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1.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 47(11): 993-8, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36453676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of early electroacupuncture(EA) intervention on ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in Parkinson's disease (PD) mice, so as to explore its neuroinflammation mechanism in treating PD. METHODS: A total of 24 male C57BL/6J mice (9 weeks old) were randomly divided into control, model and EA groups, with 8 mice in each group. The PD model was established by long-term low dose subcutaneous injection of rotenone. Started at the same time with modeling, EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to "Shenting"(GV24), bilateral "Tianshu"(LI11), "Quchi"(ST25), and "Shangjuxu"(ST37) for 15 min, once a day for 8 weeks. The motor function was assessed by rotorod test and step length test. The expression levels of Iba-1 and TH proteins in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expression level of TNF-α protein in colon tissue was examined by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the fall latency shortened at 4, 6, and 8 weeks after modeling (P<0.01) and the step length of hind limbs shortened at 5 and 7 weeks after modeling (P<0.01), the expression levels of Iba-1 in SNpc and TNF-α in colon tissue were increased (P<0.01), and the expression level of TH in SNpc was decreased (P<0.01) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the fall latency prolonged at 6 and 8 weeks after modeling (P<0.01) and the step length of hind limbs prolonged at 5 and 7 weeks after modeling (P<0.01), the expression levels of Iba-1 in SNpc and TNF-α in colon tissue were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the expression level of TH in SNpc was increased (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the EA group. CONCLUSION: Early EA intervention can delay the occurring time of motor disfunction, alleviated the loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, and exerted a good neuroprotective effect on the degenerative changes in rotenone-induced PD mice, which may be related to its effects in alleviating the intestinal inflammation, inhibiting the activation of microglia, thereby reducing the neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Doença de Parkinson , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Rotenona , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/genética
2.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 993862, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324680

RESUMO

JAK/STAT signaling pathways are closely associated with multiple biological processes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, differentiation, immune response, and epigenetics. Abnormal activation of the STAT pathway can contribute to disease progressions under various conditions. Moreover, tofacitinib and baricitinib as the JAK/STAT inhibitors have been recently approved by the FDA for rheumatology disease treatment. Therefore, influences on the STAT signaling pathway have potential and perspective approaches for diverse diseases. Chinese herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which are widespread throughout China, are the gold resources of China and have been extensively used for treating multiple diseases for thousands of years. However, Chinese herbs and herb formulas are characterized by complicated components, resulting in various targets and pathways in treating diseases, which limits their approval and applications. With the development of chemistry and pharmacology, active ingredients of TCM and herbs and underlying mechanisms have been further identified and confirmed by pharmacists and chemists, which improved, to some extent, awkward limitations, approval, and applications regarding TCM and herbs. In this review, we summarized various herbs, herb formulas, natural compounds, and phytochemicals isolated from herbs that have the potential for regulating multiple biological processes via modulation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway based on the published work. Our study will provide support for revealing TCM, their active compounds that treat diseases, and the underlying mechanism, further improving the rapid spread of TCM to the world.

5.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 995548, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36406080

