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1.
Hepatology ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222996

RESUMO

Little is known about the role of low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We prospectively evaluated the associations between plant-based and animal-based LCDs and risk of HCC in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Dietary intake was assessed every 4 years using validated food frequency questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). HRs are shown for a 1-standard deviation (SD) increment with variable modelled as continuous. During 3,664,769 person years of follow-up, there were 156 incident HCC cases. Although there were no associations between overall or animal-based LCD score and risk of HCC, plant-based LCD score was inversely associated with HCC risk (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-0.98; Ptrend =0.03). Carbohydrate intake, especially from refined grains (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00-1.39; Ptrend =0.04) was positively, while plant fat (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.65-0.95; Ptrend =0.01) was inversely associated with HCC risk. Substituting 5% of energy from plant fat and protein for carbohydrate (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.93; Ptrend =0.01) or refined grains (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55-0.90; Ptrend =0.006) was associated with lower HCC risk. In conclusion, a plant-based LCD and dietary restriction of carbohydrate from refined grains were associated with a lower risk of HCC. Substituting plant fat and protein for carbohydrate, particularly refined grains, may decrease HCC incidence. Our findings support a potential benefit in emphasizing plant sources of fat and protein in the diet for HCC primary prevention. Additional studies that carefully consider hepatitis B and C virus infections and chronic liver diseases are needed to confirm our findings.

2.
ACS Nano ; 14(2): 2145-2155, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040310

RESUMO

Recently, wearable and flexible pressure sensors have sparked tremendous research interest, and considerable applications including human activity monitoring, biomedical research, and artificial intelligence interaction are reported. However, the large-scale preparation of low-cost, high-sensitivity piezoresistive sensors still face huge challenges. Inspired by the specific structures and excellent metal conductivity of a family of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal carbides and nitrides (MXene) and the high-performance sensing effect of human skin including randomly distributed microstructural receptors, we fabricate a highly sensitive MXene-based piezoresistive sensor with bioinspired microspinous microstructures formed by a simple abrasive paper stencil printing process. The obtained piezoresistive sensor shows high sensitivity (151.4 kPa-1), relatively short response time (<130 ms), subtle pressure detection limit of 4.4 Pa, and excellent cycle stability over 10,000 cycles. The mechanism of the high sensitivity of the sensor is dynamically revealed from the structural perspective by means of in situ electron microscopy experiment and finite element simulation. Bioinspired microspinous microstructures can effectively improve the sensitivity of the pressure sensor and the limit of the detectable subtle pressure. In practice, the sensor shows great performance in monitoring human physiological signals, detecting quantitatively pressure distributions, and remote monitoring of intelligent robot motion in real time.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We investigated associations of intake of total fats, specific dietary fats, and fats from different food sources with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using data from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). METHODS: We analyzed data from a total of 138,483 women and men who participated in the NHS or HPFS. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was sent to NHS participants in 1980, 1984, 1986, and every 4 years thereafter; dietary information was collected from participants in the HPFS in 1986 and every 4 years thereafter. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: After an average follow-up time of 26.6 years, 160 incident HCC cases were documented. Although there was a non-significant association between total fat intake and HCC, intake of vegetable fats reduced risk of HCC (HR for the highest vs lowest quartile, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.96; Ptrend=.02), but not animal or dairy fats. Replacing animal or dairy fats with an equivalent amount of vegetable fats was associated with a lower risk of HCC (HR per 1 standard deviation, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97). Among fat subtypes, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41-0.96; Ptrend=.14) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.86; Ptrend=.02), were inversely associated with risk of HCC. Higher ratios of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat were inversely associated with HCC risk (all Ptrend≤.02). In addition, when replacing saturated fats with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, the HR per 1 standard deviation was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.64-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from 2 large cohort studies, we found higher intake of vegetable fats and polyunsaturated fats to be associated with lower risk of HCC. Replacing animal or dairy fats with vegetable fats, or replacing saturated fats with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, was associated with reduced risk of HCC.

