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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 584167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193533

RESUMO

Ankyrin repeat (ANK) proteins are essential in cell growth, development, and response to hormones and environmental stresses. In the present study, 226 ANK genes were identified and classified into nine subfamilies according to conserved domains in the soybean genome (Glycine max L.). Among them, the GmANK114 was highly induced by drought, salt, and abscisic acid. The GmANK114 encodes a protein that belongs to the ANK-RF subfamily containing a RING finger (RF) domain in addition to the ankyrin repeats. Heterologous overexpression of GmANK114 in transgenic Arabidopsis improved the germination rate under drought and salt treatments compared to wild-type. Homologous overexpression of GmANK114 improved the survival rate under drought and salt stresses in transgenic soybean hairy roots. In response to drought or salt stress, GmANK114 overexpression in soybean hairy root showed higher proline and lower malondialdehyde contents, and lower H2O2 and O2- contents compared control plants. Besides, GmANK114 activated transcription of several abiotic stress-related genes, including WRKY13, NAC11, DREB2, MYB84, and bZIP44 under drought and salt stresses in soybean. These results provide new insights for functional analysis of soybean ANK proteins and will be helpful for further understanding how ANK proteins in plants adapt to abiotic stress.

2.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 587244, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193539

RESUMO

NF-YA transcription factors function in modulating tolerance to abiotic stresses that are serious threats to crop yields. In this study, GmNFYA13, an NF-YA gene in soybean, was strongly induced by salt, drought, ABA, and H2O2, and suppressed by tungstate, an ABA synthesis inhibitor. The GmNFYA13 transcripts were detected in different tissues in seedling and flowering stages, and the expression levels in roots were highest. GmNFYA13 is a nuclear localization protein with self-activating activity. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GmNFYA13 with higher transcript levels of stress-related genes showed ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses compared with WT plants. Moreover, overexpression of GmNFYA13 resulted in higher salt and drought tolerance in OE soybean plants, while suppressing it produced the opposite results. In addition, GmNFYA13 could bind to the promoters of GmSALT3, GmMYB84, GmNCED3, and GmRbohB to regulate their expression abundance in vivo. The data in this study suggested that GmNFYA13 enhanced salt and drought tolerance in soybean plants.

3.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236499

RESUMO

Foods high in amylose content and resistant starch (RS) offer great potential to improve human health and lower the risk of serious noninfectious diseases. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major staple food crop globally. However, the RS contents in the grains of modern wheat varieties are low. Here, we report the generation of high-amylose wheat through targeted mutagenesis of TaSBEIIa in a modern winter wheat cv Zhengmai 7698 (ZM) and a spring wheat cv Bobwhite by CRISPR/Cas9, respectively. We generated a series of transgene-free mutant lines either with partial or triple null TasbeIIa alleles in ZM and Bobwhite, respectively. Analyses of starch composition, structure and properties revealed that the effects of partial or triple null alleles were dosage dependent with triple null lines demonstrated more profound impacts on starch composition, fine structures of amylopectin, and physiochemical and nutritional properties. The flours of triple null lines possessed significantly increased amylose, RS, protein and soluble pentosan contents which benefit human health. Baking quality analyses indicated that the high-amylose flours may be used as additives or for making cookies. Collectively, we successfully modified the starch composition, structure and properties through targeted mutagenesis of TaSBEIIa by CRISPR/Cas9 in both winter and spring wheat varieties, and generated transgene-free high-amylose wheat. Our finding provides deep insights on the role of TaSBEIIa in determining starch composition, structure, properties and end-use quality in different genetic backgrounds, and improving RS content with multiple breeding and end-use applications in cereal crop species through genome editing for health benefits.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 555794, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013972

