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1.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 768767, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777322

RESUMO

This experiment aims to explore the effects of compound enzyme preparation substituting chlortetracycline on growth performance, serum immune markers, and antioxidant capacity and intestinal health in weaned piglets. A total of twenty-four 28-day-old "Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire" weaned piglets with an average initial weight of 7.25 ± 0.25 kg were randomly divided into three groups according to their body weight, with eight replicates in each group and one pig in each replicate. The three dietary treatments were basal diet (CON), basal diet + 1,000 mg/kg compound enzyme preparation (cellulase 4,000 IU/g, α-amylase 1,000 IU/g, ß-glucanase 150 IU/g, and neutral protease 3,000 IU/g, CE), and basal diet + 75 mg/kg chlortetracycline (CTC). The animal experiment lasted for 28 days and was divided into two stages: the early stage (0-14 days) and the late stage (15-28 days). The results showed that (1) compared with the CON, the CE and CTC significantly increased the ADG of weaned piglets during the early and whole period of experiment (p < 0.05), decreased the F:G in the whole experiment period (p < 0.05), and diarrhea rate in the early stage (p < 0.01). (2) Compared with the CON, the apparent total tract digestibility of ADF and NDF was significantly increased in pigs fed the CE diet in the early and late stages of experiment (p < 0.05) with no significant difference compared with the CTC. (3) Compared with the CON, the concentrations of serum IgA and SOD in weaned piglets were significantly increased in the CE group in the early stage of the experiment (p < 0.05). (4) Compared with the CON group, the acetic acid, propionic acid, and total VFA contents in cecum and colon segments were elevated in the CE group (p < 0.05) with no significant difference compared with the CTC. (5) Compared with the CON group, the villus height of duodenum and jejunum and the ratio of villus height to recess depth of ileum were increased in the CE and CTC group (p < 0.05). (6) Compared with the CON group, the abundance of Lactobacillus significantly increased (p < 0.01) while the abundance of Escherichia coli decreased in the CE group and CTC group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, CE preparation instead of CTC can significantly improve the nutrient digestibility, the immunity, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal health of pigs, which may contribute to the improved growth performance of piglets.

2.
Anim Nutr ; 7(4): 1061-1069, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738036

RESUMO

As the first line of defence against pathogens and endotoxins crossing the intestine-blood barrier, the intestinal epithelial barrier plays a determinant role in pigs' health and growth. 4-Phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), an aromatic fatty acid, was reported to benefit homeostasis of endoplasmic reticulum and protein synthesis. However, whether 4-PBA affects intestinal epithelial barrier function in pigs is unknown. This study aimed to explore the effects of 4-PBA on the intestinal barrier function, using in vitro models of well-differentiated intestinal porcine epithelial cell (IPEC-J2) monolayers in the transwell plates. Cell monolayers with or without 4-PBA (1.0 mmol/L) treatment were challenged with physical scratch, deoxynivalenol (DON, 2.0 µg/mL, 48 h), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5.0 µg/mL, 48 h), respectively. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD-4) permeability were measured to indicate barrier integrity and permeability. Real-time PCR and Western blot were conducted to determine relative gene and protein expressions of tight junction proteins. As expected, physical scratch, DON, and LPS challenges decreased TEER and increased FD-4 permeability. 4-PBA treatment accelerated cell mitigation and rehabilitation of the physical scratch-damaged intestinal epithelial barrier but did not alleviate DON or LPS induced barrier damage. However, once 48-h DON and LPS challenges were removed, rehabilitation of the epithelial barrier function of IPEC-J2 monolayer was accelerated by the 4-PBA treatment. Also, the relative gene and protein expressions of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and claudin-1 were further upregulated by the 4-PBA treatment during the barrier rehabilitation. Taken together, 4-PBA accelerated the IPEC-J2 cell monolayer barrier recovering from physical scratch, DON-, and LPS-induced damage, via enhancing cell mitigation and expressions of tight junction proteins.