4.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity in adulthood has been associated with increased risk of liver-related mortality. Whether higher levels of physical activity counteract the excess risk conferred by obesity remains unknown. We simultaneously evaluated the long-term impact of physical activity and adiposity on liver-related mortality, within 2 nationwide populations. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 77,238 women and 48,026 men, with detailed, validated assessments of weekly physical activity (metabolic equivalent task [MET]-hours]), adiposity (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference), and diet, alcohol use and clinical comorbidities, biennially from 1986 through 2012. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, we calculated multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% CIs for liver-related mortality, including death from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other complications of cirrhosis. RESULTS: Over 1,856,226 person-years, we recorded 295 liver-related deaths (108 HCC; 187 cirrhosis). Risk of liver-related mortality increased monotonically with higher BMI during adulthood (ptrend<0.0001) and with weight gain during early adulthood (ptrend <0.0001). The risk of liver-related mortality also declined progressively, with increasing physical activity (ptrend = 0.0003); the aHRs across increasing physical activity quintiles were: 1.0, 0.70 (95% CI 0.51-0.96), 0.59 (95% CI 0.42-0.84), 0.52 (95% CI 0.36-0.74) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.31-0.66). Compared to lean-active adults (BMI <25; ≥18 MET-hours/week), the aHRs for obese-active, lean-sedentary, and obese-sedentary adults were: 1.04 (95% CI 0.73-1.37), 2.08 (95% CI 1.21-3.33) and 3.40 (95% CI 2.06-5.56), respectively. Findings were similar for HCC-specific and cirrhosis-specific mortality. Overall, engaging in average-pace walking for >3 hours/week could have prevented 25% of liver-related deaths (95% CI 0.12-0.38). CONCLUSIONS: In 2 prospective, nationwide cohorts, both excess adiposity and reduced physical activity were significant predictors of liver-related mortality. Achieving higher physical activity levels counteracted the excess liver-related risks associated with obesity. LAY SUMMARY: This is the first large, prospective cohort study to simultaneously evaluate the impact of obesity and physical activity on the long-term risk of liver-related mortality in 2 nationwide populations of American men and women. The study demonstrated that obesity predicted significantly increased risk of liver-related mortality, while physical activity predicted significantly lower risk of liver-related mortality. Importantly, the excess risk of liver-related mortality observed with obesity was no longer statistically significant among adults who engaged in the equivalent of average-pace walking for 3 hours or more, per week.

5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 53, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a growing global epidemic. Our study aims to confirm the association between circulatory coiled-coil domain-containing 80 (CCDC80) in pregnant women with GDM, to investigate the discriminatory power of CCDC80 on GDM, and to explore the relationships between this molecular level and clinical cardiometabolic parameters. METHODS: A 1:2 matched case-control study with 61 GDM patients and 122 controls was conducted using a propensity score matching protocol. All participants were screened from a multicenter prospective pre-birth cohort: Born in Shenyang Cohort Study (BISCS). During 24 and 28 weeks of gestation, follow-up individuals underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and blood sampling for cardiometabolic characterization. RESULTS: Following propensity score matching adjustment for clinical variables, including maternal age, gestational age, body mass index, SBP and DBP, plasma CCDC80 levels were significantly decreased in patients with GDM when compared with controls (0.25 ± 0.10 vs. 0.31 ± 0.12 ng/ml, P = 0.003). Conditional multi-logistic regression analyses after adjustments for potential confounding factors revealed that CCDC80 was a strong and independent protective factor for GDM (ORs < 1). In addition, the results of the ROC analysis indicated the CCDC80 exhibited the capability to identify pregnant women with GDM (AUC = 0.633). Finally, multivariate regression analyses showed that CCDC80 levels were positively associated with AST, monoamine oxidase, complement C1q, LDL-C, apolipoprotein A1and B, and negatively associated with blood glucose levels at 1 h post- OGTT. CONCLUSIONS: Biomarker CCDC80 could be of great value for the development of prediction, diagnosis and therapeutic strategies against GDM in pregnant women.

6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 230: 115623, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887931

RESUMO

Robust and sustainable cellulose composite aerogels were prepared by incorporating MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) as green nanofillers and flame retardants. Two series of aerogels combining MgAl-CO3 LDH (MA-C) and MgAl-H2PO4 LDH (MA-P) were achieved, in which both MA-C and MA-P were uniformly dispersed in cellulose substances. The cellulose composite aerogels with 1.8 wt% of MA-C (denoted as CAC) and MA-P (denoted as CAP) displayed excellent mechanical properties, increased by 2.6 and 2.8 times compared with neat cellulose aerogels (CA), respectively. The peak of heat release rate (PHRR) of CAC and CAP reduced by 41 % and 50 % compared with the neat one, respectively, demonstrating the outstanding flame retardancy. The reduction in smoke production ratio (SPR) was 79 % for CAC and 75 % for CAP, respectively, indicating enhanced smoke suppression performance. Therefore, the high performance flame-retardant cellulose composite aerogels exhibit an application prospect in green advanced engineering field.