RESUMO

Ubiquitylation is a form of post-translational modification of proteins that can alter localization, functionality, degradation, or transcriptional activity within a cell. E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBC) and E3 ubiquitin ligases are the primary determinants of substrate specificity in the context of ubiquitin conjugation. Multiubiquitination modifies target proteins for 26S proteasome degradation, while monoubiquitination controls protein activation and localization. At present, research on the monoubiquitination, especially histone monoubiquitination, has mostly focused on model plants with relatively few on crop species. In this study, we identified 91 UBC-like genes in soybean. The chromosomal localization, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, and putative cis-acting elements were evaluated. Furthermore, the tissue-specific expression patterns of UBC Class I genes under drought stress were also investigated. Among Class I genes, GmUBC9 induction in response to drought stress was evident, and so this gene was selected for further analysis. GmUBC9 localized to the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. The overexpression of GmUBC9 in Arabidopsis led to enhanced tolerance for drought conditions across a range of stages of development, while overexpression in soybean hairy roots similarly led to improvements in tolerance for drought conditions, increased proline content, and reduced MDA content in soybean seedlings compared to wild type plants. HISTONE MONOUBIQUITINATION 2 (HUB2), an E3-like protein involved in histone H2B ubiquitylation (H2Bub1), was found to interact with GmUBC9 through Y2H analysis and BiFC assays in Arabidopsis and soybean. Under drought conditions, the level of H2Bub1 increased, and transcription of drought response genes was activated in GmUBC9 transgenic Arabidopsis and soybean. In addition, GmUBC9 transgenic Arabidopsis and soybean showed a late-flowering phenotype and had increased expression levels of the flowering related genes FLC and MAF4. These findings indicate that GmUBC9 is important for drought stress response and regulation of flowering time in soybean.

5.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 785, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32625221

RESUMO

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) originated in China and is generally cultivated in arid and barren soil. Through long-term harsh environmental selection, foxtail millet has acquired significant drought resistance. However, the molecular mechanism of foxtail millet drought resistance is still unknown. Here, we identified a drought-induced R2R3-MYB transcription factor SiMYB56 in foxtail millet. Overexpression of SiMYB56 significantly enhances tolerance to drought stress in transgenic rice plants at both the vegetative and the reproductive stage and has no adverse effect on its normal growth. Compared with wild-type controls, SiMYB56-overexpressing rice plants had lower MDA content and higher lignin content under drought conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR and Transcriptional activity assays demonstrated that SiMYB56 could activate expression of lignin biosynthesis genes under drought conditions. Also, we found that overexpression of SiMYB56 can led to ABA accumulation in the seeds transgenic rice plants. Further experiments showed that Overexpression of SiMYB56 can upregulate the expression of ABA synthesis and response related genes under drought conditions. In conclusion, SiMYB56 may enhance the drought resistance of transgenic rice plants by regulating lignin biosynthesis and ABA signaling pathway, making SiMYB56 a candidate gene for drought resistance improvement in gramineous crops.

6.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32670311

RESUMO

GDSL-type esterase/lipase proteins (GELPs) belong to the SGNH hydrolase superfamily and contain a conserved GDSL motif at their N-terminus. GELPs are widely distributed in nature, from microbes to plants, and play crucial roles in growth and development, stress responses and pathogen defense. However, the identification and functional analysis of GELP genes are hardly explored in soybean. This study describes the identification of 194 GELP genes in the soybean genome and their phylogenetic classification into 11 subfamilies (A-K). GmGELP genes are disproportionally distributed on 20 soybean chromosomes. Large-scale WGD/segmental duplication events contribute greatly to the expansion of the soybean GDSL gene family. The Ka/Ks ratios of more than 70% of duplicated gene pairs ranged from 0.1-0.3, indicating that most GmGELP genes were under purifying selection pressure. Gene structure analysis indicate that more than 74% of GmGELP genes are interrupted by 4 introns and composed of 5 exons in their coding regions, and closer homologous genes in the phylogenetic tree often have similar exon-intron organization. Further statistics revealed that approximately 56% of subfamily K members contain more than 4 introns, and about 28% of subfamily I members consist of less than 4 introns. For this reason, the two subfamilies were used to simulate intron gain and loss events, respectively. Furthermore, a new model of intron position distribution was established in current study to explore whether the evolution of multi-gene families resulted from the diversity of gene structure. Finally, RNA-seq data were used to investigate the expression profiles of GmGELP gene under different tissues and multiple abiotic stress treatments. Subsequently, 7 stress-responsive GmGELP genes were selected to verify their expression levels by RT-qPCR, the results were consistent with RNA-seq data. Among 7 GmGELP genes, GmGELP28 was selected for further study owing to clear responses to drought, salt and ABA treatments. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and soybean plants showed drought and salt tolerant phenotype. Overexpression of GmGELP28 resulted in the changes of several physiological indicators, which allowed plants to adapt adverse conditions. In all, GmGELP28 is a potential candidate gene for improving the salinity and drought tolerance of soybean.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245276

