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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(5)2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800108

RESUMO

In recent decades, metasurfaces have emerged as an exotic and appealing group of nanophotonic devices for versatile wave regulation with deep subwavelength thickness facilitating compact integration. However, the ability to dynamically control the wave-matter interaction with external stimulus is highly desirable especially in such scenarios as integrated photonics and optoelectronics, since their performance in amplitude and phase control settle down once manufactured. Currently, available routes to construct active photonic devices include micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), semiconductors, liquid crystal, and phase change materials (PCMs)-integrated hybrid devices, etc. For the sake of compact integration and good compatibility with the mainstream complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process for nanofabrication and device integration, the PCMs-based scheme stands out as a viable and promising candidate. Therefore, this review focuses on recent progresses on phase change metasurfaces with dynamic wave control (amplitude and phase or wavefront), and especially outlines those with continuous or quasi-continuous atoms in favor of optoelectronic integration.

2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 592: 87-94, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647565

RESUMO

The occurrence of membrane fouling has resulted in limited wastewater treatment applications. The development of superhydrophilic-underwater superoleophobic materials has received significant attention owing to their good anti-fouling properties. However, to fabricate such materials need costly regents and tedious steps. Thus, developing a one-step process to prepare a low-cost material for oil/water separation is still desired. In this study, bio-inspired from an arachnid, inorganic carbon nanotube stainless steel meshes (CNT@SSMs) having superhydrophilic-underwater superoleophobic and excellent anti-fouling properties and a unique fiber structure were fabricated via a one-step thermal chemical vapor deposition method. The CNT@SSMs had a small pore size enabling a high water flux of 10,639 L m-2h-1 and the separation of oily wastewater, including various emulsions, at a high rejection ratio of >98.89%. As a result of its excellent chemical stability under high temperatures, a broad pH range, and saline environments, the CNT@SSM has the potential to be used in extreme conditions. In summary, these CNT@SSMs are easy to fabricate and are low-cost as a result of inexpensive reagents involved. Moreover, these novel superwetting membranes are promising candidates for treatment of hazardous oily wastewater.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646817

RESUMO

Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes serious diseases on multiple agricultural crops and vegetables. Here, we report a complete genome assembly of R. solani AG4 (Assembly: 45.47 Mb; contig N50: 1.56 Mb), using a combination of Illumina pare-end and Pacbio long-read sequencing data. A total of 267 non-coding RNAs and 11,592 genes were predicted which contained 109 genes associated carbohydrate-active enzymes and 2,488 genes involved host-pathogen interactions. The complete genome lays a valuable foundation for studying the interactions between host plants and pathogenic fungus and for searching potential` antimicrobial targets.

4.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709804

RESUMO

Coenzyme Q0 (CoQ0) is a natural compound found in Antrodia cinnamomea, which has a variety of biological activities. Here, the antibacterial activity and possible antibacterial mechanism of CoQ0 against Escherichia coli were investigated. The antibacterial effect was evaluated by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values, and by assessing bacterial survival and the effect on the growth of E. coli after CoQ0 treatment in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. To reveal the antibacterial mechanism of CoQ0, changes in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration, membrane potential, and bacterial protein content, as well as effects on cell morphology and membrane integrity, were investigated. Both the MICs and MBCs of CoQ0 against E. coli were 0.1 mg/mL. After treatment of E. coli (6.5 log colony-forming units/mL) with 0.1 mg/mL of CoQ0 in LB broth for 3 h, the number of viable cells dropped below the detection limit. In addition, CoQ0 treatment resulted in the reduction in intracellular ATP concentration, cell membrane hyperpolarization, decreased bacterial protein concentrations, and damage to cell membrane integrity and cellular morphology. These results indicated that CoQ0 has effective antibacterial activity against E. coli, suggesting potential applications in food industry safety.

5.
Small ; : e2007672, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759364

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the biggest obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. Here, a remarkable reversal of MDR in breast cancer through the synergistic effects of bioactive hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAPNs) and doxorubicin (DOX) is shown. DOX loaded HAPNs (DHAPNs) exhibit a 150-fold reduction in IC50 compared with free DOX for human MDR breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells, and lead to almost complete inhibition of tumor growth in vivo without obvious side effects of free DOX. This high efficacy and specificity could be attributed to multiple action mechanisms of HAPNs. In addition to acting as the conventional nanocarriers to facilitate the cellular uptake and retention of DOX in MCF-7/ADR cells, more importantly, drug-free HAPNs themselves are able to prevent drug being pumped out of MDR cells through targeting mitochondria to induce mitochondrial damage and inhibit ATP production and to trigger sustained mitochondrial calcium overload and apoptosis in MDR cancer cells while not affecting normal cells. The results demonstrate that this simple but versatile bioactive nanoparticle provides a practical approach to effectively overcome MDR.