7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(1): 133-140, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the risk of colorectal cancer in night-shift workers might be different according to insulin receptor substrate status. METHODS: Among 77,470 eligible women having night work assessed in the Nurses' Health Study, we documented a total of 1,397 colorectal cancer cases, of which 304 or 308 had available data on IRS1 and IRS2, respectively. We used duplication-method Cox proportional hazards regression analysis for competing risks to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each colorectal cancer subtype. We measured tumor IRS1 or IRS2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: Compared with women who never worked night shifts, those working ≥15 years night shifts had a marginal trend of increased overall risk of colorectal cancer (P trend = 0.06; multivariable HR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99-1.45). Longer duration of night-shift work was associated with a higher risk of IRS2-positive tumors (multivariable HR = 2.69; 95% CI, 1.48-4.89; P trend = 0.001, ≥15 years night shifts vs. never) but not with IRS2-negative tumors (multivariable HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.54-1.51; P trend = 0.72; P heterogeneity for IRS2 = 0.008). Similarly, the corresponding multivariable HRs were 1.81 for IRS1-positive tumors (95% CI, 0.94-3.48; P trend = 0.06) and 1.13 for IRS1-negative tumors (95% CI, 0.71-1.80; P trend = 0.56; P heterogeneity for IRS1 = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our molecular pathologic epidemiology data suggest a potential role of IRS in mediating carcinogenesis induced by night-shift work. IMPACT: Although these findings need validation, rotating night shift might increase colorectal cancer risk in women with abnormal insulin receptor pathways.

8.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(2): 422-429, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793961

RESUMO

The use of the molecular spin state as a quantum of next-generation information technology is receiving impressive research attention, within which the fundamental issues include manipulating the phase transition between the spin-up and -down states and generating spin polarized current. The spinterface between ferromagnetic electrodes and a molecular bridge represents one of the most intriguing elements in this context. Herein, by means of the celebrated numerical renormalization group technique, we present an original way to realize spin reversal in a monomeric dimer. Our scheme is based on the exchange interactions between electronic spins on one monomer and those on the other one or on the electrodes, which could be easily controlled through purely electronic technology. Through a careful engineering of the interfacial parameters, one of the monomers is devoted to the spin reversing, whereas the other one contributes to the spin selecting. The charge numbers of spin-up and -down electrons swap their respective occupancies at some particular points, indicating charge sensing between different spins. The competition between the spinterface and the molecular energy level results in charge oscillating in a single spin channel, which is unfavorable to the spin selecting. The observation may provide a prospective example for a multifunctional magnetoelectronics molecular device, which works without any external magnetic field.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1241-1249, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116416

RESUMO

Although increasing dairy product intake has been associated with risk of several cancers, epidemiological studies on hepatocellular carcinoma are sparse and have yielded inconsistent results. We prospectively assessed the associations of dairy products (total, milk, butter, cheese and yogurt) and their major components (calcium, vitamin D, fats and protein) with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development among 51,418 men and 93,427 women in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and the Nurses' Health Study. Diets were collected at baseline and updated every 4 years using validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression model. During up to 32 years of follow-up, a total of 164 hepatocellular carcinoma cases were documented. After adjustment for most known hepatocellular carcinoma risk factors, higher total dairy product intake was associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (highest vs. lowest tertile, HR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.19-2.88; ptrend = 0.009). For the same comparison, we observed significant positive associations of high-fat dairy (HR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.19-2.76; ptrend = 0.008) and butter (HR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.06-2.36; ptrend = 0.04) with hepatocellular carcinoma risk. There was a nonsignificant inverse association between yogurt intake and hepatocellular carcinoma risk (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.49-1.05; ptrend = 0.26). Our data suggest that higher intake of high-fat dairy foods was associated with higher, whereas higher yogurt consumption might be associated with lower risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma among U.S. men and women.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 135671, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780177

