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1.
Planta ; 254(6): 116, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750674

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The novel structural variations were identified in cotton chloroplast tRNAs and gene loss events were more obvious than duplications in chloroplast tRNAs. Transfer RNAs (tRNA) have long been believed an evolutionary-conserved molecular family, which play the key roles in the process of protein biosynthesis in plant life activities. In this study, we detected the evolutionary characteristics and phylogeny of chloroplast tRNAs in cotton plants, an economic and fibered important taxon in the world. We firstly annotated the chloroplast tRNAs of 27 Gossypium species to analyze their genetic composition, structural characteristics and evolution. Compared with the traditional view of evolutionary conservation of tRNA, some novel tRNA structural variations were identified in cotton plants. I.g., tRNAVal-UAC and tRNAIle-GAU only contained one intron in the anti-condon loop region of tRNA secondary structure, respectively. In the variable region, some tRNAs contained a circle structure with a few nucleotides. Interestingly, the calculation result of free energy indicated that the variation of novel tRNAs contributed to the stability of tRNA structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that chloroplast tRNAs have evolved from multiple common ancestors, and the tRNAMet seemed to be an ancestral tRNA, which can be duplicated and diversified to produce other tRNAs. The chloroplast tRNAs contained a group I intron in cotton plants, and the evolutionary analysis of introns indicated that group I intron of chloroplast tRNA originated from cyanobacteria. Analysis of gene duplication and loss events showed that gene loss events were more obvious than duplications in Gossypium chloroplast tRNAs. Additionally, we found that the rate of transition was higher than the ones of transversion in cotton chloroplast tRNAs. This study provided new insights into the structural characteristics and evolution of chloroplast tRNAs in cotton plants.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Gossypium , Cloroplastos/genética , Gossypium/genética , Filogenia , RNA de Transferência/genética
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 732102, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512667

RESUMO

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) emerge as a promising candidate for the immunotherapy of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). However, targets for modulating MDSC in AIH are still being searched. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important nuclear receptors linking lipid metabolism and immune responses. Despite the extensive studies of LXR in myeloid compartment, its role in MDSCs is currently less understood. Herein, expression of LXRα was found to be upregulated in AIH patients and colocalized with hepatic MDSCs. In ConA-induced hepatitis, deletion of LXRα led to increased expansion of MDSCs in the liver and alleviated the hepatic injury. MDSCs in LXRα-/- mice exhibited enhanced proliferation and survival comparing with WT mice. T-cell proliferation assay and adoptive cell transfer experiment validated the potent immunoregulatory role of MDSCs in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, MDSCs from LXRα-/- mice possessed significantly lower expression of interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8), a key negative regulator of MDSC differentiation. Transcriptional activation of IRF-8 by LXRα was further demonstrated. Conclusion: We reported that abrogation of LXRα facilitated the expansion of MDSCs via downregulating IRF-8, and thereby ameliorated hepatic immune injury profoundly. Our work highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting LXRα in AIH.

3.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1946366, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437819