6.
Virulence ; 12(1): 520-546, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525975

RESUMO

Polyamines are small, polycationic molecules with a hydrocarbon backbone and multiple amino groups required for optimal cell growth. The potD gene, belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport system potABCD, encodes the bacterial substrate-binding subunit of the polyamine transport system, playing a pivotal role in bacterial metabolism and growth. The swine pathogen Glaesserella parasuis possesses an intact pot operon, and the studies presented here mainly examined the involvement of PotD in Glaesserella pathogenesis. A potD-deficient mutant was constructed using a virulent G. parasuis strain SC1401 by natural transformation; immuno-electron microscopy was used to identify the subcellular location of native PotD protein; an electron microscope was adopted to inspect biofilm and bacterial morphology; immunofluorescence technique was employed to study cellular adhesion, the levels of inflammation and apoptosis. The TSA++-pre-cultured mutant strain showed a significantly reduced adhesion capacity to PK-15 and MLE-12 cells. Likewise, we also found attenuation in virulence using murine models focusing on the clinical sign, H&E, and IFA for inflammation and apoptosis. However, when the mutant was grown in TSB++, virulence recovered to normal levels, along with a high level of radical oxygen species formation in the host. The expression of PotD could actively stimulate the production of ROS in Raw 264.7. Our data suggested that PotD from G. parasuis has a high binding potential to polyamine, and is essential for the full bacterial virulence within mouse models. However, the virulence of the potD mutant is highly dependent on its TSA++ culture conditions rather than on biofilm-formation.

7.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(3): 2481-2493, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scutellarin (Scu) shows both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The study investigates cardioprotective effects of Scu in mice with type 1 diabetes and the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: Streptozotocin (STZ) was used to induce diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in C57BL/6 mice by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.). Normal and diabetic mice were divided into 6 groups: control, diabetic model group (DM), DM + Scu (5 mg/kg), DM + Scu (10 mg/kg), DM + Scu (20 mg/kg), DM + pioglitazone (Pio) (10 mg/kg). Scu was administered to the mice intraperitoneally and Pio was administrated by oral. Mice in control and DM groups were simply treated normal saline. Four weeks later, myocardial function, myocardial fibrosis, the levels inflammatory factors and oxidative stress were detected. RESULTS: Scu improved cardiac function and reduced heart injury in diabetic mice, which was indicated by increasing Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume (LVVd), fractional shortening (FS), and ejection fraction (EF) levels and decreased pathological changes of heart. Scu inhibited the level of myocardial fibrosis by reducing the release of inflammatory cytokines and increasing activities of antioxidant enzymes. Further study showed that Scu inhibited the activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor with a pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activated phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase (HO-1). CONCLUSIONS: Scu protects against DCM in STZ-induced diabetic mice by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory responses and might be a potential therapeutic agent to treat DCM.

8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 570650, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33614576

RESUMO

Background: Enterococcus faecalis has been commonly considered as one of the major pathogens of the urinary tract infection (UTI) in human host worldwide, whereas the molecular characteristics of E. faecalis clinical isolates from the patients with UTI in China remains seldomly reported. This study aimed to investigate the resistance mechanism, molecular characteristics and risk factors of E. faecalis clinical isolates from patients with UTI in China. Methods: A total of 115 non-duplicated E. faecalis clinical isolates from patients with UTI were retrospectively collected in a tertiary hospital in China and their clinical data was further analyzed. The linezolid and tedizolid susceptibility were determined by agar dilution. The resistance genes, including erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), tet(M), optrA, cfr, cfr(B), poxtA, and MLST-based housekeeping genes were investigated by PCR. Results: In 115 non-duplicated E. faecalis clinical isolates from the patients with UTI in this hospital setting, the frequency of linezolid or tedizolid-resistant/intermediate isolates were 22.61 and 13.04%, respectively, and the frequency of linezolid-resistant/intermediate E. faecalis clinical isolates carrying with erm(A) were 86%. Among the five linezolid-resistant E. faecalis strains found in this study, three optrA-positive isolates and the other two linezolid-resistant strains were G2576U genetic mutations in the V domain of the 23S rRNA genes. The ST clonality analysis indicated that 31.42% (11/35) of ST16 E. faecalis UTI isolates were not susceptible to linezolid. Moreover, the univariable analysis indicated that the high risk factors of linezolid-resistant/intermediate E. faecalis infections involved the indwelling catheter, trachea cannula catheter and the carriage of erm(A) or optrA. Furthermore, the indwelling catheter and trachea cannula catheter were demonstrated as the independent predictors of linezolid-resistant/intermediate E. faecalis strains in patients with UTI by multivariable analysis. Conclusion: Linezolid-resistant/intermediate E. faecalis associated with urinary tract infections of patients in this hospital setting from China might be explained by the high carriage frequency of optrA genes and moreover, indwelling catheter and trachea cannula should be considered as the independent predictors of linezolid-resistant/intermediate E. faecalis infections. The transmission mechanism of linezolid-resistant/intermediate E. faecalis in this hospital setting should be further studied.

