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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 110032, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187961

RESUMO

This study was devised to investigate if P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated the drug-drug interaction (DDI) between genistein and repaglinide. When genistein was added, the plasma concentrations of repaglinide in rats were increased. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of repaglinide increased from 70.80 ± 7.98 ng/mL to 124.71 ± 9.02 ng/mL and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased from 134.89 ± 13.65 µg·h/L to 245.95 ± 7.24 µg·h/L. Intestinal absorption of repaglinide was markedly enhanced by genistein or P-gp inhibitor verapamil (Ver), both in situ rat jejunal perfusion studies and in vitro transport assays using everted rat intestinal sac preparations. Furthermore, the accumulation of repaglinide in both Caco-2 cells and IEC-6 cells also increased significantly in the presence of genistein and Ver. The transepithelial transport rate of repaglinide from basolateral-to-apical in MDR1-MDCK cells was 3.6-fold higher than the apical-to-basolateral rate with a net efflux ratio of 1.92 compared with mock-MDCK cells, which was significantly decreased following co-administration with genistein or Ver. In an intracellular accumulation experiment using Rhodamine 123 as a P-gp substrate, genistein significantly increased the intracellular fluorescence of Rhodamine 123. These results indicated that genistein had an inhibitory effect on the efflux function of P-gp. Through molecular docking assays we further found that genistein could bind to the nucleotide-binding domains (NBD) in the cytoplasm of P-gp, thus affecting the functions of P-gp. In conclusion, genistein inhibited the efflux of repaglinide mediated by P-gp in rats and in vitro. The findings suggested that the DDI between genistein and repaglinide is mediated by P-gp, and a dosage adjustment may be needed when they are co-administered in a clinical setting.

2.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156087

RESUMO

Methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) proteins have diverse molecular and biological functions in plants. Most studies of MBD proteins in plants have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana L. Here we cloned SvMBD5 from the willow Salix viminalis L. by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and analyzed the structure of SvMBD5 and its evolutionary relationships with proteins in other species. The coding sequence of SvMBD5 is 645 bp long, encoding a 214 amino acid protein with a methyl-CpG-binding domain. SvMBD5 belongs to the same subfamily as AtMBD5 and AtMBD6 from Arabidopsis. Subcellular localization analysis showed that SvMBD5 is only expressed in the nucleus. We transformed Arabidopsis plants with a 35S::SvMBD5 expression construct to examine SvMBD5 function. The Arabidopsis SvMBD5-expressing line flowered earlier than the wild type. In the transgenic plants, the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T and CONSTANS significantly increased, while the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C greatly decreased. In addition, heterologously expressing SvMBD5 in Arabidopsis significantly inhibited the establishment and maintenance of methylation of CHROMOMETHYLASE 3 and METHYLTRANSFERASE 1, as well as their expression, and significantly increased the expression of the demethylation-related genes REPRESSOR OF SILENCING1 and DEMETER-LIKE PROTEIN3. Our findings suggest that SvMBD5 participates in the flowering process by regulating the methylation levels of flowering genes, laying the foundation for further studying the role of SvMBD5 in regulating DNA demethylation.

3.
Jpn J Clin Oncol ; 50(3): 325-332, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32039443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) was revised to include molecular biomarkers as diagnostic criteria. However, conventional biopsies of gliomas were spatially and temporally limited. This study aimed to determine whether circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could provide more comprehensive diagnostic information to gliomas. METHODS: Combined with clinical data, we analyzed gene alterations from CSF and tumor tissues of newly diagnosed patients, and detected mutations of ctDNA in recurrent patients. We simultaneously analyzed mutations of ctDNA in different glioma subtypes, and in lower-grade gliomas (LrGG) versus glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). RESULTS: CSF ctDNA mutations had high concordance rates with tumor DNA (tDNA). CSF ctDNA mutations of PTEN and TP53 were commonly detected in recurrent gliomas patients. IDH mutation was detected in most of CSF ctDNA derived from IDH-mutant diffuse astrocytomas, while CSF ctDNA mutations of RB1 and EGFR were found in IDH-wild-type GBM. IDH mutation was detected in LrGG, whereas Rb1 mutation was more commonly detected in GBM. CONCLUSIONS: CSF ctDNA detection can be an alternative method as liquid biopsy in gliomas.