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence on the associations between urinary di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites and residential characteristics is limited. Therefore, we investigated the associations of urinary DEHP metabolites with the residential characteristics of pregnant women. We collected completed questionnaires and maternal spot urine samples from 616 random pregnant women in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in Shenyang. Urinary DEHP metabolites concentrations, including mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), were measured and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Multivariable linear regression models were performed to obtain regression estimates (ß) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. In all participants, the geometric mean of MEHP and MEHHP concentrations were 4.25 ± 4.34 and 5.72 ± 2.65 µg/L, respectively. In multivariable analyses after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, distance from residence to motor vehicle traffic (≥150 m versus <20 m) was negatively associated with MEHP (ß = -0.241, 95% CI: -0.448, -0.033) and MEHHP (ß = -0.279, 95% CI: -0.418, -0.140) concentrations. Compared with the one that had not recently been renovated, a renovated home was associated with higher MEHP (ß = 0.194, 95% CI: 0.064, 0.324) and MEHHP (ß = 0.111, 95% CI: 0.024, 0.197) concentrations. Air freshener use was associated with higher MEHP (ß = 0.322, 95% CI: 0.007, 0.636) concentrations. Moldy walls were positively associated with MEHP (ß = 0.299, 95% CI: 0.115, 0.482) and MEHHP (ß = 0.172, 95% CI: 0.050, 0.294) concentrations. In contrast, humidifier use was associated with a lower MEHP concentration (ß = -0.167, 95% CI: -0.302, -0.032). Residential characteristics were probably associated with the DEHP exposure of pregnant women in Shenyang. Living near the motor vehicle traffic, residential renovation, air freshener use, and moldy walls are likely risk factors for increased DEHP exposure, whereas using household humidifier could be considered a protective measure to reduce DEHP exposure.

11.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 562: 578-588, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787251

RESUMO

Here, a novel Mg/Al-layered double oxide (MgAl-LDO) with a flower-like architecture was synthesized through facile green co-precipitation and calcination methods for phosphate separation and recycle from wastewater. The as-prepared MgAl-LDO demonstrated high specific surface area of 200.17 m2/g based on its 3D hierarchical flower-like structure. The phosphate adsorption was well conformed to Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir model, suggesting a homogeneous monolayer chemisorption with a maximum adsorption capability of 103.61 mg P/g. The existence of Cl-, NO3- ions did not interfere with phosphate adsorption, while high concentration SO42- and CO32- affected the phosphate adsorption. In addition, adsorption mechanism analysis revealed that high-efficiency phosphate capture by MgAl-LDO was mainly due to the electrostatic adsorption, surface inner-sphere complexation, ligand exchange and precipitation combined process. Remarkably, the phosphate adsorbed MgAl-LDO (P-LDO) can be employed as synergistic flame retardant to improve the flame retardancy of paper.

12.
Nanoscale ; 12(3): 1384-1388, 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872848

RESUMO

One Yb42 nanowheel [Yb42L14(OH)28(OAc)84] was constructed using a tridentate vanillin ligand. The external diameter of the wheel-like structure is about 3.6 nm, which allows direct visualization by TEM. It shows interesting NIR lanthanide luminescence sensing towards anions, especially to fluoride at the ppm level.

13.
Appetite ; 144: 104447, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between caregiver perceptions of their neighborhood food environment and home food environment and between caregiver perceptions of neighborhood food environment and childhood obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: A total of twenty-six primary schools in northeast China. PARTICIPANTS: Anthropometric measurements and questionnaire surveys were carried out on 3670 children (aged 9-12 years) and their caregivers. RESULTS: Children of caregivers who perceived high local healthy food availability were more likely to always have fruits, vegetables, 100% juice, and low-fat milk or skim milk in their homes. Children of caregivers who perceived fast-food shopping to be easy were more likely to eat out for fast food. Children of caregivers who perceived high general access to food shopping were less likely to always have fruits, vegetables, and sugar-free breakfast in their home, and were more likely to eat out for fast food. CONCLUSIONS: Future public health programs and interventions should take into consideration the role caregivers play in connecting neighborhood food environments with the home food environment.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863463

