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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126758, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352527

RESUMO

Organophosphorus compounds were proposed to impair immune surveillance and increase the total burden of pathogens. However, scarce attention has been paid to the effects of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) on neutrophils. Previous literature outlined that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) death (NETosis) is associated with autophagy-related signaling. Here we found that 20 µM diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) could promote NETs formation via assessing markers of NETs and the morphological changes. Concurrently, flow cytometry and western blot analysis revealed that DPHP-triggered NETs formation was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38. Additionally, the results revealed that autophagy occurred in DPHP-triggered NETs formation, manifested as enhanced LC3B protein expressions and reduced p62 protein expressions. Mechanism dissection revealed that inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) alleviated the ROS burst and subsequent NETosis caused by DPHP. Conversely, autophagy enhancer Rapamycin (Rapa) augmented the above effects of DPHP, including the generation of ROS and NETosis. Collectively, these data suggested ERK/p38 signaling and ROS burst might be an important cause of DPHP-triggered NETs formation, while suppression of excessive autophagy could rescue these actions. These observations provided a theoretical basis for the treatment and prevention of OPFRs-induced immunotoxicity.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares , Autofagia , Compostos de Bifenilo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular , Organofosfatos , Fosfatos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
2.
Bioact Mater ; 9: 475-490, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820584

RESUMO

Sensory nerves promote osteogenesis through the release of neuropeptides. However, the potential application and mechanism in which sensory nerves promote healing of bone defects in the presence of biomaterials remain elusive. The present study identified that new bone formation was more abundantly produced after implantation of silicified collagen scaffolds into defects created in the distal femur of rats. The wound sites were accompanied by extensive nerve innervation and angiogenesis. Sensory nerve dysfunction by capsaicin injection resulted in significant inhibition of silicon-induced osteogenesis in the aforementioned rodent model. Application of extracellular silicon in vitro induced axon outgrowth and increased expression of semaphorin 3 A (Sema3A) and semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), as detected by the upregulation of signaling molecules. Culture medium derived from silicon-stimulated DRG cells promoted proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells. These effects were inhibited by the use of Sema3A neutralizing antibodies but not by Sema4D neutralizing antibodies. Knockdown of Sema3A in DRG blocked silicon-induced osteogenesis and angiogenesis almost completely in a femoral defect rat model, whereas overexpression of Sema3A promoted the silicon-induced phenomena. Activation of "mechanistic target of rapamycin" (mTOR) pathway and increase of Sema3A production were identified in the DRG of rats that were implanted with silicified collagen scaffolds. These findings support the role of silicon in inducing Sema3A production by sensory nerves, which, in turn, stimulates osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Taken together, silicon has therapeutic potential in orthopedic rehabilitation.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743249

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, wheat, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore forming, and facultatively anaerobic bacterium strain, designated as PIT, was isolated from saline silt samples collected in saltern in Yantai, Shandong, China. Growth was observed within the ranges 4-45 °C (optimally at 33 °C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimally at pH 7.0) and 1.0-11.0% NaCl (optimally at 3.0%, w/v). Strain PIT showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Kangiella sediminilitoris BB-Mw22T (98.3%) and Kangiella taiwanensis KT1T (98.3%). The major cellular fatty acids (> 10% of the total fatty acids) were iso-C15:0 (52.7%) and summed featured 9 (iso-C17:1ω9c/C16:0 10-methyl, 11.8%). The major polar lipids identified were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 45.8%. Average Nucleotide Identity values between whole genome sequences of strain PIT and next related type strains supported the novel species status. Based on physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic characteristics and genomic analysis, strain PIT is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Kangiella, for which the name Kangiella shandongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PIT (= KCTC 82509 T = MCCC 1K04352T).

