diagnosis of difficult and critical parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients. mNGS is a new, adjunct diagnostic method to rapidly screen for possible parasitic etiologies.

8.
Foods ; 11(16)2022 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36010417

RESUMO

In this study, we employed the ultrasound-prepared electrostatic complex and covalent conjugate of soy protein isolate (SPI) and citrus pectin (CP) to prepare ß-carotene-loaded nanoemulsions. The in vitro digestion and storage stability of nanoemulsions stabilized by different types of emulsifiers were investigated and compared. Nanoemulsions stabilized by ultrasound-treated complex/conjugate showed the highest encapsulation efficiency; during gastric digestion, these nanoemulsions also demonstrated the smallest droplet sizes and the highest absolute values of zeta potential, indicating that both electrostatic complexation/covalent conjugation and ultrasound treatment could significantly improve the stability of the resulting nanoemulsions. In comparison, complexes were more beneficial for the controlled release of ß-carotene; however, the conjugate-stabilized nanoemulsion showed an overall higher bioaccessibility. The results were also confirmed by optical micrographs. Furthermore, nanoemulsions stabilized by ultrasound-prepared complexes/conjugates exhibited the highest stability during 14-day storage at 25 °C. The results suggested that ultrasound-prepared SPI-CP complexes and conjugates had great application potential for the delivery of hydrophobic nutrients.

9.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 46(4): 433-437, 2022 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929161

RESUMO

This paper studies the necessity of the current legislation on the supervision of medical devices in China from the perspectives of strengthening administration according to law, protecting public health, perfecting the legal system of medicine and promoting the development of the medical device industry. This study analyzes and summarizes the legislative experiences and forms in the field of medical device regulation in the United States, the European Union, Japan and other countries and regions, at present, the conditions of carrying out the legislation of medical device supervision in China are quite mature, and some policy suggestions are put forward for the enactment of the law of medical device management in China.


Assuntos
Equipamentos e Provisões , Legislação de Dispositivos Médicos , União Europeia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Indústrias , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
10.
Biol Chem ; 403(10): 945-958, 2022 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947460

RESUMO

The long non-coding RNA p21 (lncRNA-p21) was a tumor suppressor gene in most cancer types including gastric cancer (GC). We aimed to identify a specific lncRNA-p21-involved pathway in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of GC cells. A lower lncRNA-p21 expression in tumors was associated with advanced disease stage and predicted worse survival of GC patients. LncRNA-p21 overexpression in GC cell line somatic gastric cancer (SGC)-7901 and human gastric cancer (HGC)-27 suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis, while lncRNA-p21 knockdown caused the opposite effects. Through bioinformatics analysis and luciferase-based reporter assays, we identified miR-514b-3p as a sponge target of lncRNA-p21. Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor 9 (ARHGEF9), functioned as a tumor suppress factor in GC, was found as the downstream target of miR-514-3p, and their expressions were negatively correlated in GC tumor tissues. In addition, like lncRNA-p21 overexpression alone, miR-514-3p inactivation alone also led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis in SGC-7901 and HGC-27 cells, which were markedly attenuated by additional ARHGEF9 knockdown. Xenograft SGC-7901 cells with more lncRNA-p21 or ARHGEF9 expressions or with less miR-514-3p expression exhibited obviously slower in vivo growth than the control SGC-7901 cells in nude mice. Our study reveals a novel lncRNA-p21/miR-514b-3p/ARHGEF9 pathway that can be targeted for GC therapy.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho , Neoplasias Gástricas , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/genética , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo
11.
Front Oncol ; 12: 819531, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600374