RESUMO

Although previous studies have suggested a potential role of sex hormones in the etiology of colorectal cancer (CRC), no study has yet examined the associations between circulating sex hormones and survival among CRC patients. We prospectively assessed the associations of prediagnostic plasma concentrations of estrone, estradiol, free estradiol, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) with CRC-specific and overall mortality among 609 CRC patients (370 men and 239 postmenopausal women not taking hormone therapy at blood collection) from four U.S. cohorts. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We identified 174 deaths (83 CRC-specific deaths) in men and 106 deaths (70 CRC-specific deaths) in women. In men, higher circulating level of free testosterone was associated with lower risk of overall (the highest vs. lowest tertiles, HR = 0.66, 95% CI, 0.45-0.99, ptrend = 0.04) and possibly CRC-specific mortality (HR = 0.73, 95% CI, 0.41-1.29, ptrend = 0.27). We generally observed nonsignificant inverse associations for other sex steroids, and a positive association for SHBG with CRC-specific mortality among male patients. In women, however, we found a suggestive positive association of estrone with overall (HR = 1.54, 95% CI, 0.92-2.60, ptrend = 0.11) and CRC-specific mortality (HR = 1.96, 95% CI, 1.01-3.84, ptrend = 0.06). Total estradiol, free estradiol and free testosterone were generally suggestively associated with higher risk of mortality among female patients, although not statistically significant. These findings implicated a potential role of endogenous sex hormones in CRC prognosis, which warrant further investigation.

15.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(12): 1870-1877, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adherence to a healthy diet has been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may have overlapping mechanisms with T2D, such as inflammation and insulin resistance. Thus, we examined the association between a previously developed T2D prevention dietary pattern and HCC risk. METHODS: We followed 87,943 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 49,665 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study for up to 32 years. The dietary diabetes risk reduction score, which includes dietary glycemic index, cereal fiber, ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fats, trans fat, sugar-sweetened beverages, nuts, coffee, and red and processed meats, was obtained using validated food frequency questionnaires and updated every 4 years. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate multivariable hazard ratios and confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: During over 1.9 million person-years, a total of 160 incident HCC cases were identified. The dietary diabetes risk reduction score was associated with a lower risk of HCC (top vs bottom quartile; hazard ratio: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.95; Ptrend = 0.03). All the individual food and beverage items were associated with the risk of HCC in the expected direction, although the association was weaker than the overall dietary pattern. DISCUSSION: Greater adherence to the T2D prevention diet was associated with a lower risk of developing HCC among US men and women. Further studies are needed to confirm and extend our findings.

16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 444, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sleep quality of pregnant women in the third trimester is related to mental health. However, there is still a lack of large-scale cohort research exploring this relationship in the second trimester. Thus, we assessed the associations of sleep quality during the second trimester with antenatal stress and antenatal and postnatal depression. METHODS: We examined 1152 pregnant women from a prospective cohort study in China to assess the associations of sleep quality in the second trimester with antenatal stress, antenatal depression, and postnatal depression. We used linear regression models and logistic regression models to examine the associations of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) during pregnancy with perinatal stress (Pregnancy Pressure Scale [PPS]) and depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS]) status. We further assessed the relationship in groups divided according to maternal age. RESULTS: PSQI scores were positively associated with antenatal PPS scores (ß: 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 1.76), antenatal EPDS scores (ß: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.78), and postpartum EPDS scores (ß: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.64). Poor sleep quality (PSQI scores ≥5) was associated with antenatal stress status (odds ratio [OR]: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.77), antenatal depression status (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 2.48, 4.72), and postpartum depression status (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.58, 3.64) after adjusting maternal age, BMI, gestational age, smoking, educational level, annual household income and social support. The association of poor sleep quality (PSQI scores ≥5) in the second trimester with postnatal depression status was significant among women more than or equal to 30 years old (OR: 4.12, 95% CI: 2.18, 7.78) but not among women less than 30 years old after adjusting covariates above. CONCLUSION: Poor sleep quality in the second trimester among Chinese pregnant women is associated with stress and depression symptoms. Strategies to boost sleep quality should be considered during prenatal health care to improve women's mental health status.