RESUMO

Vascular plant one-zinc-finger (VOZ) transcription factor, a plant specific one-zinc-finger-type transcriptional activator, is involved in regulating numerous biological processes such as floral induction and development, defense against pathogens, and response to multiple types of abiotic stress. Six VOZ transcription factor-encoding genes (GmVOZs) have been reported to exist in the soybean (Glycine max) genome. In spite of this, little information is currently available regarding GmVOZs. In this study, GmVOZs were cloned and characterized. GmVOZ genes encode proteins possessing transcriptional activation activity in yeast cells. GmVOZ1E, GmVOZ2B, and GmVOZ2D gene products were widely dispersed in the cytosol, while GmVOZ1G was primarily located in the nucleus. GmVOZs displayed a differential expression profile under dehydration, salt, and salicylic acid (SA) stress conditions. Among them, GmVOZ1G showed a significantly induced expression in response to all stress treatments. Overexpression of GmVOZ1G in soybean hairy roots resulted in a greater tolerance to drought and salt stress. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) soybean hairy roots suppressing GmVOZ1G were more sensitive to both of these stresses. Under drought treatment, soybean composite plants with an overexpression of hairy roots had higher relative water content (RWC). In response to drought and salt stress, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and higher peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were observed in soybean composite seedlings with an overexpression of hairy roots. The opposite results for each physiological parameter were obtained in RNAi lines. In conclusion, GmVOZ1G positively regulates drought and salt stress tolerance in soybean hairy roots. Our results will be valuable for the functional characterization of soybean VOZ transcription factors under abiotic stress.

8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 123, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crop productivity is challenged by abiotic stresses, among which drought stress is the most common. NF-Y genes, especially NF-YA genes, regulate tolerance to abiotic stress. RESULTS: Soybean NF-Y gene GmNFYA5 was identified to have the highest transcript level among all 21 NF-YA genes in soybean (Glycine max L.) under drought stress. Drought-induced transcript of GmNFYA5 was suppressed by the ABA synthesis inhibitor naproxen (NAP). GmNFYA5 transcript was detected in various tissues at vegetative and reproductive growth stages with higher levels in roots and leaves than in other tissues, which was consist with the GmNFYA5 promoter: GUS fusion assay. Overexpression of GmNFYA5 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants caused enhanced drought tolerance in seedlings by decreasing stomatal aperture and water loss from leaves. Overexpression and suppression of GmNFYA5 in soybean resulted in increased and decreased drought tolerance, respectively, relative to plants with an empty vector (EV). Transcript levels of ABA-dependent genes (ABI2, ABI3, NCED3, LEA3, RD29A, P5CS1, GmWRKY46, GmNCED2 and GmbZIP1) and ABA-independent genes (DREB1A, DREB2A, DREB2B, GmDREB1, GmDREB2 and GmDREB3) in transgenic plants overexpressing GmNFYA5 were higher than those of wild-type plants under drought stress; suppression of GmNFYA5 transcript produced opposite results. GmNFYA5 probably regulated the transcript abundance of GmDREB2 and GmbZIP1 by binding to the promoters in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that overexpression of GmNFYA5 improved drought tolerance in soybean via both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Soja/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Soja/genética
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5020, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193452

RESUMO

Lack of potassium in soil limits crop yield. Increasing yield and conserving potassium ore requires improving K use efficiency (KUE). Many genes influence KUE in plants, but it is not clear how these genes function in the field. We identified the V-type H+-pyrophosphatase gene EdVP1 from Elymus dahurica. Gene expression analysis showed that EdVP1 was induced by low potassium stress. Protein subcellular localization analysis demonstrated that EdVP1 localized on the plasma membrane. We overexpressed EdVP1 in two wheat varieties and conducted K tolerance experiments across years. Yield per plant, grain number per spike, plant height, and K uptake of four transgenic wheat lines increased significantly compared with WT; results from two consecutive years showed that EdVP1 significantly increased yield and KUE of transgenic wheat. Pot experiments showed that transgenic plants had significantly longer shoots and roots, and higher K accumulation in shoots and roots and H+-PPase activity in shoots than WT under low K. A fluidity assay of potassium ion in EdVP1 transgenic plant roots showed that potassium ion influx and H+ outflow in transgenic plants were higher than WT. Overexpressing EdVP1 significantly improved yield and KUE of transgenic wheat and was related to higher K uptake capacity in root.