RESUMO

Objective: The efficacy of primary tumor surgery on survival in female patients with de novo stage IV breast cancer (BC) remains unclear. Our study endeavored to develop comprehensive competing risk nomograms to predict clinical outcomes and guide precision treatment in these patients. Participants and Methods: A total of 12281 patients who had distant metastasis at initial BC diagnosis between 2010 and 2017 in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database, were enrolled in this study. First, we assessed the impacts of primary tumor surgery on overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) using the Kaplan-Meier curves. Then subgroup analyses stratified by different metastatic patterns were performed using Cox and competing risk models (CRM). Based on the filtered independent prognostic parameters by CRM, we established two nomograms to predict the probability of breast cancer-specific death (BCSD) at 1-,2- and 3-year intervals. Furthermore, calibration curves and area under the curves (AUC) were conducted for validation. Results: Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that surgery was associated with better OS and BCSS (P<0.001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that in bone-only metastases pattern, relative to breast-conserving surgery (BCS), patients receiving mastectomy had worse prognosis and the poorest survival belonged to non-surgery individuals (BCSS: mastectomy: HR=1.35; 95%CI=1.15-1.60; non-surgery: 2.42; 2.08-2.82; OS: mastectomy: 1.44; 1.23-1.68; non-surgery: 2.40; 2.08-2.78). Additionally, no survival difference was observed between BCS and reconstruction recipients (BCSS: HR=1.10; 95%CI=0.85-1.43; OS: 1.11; 0.86-1.44). Furthermore, patients undergoing BCS possessed similar BCSS with mastectomy recipients as well as reconstruction recipients in viscera metastases pattern, whereas non-surgery individuals had a worse survival (mastectomy: HR=1.04; 95%CI=0.92-1.18; reconstruction: 0.86; 0.69-1.06; non-surgery: 1.83; 1.63-2.05). Two competing risk nomograms of distinct metastatic patterns were established to comprehensively predict the survival of patients. Calibration curves indicated the terrific consistency of the models. Moreover, the AUC values in the training and validation sets were in the range of 0.70-0.80, exhibiting good specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion: The surgery implementation was associated with a lower probability of BCSD in de novo stage-IV BC patients. Our nomograms could offer a relatively accurate and individualized prediction of the cumulative incidence rate of BCSD after primary tumor resection.

12.
Cancer Med ; 11(20): 3886-3901, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignant tumor worldwide. Apoptosis and hypoxia are involved in the progression of BC, but reliable biomarkers for these have not been developed. We hope to explore a gene signature that combined apoptosis and hypoxia-related genes (AHGs) to predict BC prognosis and immune infiltration. METHODS: We collected the mRNA expression profiles and clinical data information of BC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. The gene signature based on AHGs was constructed using the univariate Cox regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and multivariate Cox regression analysis. The associations between risk scores, immune infiltration, and immune checkpoint gene expression were studied using single-sample gene set enrichment analysis. Besides, gene signature and independent clinicopathological characteristics were combined to establish a nomogram. Finally, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were performed on the potential functions of AHGs. RESULTS: We identified a 16-AHG signature (AGPAT1, BTBD6, EIF4EBP1, ERRFI1, FAM114A1, GRIP1, IRF2, JAK1, MAP2K6, MCTS1, NFKBIA, NFKBIZ, NUP43, PGK1, RCL1, and SGCE) that could independently predict BC prognosis. The median score of the risk model divided the patients into two subgroups. By contrast, patients in the high-risk group had poorer prognosis, less abundance of immune cell infiltration, and expression of immune checkpoint genes. The gene signature and nomogram had good predictive effects on the overall survival of BC patients. GO and KEGG analyses revealed that the differential expression of AHGs may be closely related to tumor immunity. CONCLUSION: We established and verified a 16-AHG BC signature which may help predict prognosis, assess potential immunotherapy benefits, and provide inspiration for future research on the functions and mechanisms of AHGs in BC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Prognóstico , Apoptose/genética , Biomarcadores , Hipóxia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular
13.
Food Chem ; 387: 132876, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395480

RESUMO

Recently, there has been a great interest in enhancing the emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) by Maillard reaction. As a commonly-used grafting polysaccharide, pectin has proved useful in modifying proteins. However, effects of its structural characteristics on conjugation are still not fully understood. To address this problem, we employed alkaline or/and enzymatic treatments to modify pectin and obtained three modified samples. Structural characteristics of pectin, including the molecular weight, degree of methoxylation and acetylation, and monosaccharide compositions were measured. When conjugated with SPI, pectin with lower molecular weight and less main chains induced higher conjugate yield. Fluorescence intensity and surface hydrophobicity of all conjugates markedly reduced compared to the original SPI, suggesting a more loosened protein structure after Maillard reaction. In this study, the enzymolysis pectin proved an optimum grafting polysaccharide considering the simple preparation procedures and the highest emulsifying properties of its resulting conjugates.


Assuntos
Pectinas , Proteínas de Soja , Emulsões/química , Reação de Maillard , Polissacarídeos , Proteínas de Soja/química
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35280512