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary squalene (SQ) supplementation on the growth performance of early-weaned piglets. Twenty early-weaned piglets were randomly divided into two groups, the squalene group (SQ) and the control group (CON). The CON group was fed a basal diet, and the SQ group was fed a basal diet with 250 mg/kg squalene. The feeding period lasted 21 days. The results showed that SQ significantly increased the final body weight (FWB, P < 0.05), average daily gain (ADG, P < 0.05), and average daily feed intake (ADFI, P < 0.05) and significantly decreased the F/G ratio (feed intake/gain, P < 0.05) and diarrhea index (DI, P < 0.05). In terms of blood biochemical indicators, SQ significantly increased anti-inflammatory factors such as transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß, P < 0.001), interleukin-10 (IL-10, P < 0.001), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, P < 0.01), and decreased pro-inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TFN-α, P < 0.001) and interleukin-6 (IL-6, P < 0.001). Furthermore, SQ significantly increased blood antioxidant indexes (P < 0.001) such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.001). The villus height (P < 0.001) and V/C ratio (villus height/crypt depth, P < 0.001) of the jejunum were significantly increased in the SQ group, while the crypt depth (P < 0.01) was decreased compared to the CON group. The intestinal permeability indexes, namely diamine oxidase (DAO), D-lactic acid (D-Lac), regenerative insulin-derived protein 3 (REG-3), and FITC-Dextran 4 (FD4), significantly decreased the concentrations in the treatment group (P < 0.001), and the antioxidant indexes of the jejunum, such as SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, and MDA, were improved by adding SQ. The qPCR results showed that adding SQ could significantly increase the mRNA expression of jejunal tight-junction proteins, such as zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, P < 0.001), Occludin (P < 0.001), Claudin (P < 0.001), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2, P < 0.001), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, P < 0.001). Then, we used Western blotting experiments to further confirm the qPCR results. In addition, it was found that adding SQ increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Gemmiger (P < 0.01) and decreased the abundance of harmful bacteria such as Alloprevotella (P < 0.05), Desulfovibrio (P < 0.05), and Barnesiella (P < 0.05). It was interesting that there was a very close correlation among the fecal microbes, growth performance parameters, intestinal barrier, and blood biochemical indicators. In conclusion, the data suggest that SQ supplementation could effectively improve the growth performance of early-weaned piglets by improving the gut microbiota, intestinal barrier, and antioxidant capacity of the blood and jejunal mucosa.

6.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358152

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-caused infection is difficult to treat because of its resistance to commonly used antibiotic, and poses a significant threat to public health. To develop new anti-bacterial agents to combat MRSA-induced infections, we synthesized novel squaric amide derivatives and evaluated their anti-bacterial activity by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Additionally, inhibitory activity of squaric amide 2 (SA2) was measured using the growth curve assay, time-kill assay, and an MRSA-induced skin infection animal model. A scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were utilized to observe the effect of SA2 on the morphologies of MRSA. Transcriptome analysis and real-time PCR were used to test the possible anti-bacterial mechanism of SA2. The results showed that SA2 exerted bactericidal activity against a number of MRSA strains with an MIC at 4-8 µg/mL. It also inhibited the bacterial growth curve of MRSA strains in a dose-dependent manner, and reduced the colony formation unit in 4× MIC within 4-8 h. The infective lesion size and the bacterial number in the MRSA-induced infection tissue of mice were reduced significantly within 7 days after SA2 treatment. Moreover, SA2 disrupted the bacterial membrane and alanine dehydrogenase-dependent NAD+/NADH homeostasis. Our data indicates that SA2 is a possible lead compound for the development of new anti-bacterial agents against MRSA infection.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1019972, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36311711

RESUMO

Purpose of review: This review aims to describe clinical and histological features, treatment, and prognosis in patients with anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) autoantibodies positive immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (SRP-IMNM) based on previous findings. Previous findings: Anti-SRP autoantibodies are specific in IMNM. Humoral autoimmune and inflammatory responses are the main autoimmune characteristics of SRP-IMNM. SRP-IMNM is clinically characterized by acute or subacute, moderately severe, symmetrical proximal weakness. Younger patients with SRP-IMNM tend to have more severe clinical symptoms. Patients with SRP-IMNM may be vulnerable to cardiac involvement, which ought to be regularly monitored and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is the recommended detection method. The pathological features of SRP-IMNM are patchy or diffuse myonecrosis and myoregeneration accompanied by a paucity of inflammatory infiltrates. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy pathway and necroptosis are activated in skeletal muscle of SRP-IMNM. Treatment of refractory SRP-IMNM encounters resistance and warrants further investigation. Summary: Anti-SRP autoantibodies define a unique population of IMNM patients. The immune and non-immune pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in SRP-IMNM.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Doenças Musculares , Miosite , Humanos , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal , Necrose , Autoanticorpos , Doenças Musculares/terapia
8.
MedComm (2020) ; 3(4): e181, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254250