9.
Clin Lab ; 67(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aims to investigate the expression and diagnostic value of ADAM12 in patients with cervical cancer before general anesthesia. METHODS: Seventy-eight cases of cervical cancer patients were included in the present study. RT-PCR and western blot were used to detect the expression of ADAM12 in cervical cancer tissues and adjacent tissues. Meanwhile, the expression of secretory ADAM12 in serum of cervical cancer patients and healthy people was detected by ELISA. The relationship between ADAM12 expression and prognosis of cervical cancer patients was analyzed. ROC analysis was carried out to explore the diagnostic value of ADAM12. RESULTS: Our data showed that the expression of ADAM12 mRNA and protein in cervical cancer tissues was significantly up-regulated compared with the adjacent tissues. ELISA assay showed that the content of ADAM12 in serum of cervical cancer patients was significantly higher than that of healthy people. Furthermore, ADAM12 expression was closely related to tumor invasion, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis and tumor differentiation. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the overall survival rate of patients with high ADAM12 was significantly lower than that of patients with low ADAM12 expression. The AUC of ADAM12, CEA, CA125, and SCC for cervical cancer was 0.893, 0.510, 0.769 and 0.550, respectively, while the highest value of AUC was 0.946 by the combination of the four indexes. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, increased expression of ADAM12 in cervical cancer patients can be used as an independent prognostic marker.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555465

RESUMO

In this study, the feasibility of banana straw (BS) hydrolysate as carbon source and reutilizing the pretreated liquor (PL) of BS in the Rhodosporidium toruloides fermentation was explored for the first time. When BS hydrolysate was used as the carbon source, total biomass concentration, lipid concentration, and lipid content under optimal conditions reached 15.52 g/L, 5.83 g/L, and 37.56% (w/w), respectively, which was similar to the results of pure sugar control. After detoxification, 50% PL can be returned to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, and total biomass concentration, lipid concentration, and lipid content can reach 15.14 g/L, 5.59 g/L, and 36.91% (w/w). Then, ethanol stillage (ES) was used as the nitrogen source. The NaCl and glycerol of ES could promote lipid accumulation, reaching 7.52 g/L under optimized conditions. Finally, microbial lipid production from BS hydrolysate and ES without any additional nutrients was investigated, and the maximum total biomass concentration, lipid concentration, and lipid content were 13.55 g/L, 4.88 g/L, and 36.01% (w/w), respectively. Besides, the main compositions of microbial lipid produced were C16 and C18, and the biodiesel production from the microbial lipid could meet Chinese and US standard through theoretical numerical calculation.

11.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(2): 498-503, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400852

RESUMO

Paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis (PAE) represents a group of rare neurological syndromes associated with neoplastic diseases. Here, we report a case that multiple anti-neuronal antibodies were present in a patient with PAE who developed both small cell lung cancer and colorectal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the immunopathological investigation of the colorectal adenocarcinoma revealed the formation of abnormal neuronal antigens and a massive infiltration of plasma cells in the tumor tissue. These findings support the hypothesis that expression of neuronal antigens in neoplasm initiates autoimmune responses in PAE.

12.
FEMS Yeast Res ; 21(1)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440003

RESUMO

Epigenetic marks or post-translational modifications on histones have important regulatory roles in gene expression in eukaryotic organisms. The epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus deneoformans remains largely undetermined. The YEATS domain proteins are readers of crotonylated lysine residues in histones. Here, we reported the identification of a single-copy gene putatively coding for a YEATS domain protein (Yst1) in C. deneoformans. To define its function, we created a mutant strain, yst1Δ, using CRISPR-Cas9 editing. yst1Δ exhibited defects in phenotype, for instance, it was hypersensitive to osmotic stress in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl or KCl. Furthermore, it was hypersensitive to 1% Congo red, suggesting defects in the cell wall. Interestingly, RNA-seq data revealed that Yst1p was critical for the expression of genes encoding the ribosomal proteins, that is, most were expressed with significantly lower levels of mRNA in yst1Δ than in the wild-type strain. The mutant strain was hypersensitive to low temperature and anti-ribosomal drugs, which we putatively attribute to the impairment in ribosomal function. In addition, the yst1Δ strain was less virulent to Galleria mellonella. These results generally suggest that Yst1, as a histone modification reader, might be a key coordinator of the transcriptome of this human pathogen. Yst1 could be a potential target for novel antifungal drugs, which might lead to significant developments in the clinical treatment of cryptococcosis.