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) seriously endangers humans. In traditional Chinese medicine, Marsdenia tenacissima (MTE) has anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, antihypertensive, and anticancer effects. This study reveals the antiproliferative effect of MTE on the HCC cells in vitro and provides a theoretical basis for the development and clinical application of anti-HCC agents. Methods. MHCC-97H and HepG2 cells were cultured in vitro and exposed to various concentrations and durations of MTE, and an MTT assay was used to detect the effects of MTE on cell proliferation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the morphological changes in the two cell lines after MTE stimulation. The MTE effects on the apoptosis and cell cycle distribution of the cell lines were detected by flow cytometry. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to detect target gene expression at the protein and mRNA levels, respectively. Results. MTE reduced the viability of the MHCC-97H and HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manners (P < 0.05). Autophagic vesicles and apoptotic bodies were found in the MHCC-97H and HepG2 cells after MTE incubation, and the Annexin V-PI assay showed that the apoptotic rates of the cell lines increased with increasing MTE concentration (P < 0.05). Autophagy inducer rapamycin promoted the MTE-induced apoptotic rates of the cell lines, whereas autophagy inhibitor chloroquine inhibited the apoptotic rates. More cells in the S phase were found in the two cell lines after MTE treatment (P < 0.05). After MTE incubation, MIF, CD47, and beclin-1 protein levels significantly increased. Furthermore, in the MTE group, Akt, mTOR, and caspase3 expressions decreased; however, LC 3 expression increased, which was significantly different from the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. MTE inhibited proliferation and induced autophagy, apoptosis, and S phase cell cycle arrest in the MHCC-97H and HepG2 cells. These effects might be related to the activation of MIF and mTOR signaling inhibition.

15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 437, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013450

RESUMO

Bioinformatics methods are used to construct an immune gene prognosis assessment model for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to screen biomarkers that affect the occurrence and prognosis of NSCLC. The transcriptomic data and clinicopathological data of NSCLC and cancer-adjacent normal tissues were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and the immune-related genes were obtained from the IMMPORT database ( http://www.immport.org/ ); then, the differentially expressed immune genes were screened out. Based on these genes, an immune gene prognosis model was constructed. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used for univariate and multivariate analyses. Further, the correlations among the risk score, clinicopathological characteristics, tumor microenvironment, and the prognosis of NSCLC were analyzed. A total of 193 differentially expressed immune genes related to NSCLC were screened based on the "wilcox.test" in R language, and Cox single factor analysis showed that 19 differentially expressed immune genes were associated with the prognosis of NSCLC (P < 0.05). After including 19 differentially expressed immune genes with P < 0.05 into the Cox multivariate analysis, an immune gene prognosis model of NSCLC was constructed (it included 13 differentially expressed immune genes). Based on the risk score, the samples were divided into the high-risk and low-risk groups. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve results showed that the 5-year overall survival rate in the high-risk group was 32.4%, and the 5-year overall survival rate in the low-risk group was 53.7%. The receiver operating characteristic model curve confirmed that the prediction model had a certain accuracy (AUC = 0.673). After incorporating multiple variables into the Cox regression analysis, the results showed that the immune gene prognostic risk score was an independent predictor of the prognosis of NSCLC patients. There was a certain correlation between the risk score and degree of neutrophil infiltration in the tumor microenvironment. The NSCLC immune gene prognosis assessment model was constructed based on bioinformatics methods, and it can be used to calculate the prognostic risk score of NSCLC patients. Further, this model is expected to provide help for clinical judgment of the prognosis of NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Modelos Estatísticos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/imunologia
16.
Foods ; 10(8)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441472

RESUMO

In order to remove the flocculent precipitation in Huyou juice after frozen storage and thawing process, the thawed juice was ultrasonically treated with different power (45-360 W) and time (10-60 min) in ice bath (~0 °C), and its sedimentation behavior during storage was observed. After optimization, the cloud stability of juice could be improved by ultrasonic treatment with ultrasonic power of 360 W or more for at least 30 min, which could be stable during 7 days of storage at 4 °C. Under this optimal condition (360 W, 30 min), the effects of ultrasound on the physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of thawed Huyou juice during storage were investigated. The results showed that with smaller particle size and lower polymer dispersity index, ultrasonic treatment did not significantly change the color, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and bioactive compounds including flavonoids and other phenolics. In addition, all properties of samples were at the same level during storage. Thus, ultrasound was applicable since it can improve the cloud stability of Huyou juice with minimal impact on its physicochemical properties and nutritional quality compared to the untreated one.

17.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(12): 1881-1889, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the high morbidity and mortality of lung cancer and the high incidence of pulmonary nodules, clearly distinguishing benign from malignant lung nodules at an early stage is of great significance. However, determining the kind of lung nodule which is more prone to lung cancer remains a problem worldwide. METHODS: A total of 480 patients with pulmonary nodule data were collected from Shandong, China. We assessed the clinical characteristics and computed tomography (CT) imaging features among pulmonary nodules in patients who had undergone video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy from 2013 to 2018. Preliminary selection of features was based on a statistical analysis using SPSS. We used WEKA to assess the machine learning models using its multiple algorithms and selected the best decision tree model using its optimization algorithm. RESULTS: The combination of decision tree and logistics regression optimized the decision tree without affecting its AUC. The decision tree structure showed that lobulation was the most important feature, followed by spiculation, vessel convergence sign, nodule type, satellite nodule, nodule size and age of patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that decision tree analyses can be applied to screen individuals for early lung cancer with CT. Our decision tree provides a new way to help clinicians establish a logical diagnosis by a stepwise progression method, but still needs to be validated for prospective trials in a larger patient population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/patologia , Probabilidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Genet ; 12: 721252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490047