RESUMO

Compared with traditional therapies, targeted therapy has merits in selectivity, efficacy, and tolerability. Small molecule inhibitors are one of the primary targeted therapies for cancer. Due to their advantages in a wide range of targets, convenient medication, and the ability to penetrate into the central nervous system, many efforts have been devoted to developing more small molecule inhibitors. To date, 88 small molecule inhibitors have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration to treat cancers. Despite remarkable progress, small molecule inhibitors in cancer treatment still face many obstacles, such as low response rate, short duration of response, toxicity, biomarkers, and resistance. To better promote the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting cancers, we comprehensively reviewed small molecule inhibitors involved in all the approved agents and pivotal drug candidates in clinical trials arranged by the signaling pathways and the classification of small molecule inhibitors. We discussed lessons learned from the development of these agents, the proper strategies to overcome resistance arising from different mechanisms, and combination therapies concerned with small molecule inhibitors. Through our review, we hoped to provide insights and perspectives for the research and development of small molecule inhibitors in cancer treatment.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 959736, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36147327

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus poses a serious public health threat because of its multidrug resistance and biofilm formation ability. Hence, developing novel anti-biofilm agents and finding targets are needed to mitigate the proliferation of drug-resistant pathogens. In our previous study, we showed that the pyrancoumarin derivative 2-amino-4-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-3-cyano-5-oxo-4H, 5H- pyrano [3,2c] chromene (LP4C) can destroy the biofilm of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in vitro and in vivo. Here, we further explored the possible mechanism of LP4C as a potential anti-biofilm drug. We found that LP4C inhibits the expression of enzymes involved in the de novo pyrimidine pathway and attenuates the virulence of MRSA USA300 strain without affecting the agr or luxS quorum sensing system. The molecular docking results indicated that LP4C forms interactions with the key amino acid residues of pyrR protein, which functions as the important regulator of bacterial pyrimidine synthesis. These findings reveal that pyrancoumarin derivative LP4C inhibits MRSA biofilm formation and targeting pyrimidine de novo synthesis pathway.

10.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144821

RESUMO

Protosappanoside D (PTD) is a new component isolated from the extract of Caesalpinia decapetala for the first time. Its structure was identified as protosappanin B-3-O-ß-D-glucoside by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 2D-NMR and MS techniques. To date, the pharmacological activities, metabolism or pharmacokinetics of PTD has not been reported. Therefore, this research to study the anti-inflammatory activity of PTD was investigated via the LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells model. At the same time, we also used the UHPLC/Q Exactive Plus MS and UPLC-MS/MS methods to study the metabolites and pharmacokinetics of PTD, to calculate its bioavailability for the first time. The results showed that PTD could downregulate secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. In the metabolic study, four metabolites were identified, and the primary degradative pathways in vivo involved the desaturation, oxidation, methylation, alkylation, dehydration, degradation and desugarization. In the pharmacokinetic study, PTD and its main metabolite protosappanin B (PTB) were measured after oral and intravenous administration. After oral administration of PTD, its Tmax was 0.49 h, t1/2z and MRT(0-t) were 3.47 ± 0.78 h and 3.06 ± 0.63 h, respectively. It shows that PTD was quickly absorbed into plasma and it may be eliminated quickly in the body, and its bioavailability is about 0.65%.


Assuntos
Caesalpinia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Administração Oral , Caesalpinia/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Citocinas , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Oxocinas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
11.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(21): 7545-7552, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36158021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with keloids who receive radiotherapy (RT) after surgery can develop refractory wounds that cannot be healed by the patient's own repair system. Such chronic wounds are uneven and complex due to persistent abscess and ulceration. Without external intervention, they can easily result in local tissue necrosis or, in severe cases, large area tissue resection, amputation, and even death. CASE SUMMARY: This article describes the use of hydrogen to treat a 42-year-old female patient with a chronic wound on her left shoulder. The patient had a skin graft that involved implanting a dilator under the skin of her left shoulder, and then transferring excess skin from her shoulder onto scar tissue on her chest. The skin grafting was followed by two rounds of RT, after which the shoulder wound had difficulty healing. For six months, the patient was treated with 2 h of hydrogen inhalation (HI) therapy per day, in addition to application of sterile gauze on the wound and periodic debridement. We also performed one deep, large, sharp debridement to enlarge the wound area. The wound healed completely within 6 mo of beginning the HI treatment. CONCLUSION: After HI therapy, the patient showed superior progress in reepithelialization and wound repair, with eventual wound closure in 6 mo, in comparison with the previous failures of hyperbaric oxygen and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor therapies. Our work showed that HI therapy could be a new strategy for wound healing that is cleaner, more convenient, and less expensive than other therapies, as well as easily accessible for further application in clinical wound care.