4.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 62, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047240

RESUMO

African swine fever virus (ASFV), the aetiological agent of African swine fever (ASF), causes lethal haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs with high mortality and morbidity and has devastating consequences on the global swine industry. On-site rapid and sensitive detection of ASFV is key to the timely implementation of control. In this study, we developed a rapid, sensitive and instrument-free ASFV detection method based on CRISPR/Cas12a technology and lateral flow detection (named CRISPR/Cas12a-LFD). The limit of detection of CRISPR/Cas12a-LFD is 20 copies of ASFV genomic DNA per reaction, and the detection process can be completed in an hour. The assay showed no cross-reactivity with other swine DNA viruses, and has 100% agreement with real-time PCR detection of ASFV in 149 clinical samples. Overall, the CRISPR/Cas12a-LFD method provides a novel alternative for the portable, simple, sensitive, and specific detection of ASFV and may contribute to the prevention and control of ASF outbreaks.

5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(3): 2049-2069, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023549

RESUMO

Hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress are considered to be the sequential steps in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously found that catalpol, an iridoid glucoside extracted from the root of Romania glutinosa L, protected against diabetes-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Here, we found that the increased expression of p66shc was observed in NAFLD models and catalpol could inhibit p66shc expression to ameliorate NAFLD effectively. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the p66shc-targeting miRNAs in regulating oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis, also the mechanisms of catalpol inhibiting NAFLD. We found that the effects of catalpol inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and steasis are dependent on inhibiting P66Shc expression. In addition, miR-96-5p was able to suppress p66shc/cytochrome C cascade via targeting p66shc mRNA 3'UTR, and catalpol could lead to suppression of NAFLD via upregulating miR-96-5p level. Thus, catalpol was effective in ameliorating NAFLD, and miR-96-5p/p66shc/cytochrome C cascade might be a potential target.

6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 191: 112143, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078865

RESUMO

Herein, we communicate our recent medicinal chemistry efforts which have culminated in a series of PI3Kδ/γ dual inhibitors structurally featuring a seven-membered spirocyclic spacer. Compound 26, the most potent one among them, exhibited superior PI3Kδ inhibitory activity (IC50 = 1.0 nM) to that of the approved PI3Kδ inhibitor Idelalisib. Besides, it exerted remarkable anti-proliferative efficacy against human malignant B-cell line SU-DHL-6 with GI50 value of 33 nM. The biochemical assay against the other three class I PI3K isoforms identified compound 26 as a potent PI3Kδ/γ dual inhibitor with considerable selectivity over PI3Kα and PI3Kß. In SU-DHL-6 cells, a dramatic down-regulation of PI3K signaling was observed following compound 26-treatment at the concentration as low as 10 nM. Inspiringly, the pharmacokinetic (PK) study in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats revealed it was orally available with a favorable bioavailability (F = 87.5%). Overall, compound 26, a promising PI3Kδ/γ dual inhibitor, has the potential to emerge as a clinical candidate for the treatment of leukocyte-mediated malignancies after extensive functional investigation.

7.
Bioorg Chem ; 95: 103542, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918398

RESUMO

JAK3 is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and has been a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma. In this study, a new class of thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines harboring acrylamide pharmacophore were synthesized as potent covalent JAK3 inhibitors (IC50 < 10 nM). Among them, 9a and 9 g displayed the strongest inhibitory potency against JAK3 kinase activity, with IC50 values of 1.9 nM and 1.8 nM, respectively. Furthermore, compared with the reference agents, Spebrutinib and Ibrutinib, 9a not only demonstrated enhanced antiproliferative activity against B lymphoma cells, but also showed very weak proliferative inhibition against normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at a concentration of 20 µM. Analysis of the mechanism revealed that 9a could induce the obvious apoptosis in B lymphoma cells and prevent JAK3-STAT3 cascade as well as BTK pathway. Taken together, 9a may be served as a potential new JAK3 inhibitor for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902757

RESUMO

This paper presents a personalized mixed reality (MR) surgical assistance system for brachytherapy. Using a novel, modified multi-information fusion method, the fusion of virtual organs and a preoperative plan for an actual patient and the real-time tracking of surgical tools were achieved. Using the Quaternion-based Iterative Closest Point (QICP) algorithm and a hand-eye calibration method, the preoperative plan can be fused into individual patients. Using the electromagnetic (EM) tracker, users can track the surgery tools in real time, without multiple CT scans, and doctors can immediately perform the surgery. We performed a series of experiments, including phantom and animal experiments, to test the accuracy and efficiency of the system. In the phantom experiment, the average needle location error was 0.957 mm. Based on the results of animal experiments, the needle insertion error was 2.416 mm. All experimental results indicated that the procedure could be applied in further clinical studies.