RESUMO

Background: Increasing data suggests an interaction between bile acids and intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Bile acid sequestrants are widely used to bind bile acids in the intestinal lumen and are therefore posited to impact gut bacteria. Herein we aimed to investigate the effects of cholestyramine on the bile acid profile and gut microbiome in a cohort of icteric PBC patients.Results: Thirty-three PBC patients were treated with cholestyramine, serum and stool samples were collected at baseline, 4 and 16 weeks. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing and targeted metabolomic profiling were performed. Following cholestyramine administration, patients exhibited a high interpersonal variability in remission of cholestasis, and were therefore dichotomized according to the decrease of total bilirubin. Gut microbial co-abundance networks showed distinct taxa interactions between subjects with superior remission (SR) and those with inferior remission (IR) at baseline. After treatment, compositional shifts of the microbiome in the SR group were characterized with enrichment of two Lachnospiraceae species, typically producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In contrast, Klebsiella pneumonia, a commensal pathobiont, was only increased in the IR group. Correspondingly, metabolome analysis demonstrated that patients with SR, but not IR, were marked by elevations of SCFAs including valeric acid and caproic acid. Finally, integrative analysis identified robust associations between the variations of microbiota, metabolites, and inflammatory cytokines in SR group, indicating potential mechanistic links.Conclusions: Beneficial responses caused by cholestyramine were closely related with compositional and functional alterations in gut commensal, highlighting the possibility of exploring bile acid-microbiota interactions for treating PBC.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is a major complication and cause of morbidity in end-stage primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). However, it is unclear whether there is clinically silent myocardial involvement at the early stage of PBC before cirrhosis and cardiac manifestations. This prospective, three-center, multi-modality cardiac imaging study on the early identification of myocardial impairment in PBC (EARLY-MYO-PBC) was designed to identify silent myocardial impairment in PBC patients without cardiac manifestations. METHODS: A total of 112 subjects (56 with PBC and 56 age- and sex-matched controls) undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were enrolled. Demographic, serologic, and cardiac imaging data were prospectively collected. All participants had no cardiac discomfort or previous heart disease and had normal electrocardiographic findings. RESULTS: Subclinical myocardial involvement, as evidenced by cardiac morphologic, functional, and tissue characterization changes on CMR, including hyperdynamic left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (median, 75% in PBC patients vs 69% in controls, P = .029), subclinical myocardial edema by T2-short tau inversion recovery (21% vs 2% in controls, P = .001), elevated extracellular matrix indices (30% vs 26% in controls, P < .001), and impaired myocardial viability by positive late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) (36%), was detected in PBC patients. Importantly, a mid-wall "stripe" at the LV septum was identified as a PBC-specific LGE pattern that differs from other known cardiomyopathies. In multivariate analysis, gp210 positivity (odds ratio [OR] = 9.909, P = .010), lower hemoglobin (OR = 0.919, P = .004), and body mass index (OR = 0.638, P = .005) were independent predictors of cardiac abnormalities in PBC. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates clinically silent cardiac impairment with specific CMR patterns in PBC, allowing optimal screening for early myocardial impairment and potentially timely therapies. (Trial registration no.: NCT03545672).

5.
J Genet Genomics ; 2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433101

RESUMO

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease involving dysregulation of a broad array of homeostatic and metabolic processes. Although considerable single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been unveiled, a large fraction of risk factors remains enigmatic. Candidate genes with rare mutations that tend to confer more deleterious effects need to be identified. To help pinpoint cellular and developmental mechanisms beyond common noncoding variants, we integrated whole exome sequencing with integrative network analysis to investigate genes harboring de novo mutations. Prominent convergence has been revealed on a network of disease-specific co-expression comprised of 55 genes associated with homeostasis and metabolism. The transcription factor MEF2D and the DNA repair gene PARP2 were highlighted as hub genes and identified to be up- and down-regulated, respectively, in peripheral blood data set. Enrichment analysis demonstrated altered expression of MEF2D and PARP2 may trigger a series of molecular and cellular processes with pivotal roles in PBC pathophysiology. Our study identified genes with de novo mutations in PBC and suggested a subset of genes in homeostasis and metabolism tend to act in synergy through converging on co-expression network, providing novel insights into the etiology of PBC and expanding the pool of molecular candidates for discovering clinically actionable biomarkers.

6.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(11): 3233-3238, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Persistent hepatocellular secretory failure (PHSF) is a rare condition of severe cholestasis caused by drugs, toxins, infection, or temporary biliary obstruction. Real-world data on rifampicin in cholestasis, particularly among patients with deep jaundice, are scarce. We aimed to expand the knowledge on the efficacy and safety of rifampicin treatment in PHSF patients. METHODS: Sixteen patients with PHSF who had received rifampicin treatment (150-300 mg/d) at our institution from September 2016 to July 2020 were included. Treatment efficacy was assessed by 20% improvement in serum total bilirubin (TBIL) concentration at 4 weeks. Follow-up was continued until the concentration of TBIL returned to normal. RESULTS: Among the 16 enrolled patients, 12 had predisposing factors (drugs, infection, or transient biliary obstruction). ATP8B1 or ABCB11 mutations were detected in the other four patients without trigger events. UGT1A1 mutations were found in 7/10 patients. Before rifampicin treatment, the median TBIL level was 352 µmol/L (range 171-591 µmol/L). TBIL > 20% improvement was observed in 14 patients at 4 weeks. TBIL levels of 14 patients eventually returned to normal after 6-12 weeks of rifampicin treatment. The remaining two patients who did not respond to rifampicin finally recovered after nasobiliary drainage. Except for one patient with transient drug-induced hepatitis, no other serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Rifampicin could be a promising option for most PHSF patients. Most PHSF patients have UGT1A1 deficiency, which may be the target of rifampicin.