13.
Hum Reprod Update ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive tract infection is an important factor leading to male and female infertility. Among female infertility factors, microbial and viral infections are the main factors affecting female reproductive health and causing tubal infertility, ectopic tubal pregnancy and premature delivery. Among male infertility factors, 13-15% of male infertility is related to infection. Defensins are cationic antibacterial and antiviral peptides, classified into α-defensins, ß-defensins and θ-defensins. Humans only have α-defensins and ß-defensins. Apart from their direct antimicrobial functions, defensins have an immunomodulatory function and are involved in many physiological processes. Studies have shown that defensins are widely distributed in the female reproductive tract (FRT) and male reproductive tract (MRT), playing a dual role of host defence and fertility protection. However, to our knowledge, the distribution, regulation and function of defensins in the reproductive tract and their relation to reproduction have not been reviewed. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: This review summarizes the expression, distribution and regulation of defensins in the reproductive tracts to reveal the updated research on the dual role of defensins in host defence and the protection of fertility. SEARCH METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed using the related keywords through April 2022. Related data from original researches and reviews were integrated to comprehensively review the current findings and understanding of defensins in the human reproductive system. Meanwhile, female and male transcriptome data in the GEO database were screened to analyze defensins in the human reproductive tracts. OUTCOMES: Two transcriptome databases from the GEO database (GSE7307 and GSE150852) combined with existing researches reveal the expression levels and role of the defensins in the reproductive tracts. In the FRT, a high expression level of α-defensin is found, and the expression levels of defensins in the vulva and vagina are higher than those in other organs. The expression of defensins in the endometrium varies with menstrual cycle stages and with microbial invasion. Defensins also participate in the local immune response to regulate the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. In the MRT, a high expression level of ß-defensins is also found. It is mainly highly expressed in the epididymal caput and corpus, indicating that defensins play an important role in sperm maturation. The expression of defensins in the MRT varies with androgen levels, age and the status of microbial invasion. They protect the male reproductive system from bacterial infections by neutralizing lipopolysaccharide and downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, animal and clinical studies have shown that defensins play an important role in sperm maturation, motility and fertilization. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: As a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide without drug resistance, defensin has great potential for developing new natural antimicrobial treatments for reproductive tract infections. However, increasing evidence has shown that defensins can not only inhibit microbial invasion but can also promote the invasion and adhesion of some microorganisms in certain biological environments, such as human immunodeficiency virus. Therefore, the safety of defensins as reproductive tract anti-infective drugs needs more in-depth research. In addition, the modulatory role of defensins in fertility requires more in-depth research since the current conclusions are based on small-size samples. At present, scientists have made many attempts at the clinical transformation of defensins. However, defensins have problems such as poor stability, low bioavailability and difficulties in their synthesis. Therefore, the production of safe, effective and low-cost drugs remains a challenge.