17.
Obes Facts ; 12(6): 653-668, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to conduct a meta-analysis of the role that physical activity (PA) plays in influencing the critical proinflammatory cytokine levels associated with overweight/obese children and adolescents to explore the effectiveness of exercise intervention within this population. METHODS: With searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases, we updated our meta-analysis up to November 2018. The randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluated the ability of exercise training to increase the following factors in children and/or adolescents classified as obese or overweight: tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP). RESULTS: Eleven RCT comprising 623 children and/or adolescents who were obese or overweight (i.e., 393 with PA and 230 controls) were suitable for use in this study. The meta-analysis showed that PA in general was associated with a significant reduction of CRP levels (mean difference = -0.45 mg/L, p = 0.02) in overweight/obese children and adolescents. Based on 115 overweight and obese youths, this study suggests that PA does not significantly mitigate IL-6 levels (mean difference = -0.39 pg/mL, p = 0.08), although there was a trend towards a reduction. Additionally, no close connection was observed between PA and TNF-α levels at 0.04 pg/mL (p = 0.78). Moreover, meta-regression analysis revealed a statistical association between CPR levels and changes in BMI or changes in adiponectin; likewise, IL-6 levels dramatically impacted the effect of exercise on changes in adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: PA was associated with significantly reduced CRP levels, whereas there was no significant association with IL-6 or TNF-α in overweight/obese children or adolescents; however, there was a trend towards a reduction of IL-6.

18.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(87): 13116-13119, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616864

RESUMO

Two 42-metal lanthanide coordination nanorings [Ln42L14(OH)28(OAc)84] (Ln = Nd (1), La (2)) were prepared using a vanillin type ligand. The Nd42 cluster exhibits interesting NIR luminescence sensing behavior to metal ions and nitro explosives.

19.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(10)2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597399

RESUMO

Sugar-acetic acid-ethanol-water mixture (SAEWM) trapping has initially shown the potential efficacy for monitoring or trapping insects. It is unknown how SAEWM-baited traps affect field number of oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), the female/male ratio trapped, and the type of natural-enemy insects captured. This study investigated changes in seasonal population dynamics and diurnal flight rhythm of OFM, the number and female/male ratio of OFM and the numbers of Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae trapped by SAEWM in peach-apple mixed-planting orchards. The SAEWM performed well in trapping OFM, most of which were adult females, with the maximum trapping at 2.5 m above ground. The daily trapping peak occurred between 18:00 and 20:00, during each continuous monitoring period, with another peak occurring at 4:00-8:00, after the second monitoring period (2-5 July). However, the use of SAEWM also resulted in the trapping of Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae, of which peak trapping time partially overlapped with the second and third peak trapping times of OFM. We suggest the cessation of SAEWM trapping during the peak activity time of Coccinellidae and Chrysopidae, or application of alternative attractive mixture that do not trap the natural enemy insects, in order to protect the ecological balance in the field.

20.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1084, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552076

RESUMO

Artemisinin is an effective antimalarial sesquiterpene lactone synthesized in Artemisia annua. Various transcription factors have been previously reported that can influence the biosynthesis of artemisinin; however, the effect of YABBY family transcription factors on artemisinin biosynthesis was unknown. In the present study, we cloned and characterized AaYABBY5: a homolog of MsYABBY5 in Mentha spicata which is involved in modulating the monoterpenes, as a positive regulator of artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua. AaYABBY5 was found localized to the nucleus, and its expression was found to be induced by exogenous methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) treatment. In the dual-luciferase reporter assay, it was found that AaYABBY5 significantly increased the activities of promoters of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS), cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP71AV1), double-bond reductase 2 (DBR2), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) genes. Yeast one hybrid assay showed that AaYABBY5 directly bonds to the promoters of CYP71AV1 and DBR2 genes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of AaYABBY5 overexpression and AaYABBY5 antisense plants revealed a significant increase in the expression of ADS, CYP71AV1, DBR2, and ALDH1 in AaYABBY5 overexpression plants and a significant decrease in the expression of these genes in AaYABBY5 antisense A. annua, respectively. Furthermore, the results of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the artemisinin and its precursor dihydroartemisinic acid were significantly increased in the AaYABBY5 overexpression plants while AaYABBY5 downregulation resulted in a significant decrease in the concentration of artemisinin. Taken together, these results explicitly represent that AaYABBY5 is a positive regulator of artemisinin biosynthesis in A. annua.

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