9.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diclofenac is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. However, adverse effects in the kidney limit its clinical application. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential effect of cilastatin on diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury and to clarify the potential roles of renal organic anion transporters (OATs) in the drug-drug interaction between cilastatin and diclofenac. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effect of cilastatin was evaluated in diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury in mice. Human OAT1/3-transfected HEK293 cells and renal primary proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) were used to investigate OAT1/3-mediated transport and the cytotoxicity of diclofenac. KEY RESULTS: Cilastatin treatment decreased the pathological changes, renal dysfunction and elevated renal levels of oxidation products, cytokine production and apoptosis induced by diclofenac in mice. Moreover, cilastatin increased the plasma concentration and decreased the renal distribution of diclofenac and its glucuronide metabolite, diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DLF-AG). Similarly, cilastatin inhibited cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in RPTCs but did not change the intracellular accumulation of diclofenac. DLF-AG but not diclofenac exhibited OAT-dependent cytotoxicity and was identified as an OAT1/3 substrate. Cilastatin inhibited the intracellular accumulation and decreased the cytotoxicity of DLF-AG in RPTCs. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Cilastatin alleviated diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury in mice by restoring the redox balance, suppressing inflammation, and reducing apoptosis. Cilastatin inhibited OATs and decreased the renal distribution of diclofenac and DLF-AG, which further ameliorated the diclofenac-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Cilastatin can be potentially used in the clinic as a therapeutic agent to alleviate the adverse renal reaction to diclofenac.

10.
Adv Mater ; 32(7): e1906712, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898831

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) reconfigurable patterns with dynamic morphologies enable the on-demand control of surface properties, such as optical, wetting, and adhesive properties, to achieve smart surfaces. Here, a simple yet general strategy is developed for fabricating 3D patterns with reversible wrinkles on the surface, in which a Diels-Alder (D-A) reaction in the top layer, which consists of a reversible cross-linked polymer network composed of a furan-containing copolymer (PSFB) and bismaleimide (BMI), can be spatially controlled by the photodimerization of BMI. When a photomask is used during irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light, selective photodimerization of the maleimide leads to the diffusion of maleimide from the unexposed region to the exposed region, resulting in the generation of a diffused relief pattern. By controlling the reversible D-A reaction at different temperatures, orthogonal wrinkles can be sequentially and reversibly generated or erased in both the exposed and unexposed regions on the surface. Theoretical modeling with boundary effects reveals that the orientation of the wrinkle in the exposed region is perpendicular to the boundary, whereas the wrinkle in the unexposed region is parallel to the boundary. This strategy, based on a photocontrolled D-A reaction, provides an important and robust alternative for fabricating 3D patterned surfaces with dynamic topographies.

11.
Neuroreport ; 31(4): 293-299, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed changes in granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and its correlation with leukocyte and neutrophil counts in patients after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Sixty TBI patients were included retrospectively. The serum levels of G-CSF, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and peripheral leukocyte and neutrophil counts at different time points were measured and analyzed, and the 6-month functional outcomes were monitored. RESULTS: The levels of G-CSF in mild and moderate TBI groups were higher than the control at the first three time points. G-CSF in the severe TBI group increased slowly and peaked at day 7, and was only significantly different from the control at day 7 and 14. The leukocyte and neutrophil counts of the mild group gradually decreased, but a second increase after day 4 was observed in the severe group. The cell counts were higher in the severe group compared to other groups. A positive correlation between G-CSF and leukocyte and neutrophil counts was observed in the severe group at day 1. G-CSF positively correlated with TNF-α in the severe group at day 4 and 7. In severe patients with a good outcome, G-CSF level at day 7 was significantly higher than those with a poor outcome. CONCLUSION: The G-CSF levels in the severe TBI group exhibited a different pattern from those in the mild and moderate TBI groups, and these levels positively correlated with inflammatory biomarkers. Higher G-CSF levels in severe TBI at day 7 indicated a good outcome at 6 months.