14.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 965275, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35967577

RESUMO

Background: Esophageal atresia (EA) with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a common congenital anomaly. It is still unknown whether azygos vein preservation will increase the difficulty or time of operation and reduce the quality of anastomosis. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to explore the puzzle. Methods: Two researchers independently searched the databases. Randomized controlled trials were included if these studies applied thoracotomy to perform operations and compared the outcomes in patients with EA/TEF between azygos vein preservation groups and azygos vein ligation groups. The Jadad score was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated using the I 2 value. A fixed or random-effect model was applied regarding the I 2 value. Results: Four studies involving 286 patients were included. The pooled estimates indicated that preservation of the azygos vein decreased the incidence of anatomic leakage with a pooled risk ratio (RR) of 0.54 (95% CI 0.29-0.99, P = 0.05) and mortality with an RR of 0.51 (95% CI 0.29-0.90; P = 0.02). Preservation of the azygos vein might not require a longer operative time than ligation of the azygos vein. Conclusions: This research certifies that preservation of the azygos vein is able to reduce the prevalence of anastomotic leakage and mortality.

15.
Stem Cells Int ; 2022: 5240204, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35958033

RESUMO

Introduction: Tissue engineering strategies have attempted to mimic regenerating axons' environment by adding supportive types of cells other than Schwann cell to the nerve allograft. We hypothesized that allografts can be seeded with amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFS) to promote nerve regeneration. Methods: ANAs with AFS cells for long-gap nerve repairs were studied using a rat model. A sciatic nerve injury was created and repaired immediately with a rat acellular nerve allograft (ANA) construct alone, an ANA construct seeded with AFS cells, or with an autograft. Walking track analysis and electrophysiology were performed to document the return of motor control at 4 months post injury. Axon morphology on the nerve segments was assessed. Results: In vivo gait analysis showed that the ANA plus AFS cell group had significantly advanced recoveries in overlap distance, paw angle degree, paw drag, stance width, axis distance, and sciatic function index (SFI) compared with ANA alone. The ANA plus AFS cell group also demonstrated greater gastrocnemius compound muscle action potential (CMAP) ratio, sciatic axon diameter, fiber diameter, myelin thickness, G ratio (average axonal diameter (AD)/fiber diameter (FD)), and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) numbers compared to ANA. Discussion. The allograft plus AFS cell group demonstrated significantly improved functional and histological outcomes compared to allograft group alone, showing no significant difference of the nerve regeneration from the autograft group. Thus, AFS cells may be a suitable cell source to replace Schwann cells to support and accelerate peripheral nerve regeneration following large-gap nerve injury.

16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(17): 12494-12505, 2022 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006007

RESUMO

Neonicotinoid insecticides have attracted worldwide attention due to their ubiquitous occurrence and detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, yet their impacts on fish reproduction during long-term exposure remain unknown. Here, zebrafish (F0) were exposed to a neonicotinoid, acetamiprid, at 0.19-1637 µg/L for 154 d. Accumulation and biotransformation of acetamiprid were observed in adult fish, and the parent compound and its metabolite (acetamiprid-N-desmethyl) were transferred to their offspring. Acetamiprid caused slight survival reduction and significant feminization in F0 fish even at the lowest concentration. Hormone levels in F0 fish were remarkedly altered, that is, gonad 17ß-estradiol (E2) significantly increased, while androstenedione decreased. The corresponding transcription of steroidogenic genes (ar, cyp19b, fshß, gnrh2, gnrh3, and lhß) were significantly upregulated in the brain and gonad of the females but downregulated in the males. The vtg1 gene expression in the liver of male fish was also upregulated. In addition to F0 fish, parental exposure to acetamiprid decreased hatchability and enhanced malformation of F1 embryos. Chronic exposure to acetamiprid at environmentally relevant concentrations altered hormone production and the related gene expression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis in a sex-dependent way, caused feminization and reproductive dysfunction in zebrafish, and impaired production and development of their offspring.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , Feminino , Feminização/induzido quimicamente , Feminização/metabolismo , Gônadas , Humanos , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Reprodução , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(40): e202210322, 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945694

RESUMO

The lagging development of deep-blue perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) heavily impedes their practical applications in full-color display due to the absence of spectrally stable emitters and the mismatch of carrier injection capacity. Herein, we report highly efficient deep-blue PeLEDs through a new chemical strategy that addresses the dilemma for simultaneously constant electroluminescence (EL) spectra and high-purify phase in reduced-dimensional perovskites. The success lies in the control of adsorption-energy differences between phenylbutylamine (PBA) and ethylamine (EA) interacting with perovskites, which facilitates narrow n-value distribution. This approach leads to an increased exciton binding energy and enhanced surface potential, hence improving radiative recombination. As a result, an external quantum efficiency of 4.62 % is achieved in PeLEDs with a stable EL peak at 457 nm, demonstrating the best reported result for deep-blue PeLEDs so far.