7.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071968

RESUMO

Cotton is one of the most important fiber and oil crops in the world. Chloroplast genomes harbor their own genetic materials and are considered to be highly conserved. Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) act as "bridges" in protein synthesis by carrying amino acids. Currently, the variation and evolutionary characteristics of tRNAs in the cotton chloroplast genome are poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the structural variation and evolution of chloroplast tRNA (cp tRNA) based on eight diploid and two allotetraploid cotton species. We also investigated the nucleotide evolution of chloroplast genomes in cotton species. We found that cp tRNAs in cotton encoded 36 or 37 tRNAs, and 28 or 29 anti-codon types with lengths ranging from 60 to 93 nucleotides. Cotton chloroplast tRNA sequences possessed specific conservation and, in particular, the Ψ-loop contained the conserved U-U-C-X3-U. The cp tRNAs of Gossypium L. contained introns, and cp tRNAIle contained the anti-codon (C-A-U), which was generally the anti-codon of tRNAMet. The transition and transversion analyses showed that cp tRNAs in cotton species were iso-acceptor specific and had undergone unequal rates of evolution. The intergenic region was more variable than coding regions, and non-synonymous mutations have been fixed in cotton cp genomes. On the other hand, phylogeny analyses indicated that cp tRNAs of cotton were derived from several inferred ancestors with greater gene duplications. This study provides new insights into the structural variation and evolution of chloroplast tRNAs in cotton plants. Our findings could contribute to understanding the detailed characteristics and evolutionary variation of the tRNA family.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genes de Cloroplastos , Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Gossypium/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética , Códon/genética , Gossypium/classificação , Filogenia
8.
Gut ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Multiple clinical similarities exist between IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and while gut dysbiosis has been extensively studied in PSC, the role of the gut microbiota in IgG4-SC remains unknown. Herein, we aimed to evaluate alterations of the gut microbiome and metabolome in IgG4-SC and PSC. DESIGN: We performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of faecal samples from 135 subjects with IgG4-SC (n=34), PSC (n=37) and healthy controls (n=64). A subset of the samples (31 IgG4-SC, 37 PSC and 45 controls) also underwent untargeted metabolomic profiling. RESULTS: Compared with controls, reduced alpha-diversity and shifted microbial community were observed in IgG4-SC and PSC. These changes were accompanied by differences in stool metabolomes. Importantly, despite some common variations in the microbiota composition and metabolic activity, integrative analyses identified distinct host-microbe associations in IgG4-SC and PSC. The disease-associated genera and metabolites tended to associate with the transaminases in IgG4-SC. Notable depletion of Blautia and elevated succinic acid may underlie hepatic inflammation in IgG4-SC. In comparison, potential links between the microbial or metabolic signatures and cholestatic parameters were detected in PSC. Particularly, concordant decrease of Eubacterium and microbiota-derived metabolites, including secondary bile acids, implicated novel host-microbial metabolic pathways involving cholestasis of PSC. Interestingly, the predictive models based on metabolites were more effective in discriminating disease status than those based on microbes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal that IgG4-SC and PSC possess divergent host-microbe interplays that may be involved in disease pathogenesis. These data emphasise the uniqueness of IgG4-SC.

9.
J Hepatol ; 75(2): 454-461, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019941

RESUMO

Fatty liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction is of increasing concern in mainland China, the world's most populous country. The incidence of fatty liver disease is highest in China, surpassing the incidence in European countries and the USA. An international consensus panel recently published an influential report recommending a novel definition of fatty liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction. This recommendation includes a switch in name from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and adoption of a set of positive criteria for disease diagnosis that are independent of alcohol intake or other liver diseases. Given the unique importance of this proposal, the Chinese Society of Hepatology (CSH) invited leading hepatologists and gastroenterologists representing their respective provinces and cities to reach consensus on alternative definitions for fatty liver disease from a national perspective. The CSH endorses the proposed change from NAFLD to MAFLD (supported by 95.45% of participants). We expect that the new definition will result in substantial improvements in health care for patients and advance disease awareness, public health policy, and political, scientific and funding outcomes for MAFLD in China.