13.
Bioorg Chem ; 94: 103408, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706682

RESUMO

A new class of pyrimidine derivatives were designed and synthesized as potential dual FAK and EGFRT790M inhibitors using a fragment-based drug design strategy. This effort led to the identification of the two most active inhibitors, namely 9a and 9f, against both FAK (IC50 = 1.03 and 3.05 nM, respectively) and EGFRT790M (IC50 = 3.89 and 7.13 nM, respectively) kinase activity. Moreover, most of these compounds also exhibited strong antiproliferative activity against the three evaluated FAK-overexpressing pancreatic cancer (PC) cells (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Panc-1) and two drug-resistant cancer cell lines (breast cancer MCF-7/adr cells and lung cancer H1975 cells) at concentrations lower than 6.936 µM. In addition, 9a was also effective in the in vivo assessment conducted in a FAK-driven human AsPC-1 cell xenograft mouse model. Overall, this study offers a new insight into the treatment of hard to treat cancers.

14.
Mol Med Rep ; 21(2): 607-614, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789412

RESUMO

Ventilator­induced lung injury (VILI) is a life­threatening condition caused by the inappropriate use of mechanical ventilation (MV). However, the precise molecular mechanism inducing the development of VILI remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was revealed that the calcineurin/NFATc4 signaling pathway mediates the expression of adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines essential for the development of VILI. The present results revealed that a high tidal volume ventilation (HV) caused lung inflammation and edema in the alveolar walls and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. The calcineurin activity and protein expression in the lungs were increased in animals with VILI, and NFATc4 translocated into the nucleus following calcineurin activation. Furthermore, the translocation of NFATc4 and lung injury were prevented by a calcineurin inhibitor (CsA). Thus, the present results highlighted the critical role of the calcineurin/NFATc4 signaling pathway in VILI and suggest that this pathway coincides with the release of ICAM­1, VCAM­1, TNF­α and IL­1ß.

15.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(4): 3309-3319, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587272

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore whether rhein could enhance the effects of pemetrexed (PTX) on the therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to clarify the associated molecular mechanism. Our study shows that rhein in combination with PTX could obviously increase the systemic exposure of PTX in rats, which would be mediated by the inhibition of organic anion transporters (OATs). Furthermore, the toxicity of PTX was significantly raised by rhein in A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Concomitant administration of rhein and PTX-induced cell apoptosis compared with PTX alone in flow cytometry assays, which was further validated by the protein expressions of the apoptotic markers B-cell lymphoma-2/Bcl-2-associated x (Bcl-2/Bax) and Cleaved-Caspase3 (Cl-Caspase3). Meanwhile, the results of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) dyeing experiments showed that PTX-induced autophagy could be enhanced by combination therapy with rhein in A549 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the synergistic effect of rhein on PTX-mediated autophagy may be interrelated to PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibition and to the enhancement of p-AMPK and light chain 3-II (LC3-II) protein levels. From these findings, it could be surmised that rhein enhanced the antitumor activity of PTX through influencing autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway and Bcl-2 family of proteins in A549 cells. Our findings demonstrated that the potential application of rhein as a candidate drug in combination with PTX is promising for treatment of the human lung cancer.

16.
Cancer Sci ; 111(1): 84-97, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774615

RESUMO

Although accumulating evidence has indicated the intimate association between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and acquired resistance to chemotherapy for colorectal cancer (CRC), the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Herein, we reported that Snail, a crucial EMT controller, was upregulated in CRC tissues. Colorectal cancer cells overexpressing Snail were found to be more resistant to 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu). Mechanistic studies reveal that Snail could increase the expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) rather than the other 23 chemoresistance-related genes. Additionally, knockdown of ABCB1 significantly attenuated Snail-induced 5-Fu resistance in CRC cells. Oxaliplatin increased Snail and ABCB1 expression in CRC cells. Snail and ABCB1 were upregulated in 5-Fu-resistant HCT-8 (HCT-8/5-Fu) cells and inhibition of Snail decreased ABCB1 in HCT-8/5-Fu cells. These results confirm the vital role played by ABCB1 in Snail-induced chemoresistance. Further investigation into the relevant molecular mechanism revealed Snail-mediated ABCB1 upregulation was independent of ß-catenin, STAT3, PXR, CAR and Foxo3a, which are commonly involved in modulating ABCB1 transcription. Instead, Snail upregulated ABCB1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter. Clinical analysis confirms that increased Snail expression correlated significantly with tumor size (P = .018), lymph node metastasis (P = .033), distant metastasis (P = .025), clinical stage grade (P = .024), and poor prognosis (P = .045) of CRC patients. Moreover, coexpression of Snail and ABCB1 was observed in CRC patients. Our study revealed that direct regulation of ABCB1 by Snail was critical for conferring chemoresistance in CRC cells. These findings unraveled the mechanisms underlying the association between EMT and chemoresistance, and provided potential targets for CRC clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
17.
ChemMedChem ; 15(2): 182-187, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755225