10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968543

RESUMO

Abiotic stresses, such as drought and salt, are major environmental stresses, affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Plant bZIP transcription factors (bZIPs) confer stress resistances in harsh environments and play important roles in each phase of plant growth processes. In this research, 15 soybean bZIP family members were identified from drought-induced de novo transcriptomic sequences of soybean, which were unevenly distributed across 12 soybean chromosomes. Promoter analysis showed that these 15 genes were rich in ABRE, MYB and MYC cis-acting elements which were reported to be involved in abiotic stress responses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that 15 GmbZIP genes could be induced by drought and salt stress. GmbZIP2 was significantly upregulated under stress conditions and thus was selected for further study. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the GmbZIP2 protein was located in the cell nucleus. qRT-PCR results show that GmbZIP2 can be induced by multiple stresses. The overexpression of GmbZIP2 in Arabidopsis and soybean hairy roots could improve plant resistance to drought and salt stresses. The result of differential expression gene analysis shows that the overexpression of GmbZIP2 in soybean hairy roots could enhance the expression of the stress responsive genes GmMYB48, GmWD40, GmDHN15, GmGST1 and GmLEA. These results indicate that soybean bZIPs played pivotal roles in plant resistance to abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Soja/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Secas , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estresse Salino , Soja/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
J Exp Bot ; 71(6): 1842-1857, 2020 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875914

RESUMO

Drought-response-element binding (DREB)-like transcription factors can significantly enhance plant tolerance to water stress. However, most research on DREB-like proteins to date has been conducted in growth chambers or greenhouses, so there is very little evidence available to support their practical use in the field. In this study, we overexpressed GmDREB1 from soybean in two popular wheat varieties and conducted drought-tolerance experiments across a range of years, sites, and drought-stress regimes. We found that the transgenic plants consistently exhibited significant improvements in yield performance and a variety of physiological traits compared with wild-type plants when grown under limited water conditions in the field, for example showing grain yield increases between 4.79-18.43%. Specifically, we found that the transgenic plants had reduced membrane damage and enhanced osmotic adjustment and photosynthetic efficiency compared to the non-transgenic controls. Three enzymes from the biosynthetic pathway of the phytohormone melatonin were up-regulated in the transgenic plants, and external application of melatonin was found to improve drought tolerance. Together, our results demonstrate the utility of transgenic overexpression of GmDREB1 to improve the drought tolerance of wheat in the field.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(26): 260504, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449731

RESUMO

Photonic quantum memory is the core element in quantum information processing (QIP). For the scalable and convenient practical applications, great efforts have been devoted to the integrated quantum memory based on various waveguides fabricated in solids. However, on-demand storage of qubits, which is an essential requirement for QIP, is still challenging to be implemented using such integrated quantum memory. Here we report the on-demand storage of time-bin qubits in an on-chip waveguide memory fabricated on the surface of a ^{151}Eu^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5} crystal, utilizing the Stark-modulated atomic frequency comb protocol. A qubit storage fidelity of 99.3%±0.2% is obtained with single-photon-level coherent pulses, far beyond the highest fidelity achievable using the classical measure-and-prepare strategy. The developed integrated quantum memory with the on-demand retrieval capability represents an important step toward practical applications of integrated quantum nodes in quantum networks.

13.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1453, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803204

RESUMO

Stress associated proteins (SAPs) containing A20/AN1 zinc finger domains have emerged as novel regulators of stress responses. In this study, 27 SAP genes were identified in soybean. The phylogenetic relationships, exon-intron structure, domain structure, chromosomal localization, putative cis-acting elements, and expression patterns of SAPs in various tissues under abiotic stresses were analyzed. Among the soybean SAP genes, GmSAP16 was significantly induced by water deficit stress, salt, and abscisic acid (ABA) and selected for further analysis. GmSAP16 was located in the nucleus and cytoplasm. The overexpression of GmSAP16 in Arabidopsis improved drought and salt tolerance at different developmental stages and increased ABA sensitivity, as indicated by delayed seed germination and stomatal closure. The GmSAP16 transgenic Arabidopsis plants had a higher proline content and a lower water loss rate and malondialdehyde (MDA) content than wild type (WT) plants in response to stresses. The overexpression of GmSAP16 in soybean hairy roots enhanced drought and salt tolerance of soybean seedlings, with higher proline and chlorophyll contents and a lower MDA content than WT. RNA inference (RNAi) of GmSAP16 increased stress sensitivity. Stress-related genes, including GmDREB1B;1, GmNCED3, GmRD22, GmDREB2, GmNHX1, and GmSOS1, showed significant expression alterations in GmSAP16-overexpressing and RNAi plants under stress treatments. These results indicate that soybean SAP genes play important roles in abiotic stress responses.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775269