10.
J Hepatol ; 75(3): 572-581, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033851

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS & AIMS: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease in which autoimmune destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts eventually leads to cirrhosis. Many patients have inadequate response to licensed medications, motivating the search for novel therapies. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and meta-analyses (GWMA) of PBC have identified numerous risk loci for this condition, providing insight into its aetiology. We undertook the largest GWMA of PBC to date, aiming to identify additional risk loci and prioritise candidate genes for in silico drug efficacy screening. METHODS: We combined new and existing genotype data for 10,516 cases and 20,772 controls from 5 European and 2 East Asian cohorts. RESULTS: We identified 56 genome-wide significant loci (20 novel) including 46 in European, 13 in Asian, and 41 in combined cohorts; and a 57th genome-wide significant locus (also novel) in conditional analysis of the European cohorts. Candidate genes at newly identified loci include FCRL3, INAVA, PRDM1, IRF7, CCR6, CD226, and IL12RB1, which each play key roles in immunity. Pathway analysis reiterated the likely importance of pattern recognition receptor and TNF signalling, JAK-STAT signalling, and differentiation of T helper (TH)1 and TH17 cells in the pathogenesis of this disease. Drug efficacy screening identified several medications predicted to be therapeutic in PBC, some of which are well-established in the treatment of other autoimmune disorders. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified additional risk loci for PBC, provided a hierarchy of agents that could be trialled in this condition, and emphasised the value of genetic and genomic approaches to drug discovery in complex disorders. LAY SUMMARY: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic liver disease that eventually leads to cirrhosis. In this study, we analysed genetic information from 10,516 people with PBC and 20,772 healthy individuals recruited in Canada, China, Italy, Japan, the UK, or the USA. We identified several genetic regions associated with PBC. Each of these regions contains several genes. For each region, we used diverse sources of evidence to help us choose the gene most likely to be involved in causing PBC. We used these 'candidate genes' to help us identify medications that are currently used for treatment of other conditions, which might also be useful for treatment of PBC.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793160

RESUMO

Autoimmune liver diseases (AILD) is a group of immune-mediated liver inflammatory diseases with three major forms including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Interaction of both genetic and environmental factors leads to the breakdown of self-tolerance, hence resulting in hyper-responsive of autoantibodies and aggressive autoreactive immune cells. Genetic studies have identified dozens of risk loci associated with initiation and development of AILD. However, the role of exogenous factors remains unclear. Recently, both infectious and inflammatory diseases have been associated with microbiota, which colonizes multiple mucosal surfaces and participates in human physiological process and function in immune system, particularly influencing liver and biliary system via gut-liver axis. Emerging evidence on the role of gut microbiota has expanded our knowledge of AILD in both pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets, along with putative diagnosis biomarkers. Herein we review the relationship between host and gut microbiota, discuss their potential roles in disease onset and progression, and summarize the compositional and functional alterations of the microbiota in AILD. We also highlight the microbiotabased therapeutics such as antibiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

13.
J Dig Dis ; 22(6): 351-362, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Emperipolesis is a pathological feature for the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We have previously found that CD8+ T cells participated in the emperipolesis in AIH. In this study we aimed to clarify the characteristics and molecular mechanisms of emperipolesis in patients with AIH in vitro and in mice with α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-induced acute hepatitis. METHODS: The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with various chronic liver diseases and healthy controls were co-cultured with hepatic cell lines to induce emperipolesis in vitro. Confocal staining was performed to illustrate the cellular types and potential mechanisms of emperipolesis in AIH. In addition, a murine model of α-GalCer-induced acute hepatitis that mimics human AIH was used to confirm the role of CD44/p-ERM/F-actin in the emperipolesis process in vivo. RESULTS: In the co-cultured system of PBMC and hepatic cell line, emperipolesis was observed most commonly in patients with AIH. The main cells participating in emperipolesis were CD8+ T cells, and they penetrated hepatic cells actively via the CD44/p-ERM/F-actin pathway. As a result, most CD8+ T cells engulfed by hepatic cells underwent apoptosis. In the α-GalCer-induced acute hepatitis model, emperipolesis was observed around the inflammatory foci and was inhibited by the ezrin phosphorylation inhibitor NSC668394. Similarly, activated murine CD8+ T cells penetrated primary hepatocytes via the CD44/p-ERM/F-actin pathway in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: CD8+ T cells penetrate hepatic cells actively via the CD44/p-ERM/F-actin signaling pathway and undergo apoptosis. This may be a compensatory mechanism to attenuate the overwhelming immune attack in AIH.