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747088

RESUMO

In this work, photo-controllable persistent luminescence at the single crystal level can be achieved by the integration of long-lived room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and photochromism within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for the first time. Moreover, the multiblock core-shell heterojunctions have been prepared utilizing the isostructural MOFs through an epitaxial growth process, in which the shell exhibits bright yellow afterglow emission that gradually disappears upon further irradiation, but the core does not show such property. Benefitting from combined persistent luminescence and photochromic behavior, a multiple encryption demo can be facilely designed based on the dynamic manipulating RTP via reversible photochromism. Therefore, this work not only develops new types of dynamically photo-controllable afterglow switch, but also provides a method to obtain MOFs-based optical heterojunctions towards potential space/time-resolved information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

5.
Cell Regen ; 10(1): 36, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719766

RESUMO

Information about the dynamic change and post-injury regeneration of cervical epithelium is relatively rare, even though it is tightly related to gynecologic malignancy. Here, using a feeder cell-based culturing system, we stably cloned mouse and human P63 and KRT5 expressing cells from the adult cervix as putative cervical stem/progenitor cells (CVSCs). When subjected to differentiation, the cultured cells gave rise to mature cervical epithelium by differentiating into squamous or glandular cells. The ability of endogenous mouse CVSCs to reconstitute cervical epithelium after injury was also evident from the genetic lineage tracing experiments. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis further classified the CVSCs into three subtypes and delineated their bi-lineage differentiation roadmap by pseudo-time analysis. We also tracked the real-time differentiation routes of two representing single CVSC lines in vitro and found that they recapitulated the predicted roadmap in pseudo-time analysis. Signaling pathways including Wnt, TGF-beta, Notch and EGFR were found to regulate the cervical epithelial hierarchy and implicated the different roles of distinct types of cells in tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Collectively, the above data provide a cloning system to achieve stable in vitro culture of a bi-lineage stem/progenitor cell population in the cervix, which has profound implications for our understanding of the cervix stem/progenitor cell function in homeostasis, regeneration, and disease and could be helpful for developing stem cell-based therapies in future.

6.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 620750, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764846

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is associated with motor and non-motor symptoms and caused by lack of dopamine in the substantia nigra of the brain. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is a widely accepted therapy of PD that mainly inserts electrodes into both sides of the brain. The effect of STN-DBS was mainly for motor function, so this study focused on the recovery of motor function for PD after DBS. Hemispherical asymmetry in the brain network is considered to be a potential indicator for diagnosing PD patients. This study investigated the value of hemispheric brain connection asymmetry in predicting the DBS surgery outcome in PD patients. Four types of brain connections, including left intra-hemispheric (LH) connection, right intra-hemispheric (RH) connection, inter-hemispheric homotopic (Ho) connection, and inter-hemispheric heterotopic (He) connection, were constructed based on the resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) performed before the DBS surgery. We used random forest for selecting features and the Ridge model for predicting surgical outcome (i.e., improvement rate of motor function). The functional connectivity analysis showed that the brain has a right laterality: the RH networks has the best correlation (r = 0.37, p = 5.68E-03) between the predicted value and the true value among the above four connections. Moreover, the region-of-interest (ROI) analysis indicated that the medioventral occipital cortex (MVOcC)-superior temporal gyrus (STG) and thalamus (Tha)-precentral gyrus (PrG) contributed most to the outcome prediction model for DBS without medication. This result provides more support for PD patients to evaluate DBS before surgery.

7.
J Cancer ; 12(23): 7003-7009, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729102

RESUMO

In addition to cancer-related death, malignant progression also leads to a series of symptoms and side-effects, which would detrimentally affect cancer patients' the quality of life, adversely influence their adherence to treatments, and, therefore, negatively affect their long-term survival. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA), as two classic treatment methods in traditional Chinese medicine, have been widely employed to cure various diseases. Recently, the clinical application of acupuncture and EA in cancer patients has received great attention. In this review, we summarized the clinical application of acupuncture and EA in alleviating the cancer symptoms, reducing the cancer treatment-related side-effects, and relieving the cancer pain. The symptoms and side-effects discussed in this review include fatigue, insomnia, chemotherapy-associated dyspepsia syndrome (CADS), pain, xerostomia, and anxiety and depression. The underlying mechanisms of the therapeutic effects of acupuncture and EA might be related to the regulation of the mitochondrial function, coordination of the activity of the nervous system, adjustment of the production of neurotransmitters, and alleviation of the immune responses. In conclusion, acupuncture and EA have been proved to be beneficial for cancer patients. More research, however, is required to clarify the potential mechanisms behind acupuncture and EA for widespread adoption in clinical application.