13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 169: 282-289, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333097

RESUMO

Transphosphatidylation catalyzed by phospholipase D has gained increasing attention for producing phosphatidylserine (PS), which can be used in functional food and medicine. In this study, we investigated the effects of six signal peptides on the secretion of PLD (PLDsa) from Streptomyces antibioticus TCCC 21059 in the food-grade GRAS bacterium Bacillus subtilis. It indicated that the optimal signal peptide DacB with an Ala-X-Ala sequence motif at the C-terminus showed the highest secretory expression ability, resulting in increased production of 2.84 U/mL PLDsa. Then PLDsa was immobilized on the epoxy-based carriers, and one of these carriers allowed PLDsa loading of up to 2.7 mg/g. The immobilized PLDsa was more stable over a wide range of pH value (4.5-7.5) and temperature (16 °C-60 °C) than free PLDsa. Subsequently, the synthesis of PS from soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) was carried out in purely aqueous solution using immobilized PLDsa, leading to a high yield of 65%. The immobilized PLDsa catalyst maintained a relative PS production of 60% after 5 recycles. Notably, the use of toxic solvent was completely eliminated in the whole process, which would be more profitable for the application of PS.

14.
Nano Lett ; 20(12): 8933-8939, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252230

RESUMO

The ability to control the potential landscape in a medium of interacting particles could lead to intriguing collective behavior and innovative functionalities. Here, we utilize spatially reconfigurable magnetic potentials of a pinwheel artificial-spin-ice (ASI) structure to tailor the motion of superconducting vortices. The reconstituted chain structures of the magnetic charges in the pinwheel ASI and the strong interaction between magnetic charges and superconducting vortices allow significant modification of the transport properties of the underlying superconducting thin film, resulting in a reprogrammable resistance state that enables a reversible and switchable vortex Hall effect. Our results highlight an effective and simple method of using ASI as an in situ reconfigurable nanoscale energy landscape to design reprogrammable superconducting electronics, which could also be applied to the in situ control of properties and functionalities in other magnetic particle systems, such as magnetic skyrmions.

15.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 206: 105788, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227378

RESUMO

Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH), as the most severe form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), is caused by mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR). Affected patients were typically characterized by adrenal insufficiency in the first year of life and present with female external genitalia regardless of karyotype. Non-classic LCAH patients usually present from 2 to 4 years old with glucocorticoid deficiency and mild mineralocorticoid deficiency, even develop naturally masculinized external genitalia at birth when they have 46,XY karyotype. We described thirty patients from unrelated Chinese families, including three non-classic LCAH ones. Four novel mutations were reported, including c.556A > G, c.179-15G > T, c.695delG and c.306 + 3_c.306 + 6delAAGT. The c.772C > T is the most common STAR mutation in Chinese population, suggesting a possibility of founder effect. Enzymatic activity assay combined with clinical characteristics showed a good genotype-phenotype correlation in this study. Residual STAR activity more than 20 % may be correlated with non-classic LCAH phenotype. We support the perspective that onset age may be affected by multiple factors and masculinization should be the main weighting factor for diagnosis of non-classic LCAH. Compared with 46,XX LCAH patients, less 46,XY ones were found in our report. A less comprehensive inspection and an easy diagnosis due to classical phenotype both would reduce the possibility of 46,XY LCAH patients to be referred to specialists or geneticists.

16.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(8): 303, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150474

RESUMO

Xin Zhou is a co-corresponding author of this published article and the affiliation should read "Xin Zhou1, 3".