Assuntos
Hepatite Autoimune , Actinas , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Hepatócitos , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Fígado , Camundongos , Linfócitos T
15.
Hepatology ; 74(2): 847-863, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The diverse inflammatory response found in the liver of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is well established, but identification of potentially pathogenic subpopulations has proven enigmatic. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We report herein that CD69+ CD103+ CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM ) are significantly increased in the liver of patients with AIH compared to chronic hepatitis B, NAFLD, and healthy control tissues. In addition, there was a significant statistical correlation between elevation of CD8+ TRM cells and AIH disease severity. Indeed, in patients with successful responses to immunosuppression, the frequencies of such hepatic CD8+ TRM cells decreased significantly. CD69+ CD8+ and CD69+ CD103+ CD8+ T cells, also known as CD8+ TRM cells, reflect tissue residency and are well known to provide intense immune antigenic responses. Hence, it was particularly interesting that patients with AIH also manifest an elevated expression of IL-15 and TGF-ß on inflammatory cells, and extensive hepatic expression of E-cadherin; these factors likely contribute to the development and localization of CD8+ TRM cells. Based on these data and, in particular, the relationships between disease severity and CD8+ TRM cells, we studied the mechanisms involved with glucocorticoid (GC) modulation of CD8+ TRM cell expansion. Our data reflect that GCs in vitro inhibit the expansion of CD8+ TRM cells induced by IL-15 and TGF-ß and with direct down-regulation of the nuclear factor Blimp1 of CD8+ TRM cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that CD8+ TRM cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AIH, and GCs attenuate hepatic inflammation through direct inhibition of CD8+ TRM cell expansion.

16.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(1): 80-91, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic steatosis commonly occurs in some chronic liver diseases and may affect disease progression. AIM: To investigate the performance of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in patients with autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). METHODS: Patients who were suspected of having AILDs and underwent liver biopsy were consistently enrolled. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and CAP were performed by transient elastography. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was used to evaluate the performance of CAP for diagnosing hepatic steatosis compared with biopsy. RESULTS: Among 190 patients with biopsy-proven hepatic steatosis, 69 were diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), 18 with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and 27 with AIH-PBC overlap syndrome. The AUROCs of CAP for the diagnosis of steatosis in AILDS were 0.878 (0.791-0.965) for S1, 0.764 (0.676-0.853) for S2, and 0.821 (0.716-0.926) for S3. The CAP value was significantly related to hepatic steatosis grade (P < 0.001). Among 69 patients with AIH, the median CAP score was 205.63 ± 47.36 dB/m for S0, 258.41 ± 42.83 dB/m for S1, 293.00 ± 37.18 dB/m for S2, and 313.60 ± 27.89 dB/m for S3. Compared with patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presenting with autoimmune markers, patients with AIH concomitant with NAFLD were much older and had higher serum IgG levels and LSM values. CONCLUSION: CAP can be used as a noninvasive diagnostic method to evaluate hepatic steatosis in patients with AILDs. Determination of LSM combined with CAP may help to identify patients with AIH concomitant with NAFLD from those with NAFLD with autoimmune phenomena.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Área Sob a Curva , Biópsia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Curva ROC
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512642

RESUMO

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by interface hepatitis, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, circulating autoantibodies, and elevated predominantly immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels. The goal in the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is complete disease remission. Here we took advantage of a large cohort of AIH patients to clarify predictors associated with biochemical and histological remission. Of 705 patients with complete follow-up, 569 (80.7%) patients achieved complete biochemical remission. Lower IgG levels (17.8 vs. 25 g/L, p < 0.001) and less liver cirrhosis (19.3% vs. 33.1%, p < 0.001) at diagnosis were observed in these patients. They also had lower serum IgG levels (13 vs. 18.9 g/L, p < 0.001) after 3 months of treatment. Histological remission was achieved in 69.4% of 160 patients with complete biochemical remission after 3 years of treatment. Patients with histological remission had lower IgG levels (16.2 vs. 20.1 g/L, p = 0.006) and Ishak fibrosis scores (3.4 vs. 4.1, p = 0.010) at diagnosis, and they appeared to achieve biochemical remission more rapidly (1 vs. 3 months, p < 0.001). Of note, patients with histological remission had higher frequency of fibrosis regression than those with persisting histological activity (87.5% vs. 60%, p = 0.004). In conclusion, lower serum IgG levels, less fibrosis in liver histology at diagnosis, and rapid response to immunosuppressive therapy are reliable predictors of biochemical and histological remission. Our study underscores the importance of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