8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770650

RESUMO

The use of optical fiber probe in two-phase flow measurements is very frequently encountered, especially in the applications of chemical engineering and petroleum industries. In this work, the influence of bubble piercing signals caused by bubble deformation is studied experimentally using a laboratory-prepared wedge-shaped fiber probe in a lab-scale gas-liquid flow generator. A three-dimensional simulation model is established to study the influence of bubble deformation on the piercing signals. A theoretical analysis of the characteristics of the pre-signal influenced by the bubble deformations is undertaken for a wide range of different modeled bubble shapes. Combining the experimental and simulation results, a promising analytical method to estimate the bubble shapes by analyzing the characteristics of pre-signals is proposed. The results of this investigation demonstrate that it is possible to estimate the bubble shapes before the fiber probe contacts the bubble surface. The method developed in this investigation is therefore highly promising for reducing errors caused by deformation during the probe piercing process.

9.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1584, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790790

RESUMO

Background: Due to the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in foreign countries and regions, many overseas people arrive in China by air. Currently, most of the new cases of COVID-19 were imported from overseas. Here, we evaluated the predictive effect of the level of blood albumin (ALB) and serum prealbumin (PA) level in overseas-imported cases on the conversion of mild COVID-19 to moderate and its value in guiding nutritional support for these travelers. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed serum levels of ALB and PA of 193 patients with imported COVID-19 admitted to the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center at the time of admission on April 8, 2020. Results: Since the first overseas-imported case was admitted to Shanghai on March 5, 2020, 195 overseas-imported cases have been treated in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. The disease was mild or moderate. A total of 193 patients (111 males and 82 females) entered our analysis and the disease was moderate in 108 patients and mild in 85 patients. Patients were aged 6 to 66 years (mean: 28 years). There was a strong negative correlation between the proportion of moderate type and ALB (P=0.0073); thus, patients with a lower level of ALB were more likely to be diagnosed with moderate type. The correlation coefficient was close to 0 in the scatter plot, indicating that there was no linear correlation between PA and the diagnosis of moderate type (P>0.05). There was a strong negative correlation between age and ALB level (P<0.001), while length of hospital stay did not show a linear correlation with ALB or PB levels (both P>0.05). Therefore, older patients had lower levels of ALB and were more likely to develop moderate COVID-19. Conclusions: The serum ALB level can be an early predictive indicator for the conversion of mild COVID-19 to moderate in cases imported overseas and may guide nutritional support.

10.
Hereditas ; 158(1): 44, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758879

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide due to its high degree of malignancy, high incidence, and low survival rate. However, the underlying mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis remain unclear. Long non coding RNA (lncRNA) has been shown as a novel type of RNA. lncRNA by acting as ceRNA can participate in various biological processes of HCC cells, such as tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and drug resistance by regulating downstream target gene expression and cancer-related signaling pathways. Meanwhile, lncRNA can predict the efficacy of treatment strategies for HCC and serve as a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of HCC. Therefore, lncRNA serving as ceRNA may become a vital candidate biomarker for clinical diagnosis and treatment. In this review, the epidemiology of HCC, including morbidity, mortality, regional distribution, risk factors, and current treatment advances, was briefly discussed, and some biological functions of lncRNA in HCC were summarized with emphasis on the molecular mechanism and clinical application of lncRNA-mediated ceRNA regulatory network in HCC. This paper can contribute to the better understanding of the mechanism of the influence of lncRNA-mediated ceRNA networks (ceRNETs) on HCC and provide directions and strategies for future studies.

11.
MAbs ; 13(1): 2003281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818120

RESUMO

The V-domain Ig Suppressor of T-cell Activation (VISTA) is an immune checkpoint regulator that suppresses immune responses and is readily expressed on human and murine myeloid cells and T cells. This immunosuppressive pathway can be activated using VISTA agonists. Here, we report the development of murine anti-human VISTA (anti-hVISTA) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), anti-hVISTA nanobodies (Nbs), and cross-reactive rat anti-murine/human VISTA (anti-hmVISTA) mAbs. All mAbs and Nbs generated bound to VISTA (human and/or murine) with dissociation constants in the sub-nanomolar or low nanomolar range. Competition analysis revealed that the selected Nbs bound the same or a nearby epitope(s) as the human VISTA-specific mAbs. However, the cross-reactive mAbs only partially competed with Nbs for binding to hVISTA. All mAbs and one Nb (hVISTANb7) were able to strongly detect VISTA expression on primary human monocytes. Importantly, the murine anti-hVISTA mAbs 7E12 and 7G5 displayed strong agonistic activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures, while Nb7 and rat anti-hmVISTA mAbs 3C3, 7C6, 7C7, and 7G1 also behaved as hVISTA agonists, albeit to a lesser extent. Cross-reactive mAbs 7C7 and 7G1 further displayed agonistic potential in murine splenocyte assays. Importantly, mAb 7G1 significantly reduced inflammation associated with the murine model of imiquimod-induced psoriasis. These agonistic VISTA mAbs may represent therapeutic leads to treat inflammatory disorders.