3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 719967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512598

RESUMO

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) have been proved to prevent obesity and modulate gut microbiota. However, the underlying mechanisms of LBPs' regulating lipid metabolism remain entirely unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether LBPs are able to modulate the gut microbiota to prevent obesity. The results showed that oral administration of LBPs alleviated dyslipidemia by decreasing the serum levels of total triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and elevating the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese mice. Furthermore, LBP treatment decreased the number and size of adipocytes in epididymal adipose tissues and downregulated the expression of adipogenesis-related genes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed that LBPs increased the diversity of bacteria, reduced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and improved the gut dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet; for example, LBPs increased the production of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria Lacticigenium, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, and Butyricicoccus. LBPs treatment also increased the content of fecal short-chain fatty acids, including butyric acid. These findings illustrate that LBPs might be developed as a potential prebiotic to improve lipid metabolism and intestinal diseases.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 734389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539619

RESUMO

The study investigated the impact of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) on growth performance, immunity and antioxidant properties, nutrient digestibility, and gut microbiota of weaned piglets by replacing soybean meal with FCSM in the diet. The experimental piglets were fed with either the soybean meal diet (SBM group) or fermented cottonseed meal diet (FCSM group) for 14days after weaning. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE), amino acids and nitrogen was higher in the FCSM diet than those in the SBM diet (p<0.05). The piglets in the FCSM group showed greater growth performance and lower diarrhea rate than those in the SBM group (p<0.05). The concentration of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and antioxidase, intestinal and hepatic antioxidase were increased and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the serum was decreased in those piglets in the FCSM group compared to those piglets in the SBM group (p<0.05). The piglets in the FCSM group had a higher concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in their ileum and cecum and a higher Simpson index of ileum than piglets in the SBM group (p<0.05). The relative abundance of Lactobacillus and [Ruminococcus]_torques_group in ileum and Intestinibacter, norank_f_Muribaculaceae, unclassified_o_Lactobacillales and [Eubacterium]_coprostanoligenes_group in cecum were enhanced in piglets fed with the FCSM diet, whereas the relative abundance of Sarcina and Terrisporobacter were increased in piglets fed with the SBM diet. Overall, FCSM replacing SBM improved the growth performance, immunity and antioxidant properties, and nutrient digestibility; possibly via the alterant gut microbiota and its metabolism of weaned piglets. Graphical AbstractFermented cottonseed meal as a partial replacement for soybean meal could improve the growth performance, immunity and antioxidant properties, and nutrient digestibility by altering the gut microbiota profile of weaned piglets. SBM, soybean meal; FCSM, fermented cottonseed meal.

5.
PeerJ ; 9: e11934, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434661

RESUMO

Garlic (Allium sativum) is an essential vegetable that has been widely utilized as seasoning, flavoring, culinary and in herbal remedies. Garlic contains several characteristic organosulfur compounds, such as diallyl sulfide, allicin (diallyl thiosulphate), γ-glutamylcysteine, and S-allyl cysteine (alliin) and ajoene, which garlic has beneficial effects on inflammation, oxidative stress markers, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and endothelial function in vitro or in animal model. These bioactive molecules are also playing pivotal role in livestock and fisheries production apart from its application in humans. Supplementation of animal feed with garlic and its related products is consistent with the modern agricultural concept of organic animal husbandry. This review compiles the information describing the effects of feeding garlic and its extracts on selected performance parameters in animals (chicken, rabbits, ruminants, pigs and fish). This review may provide reference for scientists and entrepreneurs to investigate the applications of feeds added with garlic and allicin by-products for the improvement of animal husbandry and aquatic production.

6.
Front Nutr ; 8: 716723, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434954

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal dietary fiber intake and piglet health. Multiparous sows were randomly assigned to two groups and fed diets without inulin (control group, n = 20) or 1.6% inulin (1.6IN group, n = 20). The results indicate that 1.6IN prevented the prolonged farrowing duration of sows (P < 0.05) and shortened the average piglet birth interval (P < 0.1). In addition, 1.6IN decreased the percentage of the piglet born weak and the percentage of the piglet with hyperthermia after birth (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the 1.6IN group had a lower concentration of urea nitrogen in the colostrum, and also prevented diarrhea, increased litter gain, survival rate, and average daily gain for suckling piglets (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 1.6IN decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, and Streptococcus; increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Desulfovibrio, Paludibacter, CF231, and Prevotella. Overall, this study showed that maternal fiber nutrition during pregnancy regulated the health of offspring, and the response of the maternal intestinal microbes played an important role in intervening in the phenotype of sows and neonatal piglets.