18.
Hepatol Int ; 15(1): 155-165, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rifaximin has been recommended as a prophylactic drug for hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). This study aims to explore whether low-dose rifaximin can prevent overall complications and prolong survival in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: In this multi-centre randomized open-labelled prospective study, 200 patients with decompensated cirrhosis were randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1. Patients in rifaximin group were administered 400 mg rifaximin twice daily for 6 months, and all other therapeutic strategies were kept unchanged in both groups as long as possible. The primary efficacy endpoints were the incidence of overall complications and liver transplantation-free survival. The secondary endspoints were the incidence of each major cirrhosis-related complication, as well as the Child-Pugh score and class. RESULTS: The major baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups except for HE. The cumulative incidence and frequency of overall complications were significantly lower in rifaximin group than in the control group (p < 0.001). Though liver transplantation-free survival was not significantly different between the two groups, subgroup analysis showed rifaximin markedly prolonged liver transplantation-free survival in patients with Child-Pugh score ≥ 9 (p = 0.007). Moreover, rifaximin markedly reduced the episodes of ascites exacerbation (p < 0.001), HE (p < 0.001) and gastric variceal bleeding (EGVB, p = 0.031). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION: Low-dose rifaximin significantly decreases the occurrence of overall complications, leading to prolonged survival in patients with advanced stages of cirrhosis in this trail. Further study should be carried out to compare the effect of this low-dose rifaximin with normal dose (1200 mg/day) rifaximin in preventing cirrhosis-related complications. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: NCT02190357.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Cirrose Hepática , Rifaximina/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(1): 304-315, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Liver damage is a common manifestation and can be life-threatening in adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), an autoinflammatory disease. The hallmark of AOSD is activation of neutrophils, whose infiltration in liver is suspected to promote tissue injury. Here we aimed to identify a candidate biomarker and to validate its association with liver damage in AOSD. METHODS: Transcriptome analysis of neutrophils from treatment-naïve active AOSD patients and healthy donors was performed. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) expression was assessed in neutrophils, plasma and liver biopsies of AOSD. The correlations of LCN2 with different variables and its ability to identify liver damage from AOSD patients were analysed. RESULTS: LCN2, a novel biomarker in hepatic inflammation, was found to be upregulated in AOSD neutrophils by RNA sequencing and confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. Plasma levels of LCN2 were significantly higher in AOSD patients than healthy controls, RA and SLE patients. Plasma LCN2 levels were closely correlated with inflammatory markers, systemic score, HScore and cytokines. Moreover, LCN2 levels were increased in active AOSD with liver involvement and independently associated with liver dysfunction. Enhanced expression of LCN2 was detected in liver biopsies from three patients with ongoing liver injury. Furthermore, the area under the curve value of LCN2 for identifying AOSD with liver injury from other liver diseases was 0.9694. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal that neutrophils-derived LCN2 is higher in plasma and liver tissue in AOSD patients than in healthy controls, and it could serve as a potent biomarker for identifying AOSD with systemic inflammation, especially liver damage caused by hyperinflammation.


Assuntos
Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Lipocalina-2/sangue , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/sangue , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/diagnóstico , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/patologia
20.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 60(1): 132-145, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712804

RESUMO

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by intense infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in affected organs. However, the mechanisms acting in the immune responses in IgG4-RD are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to dissect the mechanism underlying the immunoglobulin class switch in IgG4-RD by addressing the crosstalk between IL-35-producing and Th9 cells. The expression level of IL-35 was examined in plasma samples from patients with hepatobiliary and/or pancreatic manifestations of IgG4-RD. Our data demonstrate that IgG4-RD patients exhibit significantly high-level productions of IL-35 as compared to disease and healthy controls. We detected the two subunits of IL-35, EBI3 and IL-12p35, in the two major affected organs, liver and pancreatic tissue, from IgG4-RD. The EBI3- and IL-12p35-positive cells were significantly higher in affected organs in IgG4-RD as compared to disease controls. The colocalization of EBI3 with CD19 and CD38, markers for B cells, suggest the presence of IL-35-producing B cells in affected organs in IgG4-RD. The effects of IL-35 in Th9 differentiation and IL-9 in production of immunoglobulin were then assessed. Surprisingly, IL-35 treatment promoted naïve CD4 T cell differentiating towards Th9 cells through IRF4 signaling. As a consequence, IL-9 secreted by Th9 cells promoted the differentiation of plasma cells and production of IgG1 and IgG4, predominantly IgG4. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that IL-35 actively participates in the process of inflammation and plays an important role in Th9 differentiation resulting in an immunoglobulin class switch towards IgG4.


Assuntos
Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/imunologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Plasmócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Switching de Imunoglobulina , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Interleucina-9/metabolismo , Interleucinas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais
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