RESUMO

Plants have a series of response mechanisms to adapt when they are subjected to external stress. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in plants function against a variety of abiotic stresses. We screened 17 CDPKs from drought- and salt-induced soybean transcriptome sequences. The phylogenetic tree divided CDPKs of rice, Arabidopsis and soybean into five groups (I-V). Cis-acting element analysis showed that the 17 CDPKs contained some elements associated with drought and salt stresses. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the 17 CDPKs were responsive after different degrees of induction under drought and salt stresses. GmCDPK3 was selected as a further research target due to its high relative expression. The subcellular localization experiment showed that GmCDPK3 was located on the membrane of Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Overexpression of GmCDPK3 improved drought and salt resistance in Arabidopsis. In the soybean hairy roots experiment, the leaves of GmCDPK3 hairy roots with RNA interference (GmCDPK3-RNAi) soybean lines were more wilted than those of GmCDPK3 overexpression (GmCDPK3-OE) soybean lines after drought and salt stresses. The trypan blue staining experiment further confirmed that cell membrane damage of GmCDPK3-RNAi soybean leaves was more severe than in GmCDPK3-OE soybean lines. In addition, proline (Pro) and chlorophyll contents were increased and malondialdehyde (MDA) content was decreased in GmCDPK3-OE soybean lines. On the contrary, GmCDPK3-RNAi soybean lines had decreased Pro and chlorophyll content and increased MDA. The results indicate that GmCDPK3 is essential in resisting drought and salt stresses.


Assuntos
Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Cloreto de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Soja/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Elementos de Resposta , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731735

RESUMO

Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), which originated in China, has a strong tolerance to low nutrition stresses. However, the mechanism of foxtail millet tolerance to low-nitrogen stress is still unknown. In this study, the transcriptome of foxtail millet under low-nitrogen stress was systematically analyzed. Expression of 1891 genes was altered, including 1318 up-regulated genes and 573 down-regulated genes. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) analysis revealed that 3% of these genes were involved in membrane transport and 5% were involved in redox processes. There were 74 total transcription factor (TF) genes in the DEGs (differentially expressed genes), and MYB-like transcription factors accounted for one-third (25) of the TF genes. We systematically analyzed the characteristics, expression patterns, chromosome locations, and protein structures of 25 MYB-like genes. The analysis of gene function showed that Arabidopsis and rice overexpressing SiMYB3 had better root development than WT under low-nitrogen stress. Moreover, EMSA results showed that SiMYB3 protein could specifically bind MYB elements in the promoter region of TAR2, an auxin synthesis related gene and MYB3-TAR2 regulate pair conserved in rice and foxtail millet. These results suggested that SiMYB3 can regulate root development by regulating plant root auxin synthesis under low-nitrogen conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Setaria (Planta)/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Nitrogênio/deficiência , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Setaria (Planta)/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726763

RESUMO

Pentatricopeptide-repeat (PPR) proteins were identified as a type of nucleus coding protein that is composed of multiple tandem repeats. It has been reported that PPR genes play an important role in RNA editing, plant growth and development, and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the functions of PPR proteins remain largely unknown in soybean. In this study, 179 DYW subgroup PPR genes were identified in soybean genome (Glycine max Wm82.a2.v1). Chromosomal location analysis indicated that DYW subgroup PPR genes were mapped to all 20 chromosomes. Phylogenetic relationship analysis revealed that DYW subgroup PPR genes were categorized into three distinct Clusters (I to III). Gene structure analysis showed that most PPR genes were featured by a lack of intron. Gene duplication analysis demonstrated 30 PPR genes (15 pairs; ~35.7%) were segmentally duplicated among Cluster I PPR genes. Furthermore, we validated the mRNA expression of three genes that were highly up-regulated in soybean drought- and salt-induced transcriptome database and found that the expression levels of GmPPR4 were induced under salt and drought stresses. Under drought stress condition, GmPPR4-overexpressing (GmPPR4-OE) plants showed delayed leaf rolling; higher content of proline (Pro); and lower contents of H2O2, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with the empty vector (EV)-control plants. GmPPR4-OE plants exhibited increased transcripts of several drought-inducible genes compared with EV-control plants. Our results provided a comprehensive analysis of the DYW subgroup PPR genes and an insight for improving the drought tolerance in soybean.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Pressão Osmótica , Proteínas de Soja , Soja , Proteínas de Transporte/biossíntese , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Desidratação/genética , Desidratação/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Soja/biossíntese , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 506, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethylene-responsive factors (ERFs) play important roles in plant growth and development and the response to adverse environmental factors, including abiotic and biotic stresses. RESULTS: In the present study, we identified 160 soybean ERF genes distributed across 20 chromosomes that could be clustered into eight groups based on phylogenetic relationships. A highly ABA-responsive ERF gene, GmERF75, belonging to Group VII was further characterized. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the GmERF75 protein is localized in the nucleus, and qRT-PCR results showed that GmERF75 is responsive to multiple abiotic stresses and exogenous hormones. GmERF75-overexpressing Arabidopsis lines showed higher chlorophyll content compared to WT and mutants under osmotic stress. Two independent Arabidopsis mutations of AtERF71, a gene homologous to GmERF75, displayed shorter hypocotyls, and overexpression of GmERF75 in these mutants could rescue the short hypocotyl phenotypes. Overexpressing GmERF75 in soybean hairy roots improved root growth under exogenous ABA and salt stress. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that GmERF75 is an important plant transcription factor that plays a critical role in enhancing osmotic tolerance in both Arabidopsis and soybean.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Etilenos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Hipocótilo/genética , Hipocótilo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipocótilo/fisiologia , Pressão Osmótica , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 940, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396249