7.
Anim Nutr ; 7(2): 259-267, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258414

RESUMO

Dietary fiber (DF), divided into soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), has attracted increasing attention in the field of pig nutrition. Although DF reduces nutrient digestibility and inhibits energy deposition in most cases, fiber-rich feeds have been widely used in pig diets. This is not only because of lower feed costs, but also from the continuous discovery about the nutritional value of DF, mainly including the improvement of piglet intestinal health and sow reproductive performance. The addition timing has also been further considered, which potentially enables the nutritional value of DF to be accurately used in applicable pig models. Furthermore, fiber degrading enzymes have been shown to alleviate the anti-nutritional effects of DF and have ensured the improvement effect of fiber on intestinal health in young piglet models. However, the regulatory effect of fiber on pork quality is still unclear, which requires consideration of the wide range of fiber sources and the complexity of the basic diet composition, as well as the impact of pig breeds. Taken together, future research needs to gain more insight into the combined effects of SDF and IDF, processing methods, and addition timing to improve the nutritional value of DF, and further explore the physiological functions and regulatory mechanisms of DF fermentation products short-chain fatty acids in pigs.

8.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 639039, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095269

RESUMO

The study investigated the impact of soybean protein from different processing on the performance, dietary nitrogen digestibility, cecal fermentation characteristics, and bacterial community in newly weaned piglets. The piglets were allocated to two dietary treatment and fed with the extruded full-fat soybean diet (EFS group) and enzyme-treated soybean meal diet (ESBM group), respectively. The piglets in ESBM group showed greater nitrogen digestibility and feed efficiency, and lower diarrhea rate in comparison to piglets in EFS group (P < 0.05). Cecal samples from piglets in ESBM group contained greater concentration of acetate, propionate and total SCFAs (P < 0.05), and lower contents of isobutyrate, isovalerate, total BCFAs, NH3-N and putrescine (P < 0.05) than cecal samples from piglets in the EFS group. The cecal samples from piglets in ESBM group contained greater abundances of g_Blautia, g_Coprococcus_3, g_Fusicatenibacter, and g_Bifidobacterium than the cecal sample from piglets in the EFS group, which could promote to protect intestinal health. In summary, enzyme-treated soybean meal may enhance the growth performance of weaned piglets via increasing the dietary nitrogen digestibility, preventing protein fermentation in the hindgut, which shed light on the mechanism in regulating gut health of dietary protein.

9.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673705

RESUMO

The current study aimed to investigate the evolution of gut microbiota and its influencing factors for NXP in youth. The results showed that Shannon index increased from d 21 to d 28 whereas the ACE index increased from d 21 until d 60. Firmicutes, mainly Lactobacillus dominated on d 21. The Bacteroides and Spirochetes showed highest relative abundance on d 28. Fiber-degrading bacteria, mainly Prevotellaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Muribaculaceae, and Oscillospiraceae_UCG-002, dominated the microbial communities at d 28 and d 35. The microbial communities at d 60 and d 75 contained more Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Terrisporobacter and Oscillospiraceae_UCG-005 than other ages, which had significantly positive correlations with acetate and total SCFAs concentration. In conclusion, the evolution of gut microbiota was mainly adapted to the change of dietary factors during NXP growth. The response of fiber-degrading bacteria at different stages may help NXP better adapt to plant-derived feeds.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 8837893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354280

RESUMO

Mitochondria are the main organelles that produce adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in eukaryotic cells and meanwhile susceptible to oxidative damage. The irreversible oxidative damage in mitochondria has been implicated in various human diseases. Increasing evidence indicates the therapeutic potential of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (MTAs) for oxidative damage-associated diseases. In this article, we introduce the advantageous properties of MTAs compared with the conventional (nontargeted) ones, review different mitochondria-targeted delivery systems and antioxidants, and summarize their experimental results for various disease treatments in different animal models and clinical trials. The combined evidence demonstrates that mitochondrial redox homeostasis is a potential target for disease treatment. Meanwhile, the limitations and prospects for exploiting MTAs are discussed, which might pave ways for further trial design and drug development.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Food Funct ; 11(2): 1304-1311, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016208