RESUMO

Background: Oxidative stress is related to oncogenic transformation in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC). We intended to identify a prognostic antioxidant gene signature and investigate its relationship with immune infiltration in KIRC. Methods: With the support of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we researched the gene expression and clinical data of KIRC patients. Antioxidant related genes with significant differences in expression between KIRC and normal samples were then identified. Through univariate and multivariate Cox analysis, a prognostic gene model was established and all patients were divided into high- and low-risk subgroups. Single sample gene set enrichment analysis was adopted to analyze the immune infiltration, HLA expression, and immune checkpoint genes in different risk groups. Finally, the prognostic nomogram model was established and evaluated. Results: We identified six antioxidant genes significantly correlated with the outcome of KIRC patients as independent predictors, namely DPEP1 (HR = 0.97, P < 0.05), GSTM3 (HR = 0.97, P < 0.05), IYD (HR = 0.33, P < 0.05), KDM3B (HR = 0.96, P < 0.05), PRDX2 (HR = 0.99, P < 0.05), and PRXL2A (HR = 0.96, P < 0.05). The high- and low-risk subgroups of KIRC patients were grouped according to the six-gene signature. Patients with higher risk scores had poorer prognosis, more advanced grade and stage, and more abundance of M0 macrophages, regulatory T cells, and follicular helper T cells. There were statistically significant differences in HLA and checkpoint gene expression between the two risk subgroups. The performance of the nomogram was favorable (concordance index = 0.766) and reliably predicted the 3-year (AUC = 0.792) and 5-year (AUC = 0.766) survival of patients with KIRC. Conclusion: The novel six antioxidant related gene signature could effectively forecast the prognosis of patients with KIRC, supply insights into the interaction between cellular antioxidant mechanisms and cancer, and is an innovative tool for selecting potential patients and targets for immunotherapy.

19.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 70: 105327, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961437

RESUMO

In the present work, chitin suspensions after enzymolysis and sonoenzymolysis were taken as adsorbents to evaluate the adsorption properties of Congo red (CR) dyes. Compared with untreated chitin suspension, the CR adsorption performance was significantly improved after enzymolysis and even more after sonoenzymolysis. According to different adsorption kinetic and isotherm models, Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second order model were more reliable to describe the adsorption process of CR onto different chitin samples and demonstrated a monolayer and favorable physisorption process. What's more, negative values of ΔG (Gibbs free energy change) and the shifts to higher negative values with the temperature increasing from adsorption thermodynamic study proved a spontaneous CR adsorption process. The structural characterization before and after adsorption further verified the physical adsorption between chitin and CR, and a larger specific area and higher porosity of chitin suspension was obtained after sonoenzymolysis with more available active sites.


Assuntos
Quitina/química , Vermelho Congo/química , Enzimas/química , Sonicação/métodos , Adsorção , Porosidade , Proteólise , Termodinâmica
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(12): 4636-4642, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Today, ultrasound is increasingly utilized in enzyme modification. Strongly dependent on the specific operational conditions, the modification effect brought by ultrasound can be activation and inactivation of enzymes. This work aims to study the ultrasound mechanisms under different conditions, to investigate the respective roles of free radical effect and mechanical effect in pectinase activation and inactivation, and to reveal the influence of pectinase concentration on the ultrasound-modification effect. RESULTS: When ultrasound was introduced to a liquid system, generation of free radicals was positively correlated with ultrasound intensity and treatment duration, but negatively correlated with temperature. Thiourea with a concentration of 4 mmol L-1 was selected as a free radical scavenger to effectively shield ultrasound free radicals. The highest enzyme activity of pectinase solutions at 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 mg mL-1 was obtained at the same ultrasound intensity of 4.50 W mL-1 and time of 15 min, where the enzyme activity was increased by 68.24%, 20.98% and 18.83%, respectively. Furthermore, the addition of thiourea enhanced the enzyme activity at each tested ultrasound intensity and time, especially those exceeding the best conditions; it also eliminated the redshift phenomenon that was previously presented in the fluorescence spectra of pectinase samples. CONCLUSION: Pectinase concentrations did not change the optimum ultrasound conditions for enzyme modification, but pectinase with a low concentration was more vulnerable to ultrasound treatment. During modification, ultrasound mechanical effects dominated in the pectinase activation, while free radical effects dominated in the inactivation process. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Poligalacturonase/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Temperatura , Ultrassom
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