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) mediates various abiotic stress responses, and ethylene responsive factors (ERFs) play vital role in resisting stresses, but the interaction of these molecular mechanisms remains elusive. In this study, we identified an ABA-induced soybean ERF gene GmERF135 that was highly up-regulated by ethylene (ET), drought, salt, and low temperature treatments. Subcellular localization assay showed that the GmERF135 protein was targeted to the nucleus. Promoter cis-acting elements analysis suggested that numerous potential stress responsive cis-elements were distributed in the promoter region of GmERF135, including ABA-, light-, ET-, gibberellin (GA)-, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-responsive elements. Overexpression of GmERF135 in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance to drought and salt conditions. In addition, GmERF135 promoted the growth of transgenic hairy roots under salt and exogenous ABA conditions. These results suggest that soybean GmERF135 may participate in both ABA and ET signaling pathways to regulate the responses to multiple stresses.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(12)2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248195

RESUMO

Growing evidence indicates that elongation factor 1α (EF1α) is involved in responses to various abiotic stresses in several plant species. Soybean EF1α proteins include three structural domains: one GTP-binding domain and two oligonucleotide binding domains that are also called as domain 2 and domain 3. In this study, 10 EF1α genes were identified in the soybean genome. We predicted structures of different domains and analyzed gene locations, gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, various cis-elements, and conserved domains of soybean EF1αs. The expression patterns of 10 EF1α genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Under drought stress, soybean EF1α genes were upregulated in varying degrees. In particular, GmEF4 was upregulated under drought and salt treatments. Compared to the drought- and salt-treated empty vector (EV)-control plants, drought- and salt-treated GmEF4-overexpressing (OE) plants had significantly delayed leaf wilting, longer root, higher biomass, higher proline (Pro) content, and lower H2O2, O2-, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Thus, this study provides a foundation for further functional genomics research about this important family under abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Secas , Tolerância ao Sal , Soja/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Modelos Moleculares , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Elementos de Resposta , Soja/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/química , Fatores de Elongação da Transcrição/genética
20.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 549, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156656

RESUMO

The TGA transcription factors, a subfamily of bZIP group D, play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the regulation of growth and development as well as responses to pathogens and abiotic stress. In this study, 27 TGA genes were identified in the soybean genome. The expression patterns of GmTGA genes showed that several GmTGA genes are differentially expressed under drought and salt stress conditions. Among them, GmTGA17 was strongly induced by both stress, which were verificated by the promoter-GUS fusion assay. GmTGA17 encodes a nuclear-localized protein with transcriptional activation activity. Heterologous and homologous overexpression of GmTGA17 enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress in both transgeinc Arabidopsis plants and soybean hairy roots. However, RNAi hairy roots silenced for GmTGA17 exhibited an increased sensitivity to drought and salt stress. In response to drought or salt stress, transgenic Arabidopsis plants had an increased chlorophyll and proline contents, a higher ABA content, a decreased MDA content, a reduced water loss rate, and an altered expression of ABA- responsive marker genes compared with WT plants. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were more sensitive to ABA in stomatal closure. Similarly, measurement of physiological parameters showed an increase in chlorophyll and proline contents, with a decrease in MDA content in soybean seedlings with overexpression hairy roots after drought and salt stress treatments. The opposite results for each measurement were observed in RNAi lines. This study provides new insights for functional analysis of soybean TGA transcription factors in abiotic stress.

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