RESUMO

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are reduced in various protein restricted models, while the detailed role of BCAAs in protein restricted response is still obscure. Thus, the current study mainly investigated the amino acid metabolism in protein restricted piglets and the effects of BCAA balance in a low-protein diet on growth performance, amino acid metabolism, intestinal structure, and gut microbiota with focus on which BCAAs contributed to the protein restricted response. The results showed that protein restriction increased serum Ser, Thr, Ala, Lys, and Trp but reduced His, Cys, Val, and Ile levels. Intestinal amino acid transporters mainly mediated the mechanism of amino acid uptake. The BCAA balance refreshed the serum BCAA pool, which further improved growth performance in protein restricted piglets. Leu, Val, and Ile balances increased serum BCAA concentrations, respectively, and Leu and Val but not Ile enhanced the feed intake and weight gain in protein restricted piglets. In addition, protein restriction impaired the villus structure and increased the number of goblet cells in the ileum. Also, gut microbiota (Spirochaetales, Gammaproteobacteria, Lactobacillales at the order level) were altered in protein restricted pigs, while the BCAA balance markedly improved Gammaproteobacteria, Lactobacillales, and Aeromonadales proliferation, which might mediate growth promotion and amino acid metabolism. In conclusion, protein restriction markedly affected the host amino acid metabolism (i.e., Ser, Thr, Lys, His, BCAAs). The BCAA balance (especially for supplementation with Leu and Val) improved the amino acid metabolism, growth performance, and gut microbiota communities.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Leucina/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Valina/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Suínos
12.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 74(2): 121-137, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821028

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of wheat bran (WB) as insoluble fibre source, and sugar beet pulp (SBP) as soluble fibre source, on performance, serum parameters and intestinal health in weaned pigs. A total of 90 weaned pigs (BW: 7.33 ± 1.24 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: (1) a control diet (CON) based on corn and soybean meal; (2) CON + 6% WB; (3) CON + 6% SBP. Each treatment had five replicate pens with six pigs per pen. The experimental period was divided into two phases (d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 28). Pigs in group WB tended to have greater avarage daily gain than those in group SBP. Compared with CON, SBP reduced (p < 0.05) the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter, organic matter (OM), gross energy and neutral detergent fibre on d 14 and 28, while WB decreased (p < 0.05) the ATTD of OM on d 28. Pigs in group SBP had higher (p < 0.05) glucagon-like peptide 1 concentration than the other groups on d 14 and 28. The villus height to crypt depth (V:C) ratio of duodenum and jejunum in pigs fed diet WB were greater (p < 0.05) than in group SBP. The WB increased (p < 0.05) the V:C ratio of ileum compared with CON or SBP. Compared with SBP, WB increased (p < 0.05) the sucrase activity in the duodenum. Moreover, pigs in WB had higher (p < 0.05) activities of maltase and sucrase in the jejunum compared with CON or SBP. The abundances of Ruminococcaceae and Prevotellaceae were increased (p < 0.05) in WB, while the Lachnospiraceae abundance was increased (p < 0.05) in SBP. WB increased (p < 0.05) concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), while SBP increased (p < 0.05) concentrations of acetate and total SCFA when compared with CON. In conclusion, WB was beneficial to performance in weaned pigs by improving morphology, enzyme activities and microbiota when compared with SBP, highlighting that effects of fibre depends on the fibre sources.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa/anatomia & histologia , Sus scrofa/sangue , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Desmame
13.
Anim Sci J ; 90(5): 655-666, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884034

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in cottonseed meals (CSM) and to develop prediction equations for estimating AA digestibility for growing pigs based on the chemical composition and AA content of CSM. 10 CSM were collected from 10 provinces in China. 11 barrows (initial body weight: 34.4 ± 1.9 kg), fitted with an ileal T-cannula, were allotted to 6 × 11 Youden square with 6 periods and 11 diets. The diets included one N-free diet and 10 CSM test diets containing 40% CSM as the sole source of AA. The nitrogen-free diet was used to measure the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The AID and SID for crude protein (CP), Lys, Met, Trp, and Thr among the 10 CSM differed (p < 0.05). With R2 values exceeding 0.30, significant linear regression equations for CP, Lys, and Thr were obtained. The best fit equations for predicting the AID and SID of Lys were: AID of Lys = 82.94-0.65 neutral detergent fiber, with R2  = 0.44, residual standard deviation (RSD) = 4.03 and p = 0.04; and SID of Lys = 135.34-1.01 neutral detergent fiber + 34.27 Thr - 58.06 Trp - 84.93 Met, with R2  = 0.90, RSD = 1.42 and p = 0.01. In conclusion, the results of AID, SID and prediction equations could be used to evaluate the digestibility of CSM in growing pigs.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Íleo/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão/química , Previsões , Masculino , Análise de Regressão
14.
Asian-Australas J Anim Sci ; 31(8): 1315-1324, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381892