RESUMO

A new class of pyrimidine derivatives were identified as potent protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Most of these small-molecule inhibitors displayed strong enzymatic activity against BTK and JAK3 kinases at concentrations lower than 10 nM. The representative compound N-(3-((5-chloro-2-(4-((1-morpholino)acetylamino)phenylamino)-4-pyrimidinyl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (6 a) also exhibited high inhibitory potency toward both BTK and JAK kinase families, as well as ErbB4, at a concentration of 10 nM, achieving rates of inhibition higher than 57 %. Additionally, in vivo biological evaluations showed that 6 a can remarkably decrease the severity of IPF disease. All these investigations suggested that the multi-PTK inhibitor 6 a may serve as a promising agent for the treatment of IPF.

18.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 187-198, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752552

RESUMO

Twenty novel talmapimod analogues were designed, synthesised and evaluated for the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Among them, compound 6n, the most potent one, was selected for exploring the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory efficacy. In RAW264.7 cells, it effectively suppressed lipopolysaccharides-induced (LPS-induced) expressions of iNOS and COX-2. As illustrated by the western blot analysis, 6n downregulated both the NF-κB signalling and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Further enzymatic assay identified 6n as a potent inhibitor against both p38α MAPK (IC50=1.95 µM) and COX-2 (IC50=0.036 µM). By virtue of the concomitant inhibition of p38α MAPK, its upstream effector, and COX-2, along with its capability to downregulate NF-κB and MAPK-signalling pathways, 6n, a polypharmacological anti-inflammatory agent, deserves further development as a novel anti-inflammatory drug.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estrutura Molecular , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
19.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 48(1): 53-59, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852273

RESUMO

Gramicidin is a well-known antibiotic and recently was reported to induced tumour cell death, however, little is understood about the molecular mechanism of gramicidin as a therapeutic agent for solid tumours. Here, we investigated the role of gramicidin in cholangiocarcinoma cells. We found that gramicidin A inhibits cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and induced the necrotic cell death. We used next generation sequencing to analyse gene expression profiles of cholangiocarcinoma cells treated with gramicidin. We identified 265 differentially expressed genes in cholangiocarcinoma cells between PBS treatment and gramicidin treatment. EGR4 was confirmed to be a target of gramicidin-induced cell growth inhibition. Furthermore, we demonstrated that downregulation of EGR4 in cholangiocarcinoma cells leads to restraining tumour cell growth. Of note, EGR4 was expressed at highest levels in cholangiocarcinoma tissues among 17 types of human cancers, and EGR4 expression positively correlated with several growth factors associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Our findings ascertain that EGR4 is a potential target in cholangiocarcinoma and suppressing EGR4 by gramicidin establish an essential mechanism for bile duct carcinoma progression.

20.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(2): 115254, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866272

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a serious and fatal lung disease, with a median survival of only 3-5 years from diagnosis. Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) has a well-established role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and autoimmune-related pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, through the use of a conformationally-constrained design strategy, a series of thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines were synthesized as potent JAK3 inhibitors for the treatment of IPF. Among them, the most potent JAK3 inhibitor, namely 8e (IC50 = 1.38 nM), significantly reduced the degree of airsacculitis and fibrosis according to hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining assay for the lung tissue in the bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. The clear reduction of the lung collagen deposition by the determination of Masson and hydroxyproline (HYP) content also demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of fibrosis. In addition, 8e also reduced the expression of the inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-17A, TNF-α and malondialdehyde (MDA) in lung tissue, which indicated its higher anti-inflammatory activity compared with that of the reference agents (nintedanib and gefitinib). Furthermore, it possessed low cytotoxicity against normal human bronchial epithelia (HBE) cells (IC50 > 39.0 µM) and C57BL mice. All these evaluated biological properties suggest that 8e may be a potential JAK3 inhibitor for the treatment of IPF.

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