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 575691, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101030

RESUMO

Adamantyl groups are key structural subunit commonly used in many marketed drugs targeting diseases ranging from viral infections to neurological disorders. The metabolic disposition of adamantyl compounds has been mostly studied using LC-MS based approaches. However, metabolite quantities isolated from biological preparations are often insufficient for unambiguous structural characterization by NMR. In this work, we utilized microcoil NMR in conjunction with LC-MS to characterize liver microsomal metabolites of an adamantyl based CB2 agonist AM9338, 1-(3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) propyl)-N-(adamantan-1-yl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide, a candidate compound for potential multiple sclerosis treatment. We have identified a total of 9 oxidative metabolites of AM9338 whereas mono- or di-hydroxylation of the adamantyl moiety is the primary metabolic pathway. While it is generally believed that the tertiary adamantyl carbons are the preferred sites of CYP450 oxidation, both the mono- and di-hydroxyl metabolites of AM9338 show that the primary oxidative sites are located on the secondary adamantyl carbons. To our knowledge this di-hydroxylated metabolite is a novel adamantyl metabolite that has not been reported before. Further, the stereochemistry of both mono- and di-hydroxyl adamantyl metabolites has been determined using NOE correlations. Furthermore, docking of AM9338 into the CYP3A4 metabolic enzyme corroborates with our experimental findings, and the modelling results also provide a possible mechanism for the unusual susceptibility of adamantyl secondary carbons to metabolic oxidations. The novel dihydroxylated AM9338 metabolite identified in this study, along with the previously known adamantyl metabolites, gives a more complete picture of the metabolic disposition for adamantyl compounds.

18.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 46: 102522, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007726

RESUMO

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is mainly associated with serum autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in astrocytes. The relapsing clinical course of NMOSD, which can be blinding and disabling due to severe visual impairment, spinal cord lesions and a group of brain syndromes, suggests the importance of accurately evaluating the likelihood and severity of relapse at an early stage of the disease. To date, many risk factors have been revealed in association with relapse, and only some of them are supported by substantial evidence. Furthermore, while the clinical use of conventional immunosuppressants is mostly empirical, an increasing number of emerging therapies for monoclonal antibodies have been confirmed by several randomized placebo-controlled trials to be effective and safe for relapse prevention. In this review, we summarize the reported risk factors that may influence the frequency, symptoms, severity and prognosis of relapse in NMOSD, as well as the efficacy and safety of emerging therapies for relapse prevention. All of these results enable us to better recognize patients who are at higher risk of relapse and suggest more effective monoclonal antibody therapies for use in these patients.

19.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(41): 9589-9600, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006361

RESUMO

The rapid development of nanotechnology has provided new strategies for the treatment of tumors. Nano-scale hydroxyapatite (HAP), as the main component of hard tissues in humans and vertebrates, have been found to specifically inhibit tumor cells. However, achieving controllable synthesis of HAP and endowing it with cancer cell-targeting properties remain enormous challenges. To solve this problem, we developed polyacrylic acid-coordinated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP-PAA) and further chemically grafted them with folic acid (HAP-PAA-FA) for cancer treatment in this study. The nucleation sites and steric hindrance provided by the PAA greatly inhibited the agglomeration of the nanoparticles, and at the same time, the excess functional groups further modified the surface of nanoparticles to achieve targeting efficiency. The spherical, low-crystallinity HAP-PAA nanoparticles exhibited good tumor cell lethality. After grafting the nanoparticles with folic acid for molecular targeting, their cellular uptake and specific killing ability of tumor cells were further enhanced. The HAP-PAA-FA nanoparticle system exerted a regulatory effect on the tumor microenvironment and had good biological safety. All the above results indicate that this research will broaden the application of hydroxyapatite in tumor treatment.

20.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 266, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006694

RESUMO

Transdermal drug delivery of propranolol hydrochloride (PRH) is promising for the treatment of infantile hemangioma (IH). Clinically used PRH hydrogel fails to reach the deep IH for complete recovery. In this study, the PRH-loaded cubic nanoparticles (CNPs) were prepared to promote the transdermal effect of PRH. A remote drug loading method was developed to prepare the PRH-CNPs. For the traditional passive drug loading method, the largest encapsulation efficiency (EE%) was around 50%. The remote drug loading was performed by increasing the pH of the mixture of blank CNPs and PRH solution. The optimal PRH-CNPs showed an EE% of 90.15 ± 2.44% at pH 8.5. The permeation of the PRH solution was poor while the PRH-CNPs showed greatly enhanced skin permeation. It was found that smaller-sized PRH-CNPs contributed to increased skin permeation and retention. In addition, the PRH-CNPs had higher cytotoxicity towards the EOMA cells when compared with the PRH solution. During storage for 1 month, the PRH-CNPs kept stable size distribution, pH, and EE%. In conclusion, results of this study suggested that the PRH-CNPs could be a potential candidate for the treatment of the IH by transdermal delivery.

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