RESUMO

Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different diet formulations: F1 (Two complicated basal diets containing different crude protein levels plus tested feedstuff) vs F2 (A simple corn soybean meal [SBM] basal diet plus tested feedstuff) combined with total collection (TC) or chromic oxide (Cr2O3) marker or acid-insoluble ash (AIA) marker method, and freeze-dry or oven-dry (OD) technique on estimation of nutrient digestibility in diets fed to growing pigs. METHODS: In F1, twelve barrows were allocated to two 6×4 Youden Squares. The treatment diets included a high protein basal (HPB) diet, a low protein basal (LPB) diet, a corn diet and a wheat bran (WB) diet formulated based on the HPB diet, and a SBM diet and a rapeseed meal (RSM) diet formulated based on the LPB diet. In F2, eight barrows were allocated to two 4×4 Latin Squares. The treatment diets included a corn basal diet, a SBM basal diet formulated based on the corn diet, and a WB diet and a RSM diet formulated based on the SBM diet. RESULTS: Concentration of digestible (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME), and the apparent total tract digestibility of gross energy, ash, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre determined by Cr2O3 marker method were greater than those determined by TC and AIA marker methods in HPB, LPB, and RSM diets formulated by F1 and in corn diet formulated by F2 (p<0.05). The DE values in WB and both DE and ME values in SBM and RSM estimated using F1 were greater than those estimated using F2 (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: From the accuracy aspect, the AIA marker or TC method combined with OD technique is recommended for determining the energy concentration and nutrient digestibility of components in diets fed to growing pigs.

15.
Anim Sci J ; 88(12): 1994-2000, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28730632

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition, ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of barley varieties and to develop equations to predict the AA digestibility based on the chemical characteristics of individual barley. A wide selection of nine barley varieties in the main growing regions of China was used in the experiment. Ten crossbred pigs (30.9 ± 1.8 kg) were allotted to a 6 × 10 Youden Square. The treatments included a nitrogen-free diet and nine barley test diets. Considerable variation was observed in the content of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, crude protein (CP) and all AAs among the barley samples. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of indispensable AAs with the exception of arginine, phenylalanine and threonine were different (P < 0.05) among the nine barley sources tested. With R2 values exceeding 0.50, significant linear regression equations for CP and threonine were obtained. In conclusion, significant differences existed in the ileal digestibility of CP and AAs among barley varieties. It is difficult to predict the SID of most of the amino acids in barely based upon chemical characteristics.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Hordeum/química , Íleo/fisiologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Hordeum/classificação , Masculino
16.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 71(2): 108-119, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28201933

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to define the sources of variation determining the energy content of barley and to develop a practical method to predict the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) content of individual barley samples. The 19 barley samples used in this study were diverse varieties grown in different regions. The feeding experiment used 57 barrows (initial body weight 31.5 ± 3.2 kg) and was conducted over two consecutive periods (n = 6 per treatment) using a completely randomised design. During each period, the pigs were placed in metabolic crates for a 5-d total collection of faeces and urine following a 10-d adaptation to the diets. Among the barley samples, on dry matter (DM) basis the levels of neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre (ADF), crude protein and starch ranged from 16.1% to 38.9%, 3.9% to 9.6%, 10.1% to 16.8% and 43.5% to 57.9%, respectively. The mean determined DE and ME contents amounted to 14.7 and 14.4 MJ/kg DM and varied among the samples by 1.85 MJ (13.6%) and 1.78 MJ (13.3%), respectively. The ADF fraction accounted for 73% and 76% of the total variation in the DE and ME content, respectively. It revealed that for prediction of the DE and ME contents in barley, equations had the best fit when the analysed contents of ADF, neutral detergent fibre and gross energy were used for calculation (R2 = 0.92). On the basis of the developed equations, the DE and ME contents of barley of different origin can be predicted with an acceptable accuracy when used as feed for growing pigs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Hordeum/química , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Hordeum/genética , Valor Nutritivo , Distribuição Aleatória
17.
Anim Sci J ; 88(8): 1082-1092, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27921350