18.
Chemosphere ; 308(Pt 1): 135840, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007740

RESUMO

In order to effectively utilize organic matter in sewage sludge (SS), a new porous carbon material was successfully prepared from SS with deep eutectic solvents (DES) (boric acid and urea), in which DES was firstly used to solvent to separate organic matter, also playing the role as a B and N donor as well as acid activator to form porous B, N-carbons. As-synthesized B, N-carbon electrode materials possessed a high specific capacitance of 251.4 F/g at a current density of 1 A/g. It retained 84.28% of the capacitance at an ultrahigh current density of 5 A/g. The energy density was 9.502 Wh/Kg at a power density of 245.4 W/kg in 6 M KOH in symmetric supercapacitor.


Assuntos
Carbono , Esgotos , Capacitância Elétrica , Solventes , Ureia
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(28): 31601-31612, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793165

RESUMO

Biofilms are the oldest, most successful, and most widely distributed form of microorganism life on earth, existing even in extreme environments. Presently, probiotics in biofilm phenotype are thought as the most advanced fourth-generation probiotics. However, high-efficiency and large-scale biofilm enrichment in an artificial way is difficult. Here, fibrous membranes as probiotic biofilm-enriching materials are studied. Electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibrous membranes with nano-sized fibers show outstanding superiority over fibrous membranes with micron-sized fibers in Lactobacillus paracasei biofilm enrichment. The special 3D structure of electrospun nanofibrous membranes makes other facilitating biofilm formation factors insignificant. With a suitable scaffold/culture medium ratio, nearly 100% of L. paracasei cells exist as biofilm phenotype on the membrane from the very beginning, not planktonic state. L. paracasei biofilms possess a potential for long-term survival and high tolerances toward strong acidic and alkali conditions and antibiotics. RNA sequencing results explain why L. paracasei biofilms possess high tolerances toward harsh environments as compared to planktonic L. paracasei. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes can serve as powerful biofilm-enriching scaffolds for probiotics and other valuable microbes.


Assuntos
Nanofibras , Probióticos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanofibras/química , Plâncton
20.
Neuroradiology ; 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835879

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate two advanced diffusion models, diffusion kurtosis imaging and the newly proposed mean apparent propagation factor-magnetic resonance imaging, in the grading of gliomas and the assessing of their proliferative activity. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with clinically diagnosed and pathologically proven gliomas were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent DKI and MAP-MRI scans. Manually outline the ROI of the tumour parenchyma. After delineation, the imaging parameters were extracted using only the data from within the ROI including mean diffusion kurtosis (MK), return-to-origin probability (RTOP), Q-space inverse variance (QIV) and non-Gaussian index (NG), and the differences in each parameter in the classification of glioma were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of these parameters. RESULTS: MK, NG, RTOP and QIV were significantly different amongst the different grades of glioma. MK, NG and RTOP had excellent diagnostic value in differentiating high-grade from low-grade glioma, with largest areas under the curve (AUCs; 0.929, 0.933 and 0.819, respectively; P < 0.01). MK and NG had the largest AUCs (0.912 and 0.904) when differentiating grade II tumours from III tumours (P < 0.01) and large AUCs (0.791 and 0.786) when differentiating grade III from grade IV tumours. Correlation analysis of tumour proliferation activity showed that MK, NG and QIV were strongly correlated with the Ki-67 LI (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: MK, RTOP and NG can effectively represent the microstructure of these altered tumours. Multimodal diffusion-weighted imaging is valuable for the preoperative evaluation of glioma grade and tumour proliferative activity.

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