RESUMO

To determine the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine : lysine ratio on the performance, milk composition and plasma indices of lactating sows, 32 Large White × Landrace sows (219.78 ± 7.15 kg body weight; parity 1.82 ± 0.62) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments with eight sows per treatment based on parity, back fat thickness and body weight. The sows were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 63, 83, 103 or 123% SID valine : lysine from day 107 of gestation until day 28 of lactation. The average daily feed intake of sows and daily weight gain of piglets increased linearly (P < 0.05) while back fat loss decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the SID valine : lysine ratio increased. All of the analyzed amino acids in sow colostrum and valine concentrations of sow and piglet plasma increased linearly (P < 0.05) with the increasing SID valine : lysine ratio. In conclusion, 88 and 113% dietary SID valine : lysine ratios were optimal to achieve minimum back fat loss and maximum piglet growth rate using a linear-break point model which exceeds the requirement of 85% that is estimated by the National Research Council (2012).


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Lactação/fisiologia , Lisina/análise , Leite/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/fisiologia , Valina/análise , Animais , Colostro/química , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Suínos/sangue , Ganho de Peso
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 21: 1820-6, 2015 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26103051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The circle of Willis (CoW) plays an important role in cerebral collateral circulation. The hemodynamics changes in the CoW have usually been associated with the internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, but whether rotatory manipulation will affect it remains unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study we attempted to analyze the influence of rotatory manipulation on the hemodynamics in the CoW in models with or without ICA stenosis by means of finite element analysis. For this purpose, the CoW was reasonably simplified and a fluid-solid coupling 3D finite element model was created by using MIMICS10.0 and ANSYS14.5. The healthy (without stenosis) and the diseased (ratios of stenosis include 15%, 30%, 45%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%) situations were simulated. A remote displacement of 60° was applied at a distal ICA (the right ICA was chosen here) to imitate the rotatory manipulation. Blood flow was then monitored at the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PCoA). RESULTS: Before the conduction of rotatory manipulation, blood flow changed significantly only when the stenosis ratio was increased to more than 70%, and the situation did not have significant difference after the application of remote displacement except the model with stenosis ration of 90%. CONCLUSIONS: The result suggests that the rotatory manipulation does not have an obvious influence on the blood flow in the CoW when the stenosis of ICA is less than 90%, and this kind of manipulation is suggested to be a safe technique in most of the clinical applications.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Círculo Arterial do Cérebro/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Manipulação Ortopédica/métodos , Modelos Biológicos , Rotação , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Anim Sci J ; 86(8): 772-81, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25827306

RESUMO

We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P < 0.01) than in the other protein sources. In Exp. 2, 150 piglets weaned at 21 days, were fed diets containing the five protein sources for 3 weeks. Weight gain of piglets fed SDPP was the highest among the treatments. Dry matter and protein digestibility for pigs offered SDPP were higher (P < 0.01) than those offered FM and DPS. AP decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli counts in the cecum. DPS decreased (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase compared with SPE. In conclusion, AP and SPE are competitive with traditional animal protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance.


Assuntos
Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão , Ovos , Suínos/fisiologia , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/sangue , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Ceco/microbiologia , Escherichia coli , Produtos Pesqueiros , Manipulação de Alimentos , Masculino , Plasma , Pós , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Nanotechnology ; 22(11): 115502, 2011 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21301074

RESUMO

LaFeO(3) nanofibers are successfully prepared by the electrospinning method. XRD patterns show that the materials belong to a cubic system. After calcination at 600 °C for 3 h, SEM photographs show that the diameters of the nanofibers are about 80-90 nm and their surfaces are smooth. The response-recovery properties of an LaFeO(3) nanofiber sensor to ethanol are better than those of an LaFeO(3) nanobelt and nanoparticle sensor. LaFeO(3) nanofibers have relatively low resistance, and they improve the weakness of LaFeO(3) nanoparticles upon application. An LaFeO(3) nanofiber sensor also has good reversibility and selectivity to ethanol and is a very good p-type semiconductor material.

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