12.
Food Funct ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825691

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to elucidate the pharmacological effects of sesamin (Ses) and its mechanism of action towards PM2.5-induced cardiovascular injuries. Method: Forty Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups: a saline control group; a PM2.5 exposure group; and low-, middle-, and high-dose Ses pretreatment groups. The SD rats were pretreated with different concentrations of Ses for 21 days. Afterward, the rats were exposed to ambient PM2.5 by intratracheal instillation every other day for a total of three times. The levels of inflammatory markers, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and indicators related to oxidative responses, such as total superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA), were measured in the blood and heart. The expression of ferroptosis-related proteins in heart tissues was determined via western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results: Ses pretreatment substantially ameliorated cardiovascular injuries in rats as evidenced by the decrease in the pathological score and collagen area. The decreased levels of SOD, GSH, and GSH-Px in the heart and serum were inhibited by Ses. In addition, Ses not only notably increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes but also reduced the levels of MDA, CK, LDH, CK-MB, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. Furthermore, Ses pretreatment upregulated the expression levels of GPX4, SLC7A11, TFRC, and FPN1 and inhibited the expression levels of FTH1 and FTL. Conclusion: Ses pretreatment could ameliorate PM2.5-induced cardiovascular injuries perhaps by inhibiting ferroptosis. Therefore, Ses pretreatment may be a novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of PM2.5-induced cardiovascular injury.

13.
Arch Virol ; 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826001

RESUMO

Paper mulberry vein banding virus (PMVBV), a member of the genus Badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae, infects paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera), a dicotyledonous plant. Putative promoter regions in the PMVBV genome were tested using recombinant plant expression vectors, revealing that the promoter activity of three genome fragments was about 1.5-fold higher than that of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana. In transformed transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, these promoter constructs showed constitutive expression. Based on the activity and gene expression patterns of these three promoter constructs, a fragment of 384 bp (named PmVP) was deduced to contain the full-length promoter of the PMVBV genome. The results suggest that the PMVBV-derived promoter can be used for the constitutive expression of transgenes in dicotyledonous plants.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804177

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicine has been used as adjunctive or complementary therapy for breast cancer. Diterpenoids from Euphorbia fischeriana Steud. have been demonstrated to possess anti-breast-cancer activity. This research was aimed to systematically explore the diterpenoids from E. fischeriana and study the multiple mechanisms on breast cancer. The structures of diterpenoids were identified by the integrated strategy of UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and molecular networking. A total of 177 diterpenoids belonging to 13 types were collected. In silico ADME analysis was performed on these compounds. It indicated that 130 of 177 diterpenoids completely adjusted to Lipinski's rule. The targets of compounds were obtained from PharmMapper. The targets of breast cancer were collected from GeneCards. Then, 197 compounds-related targets and 544 breast cancer-related targets were identified. After the intersection process, 58 overlapping targets between compounds-related targets and breast cancer-related targets were acquired. The STRING database was applied to predict the protein-protein interactions. The GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed by using the KOBAS database. It indicated that these predicted pathways were closely related to breast cancer. The treatment effect of E. fischeriana on breast cancer might be performed through signaling pathways, such as IL-17 signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. The predicted top genes such as EGFR, ESR, MAPK, SRC, CASP3, CDK2, and KDR were involved in cell proliferation, gene transcription, apoptosis, signal transduction, DNA damage and repair, tumor differentiation, metastasis, and cell cycle, which indicated that E. fischeriana might treat breast cancer comprehensively. A compounds-KEGG pathways-related targets network was built by using cytoHubba to analyze the hub compounds and targets. It concluded that E. fischeriana treated breast cancer not only by the main components but also by the microconstituents, which reflected the overall regulatory role of multicomponents treating breast cancer. To estimate the binding affinities, binding sites, and binding postures, molecular docking simulations between 177 diterpenoids and top 19 targets were carried out. The results are basically in line with expectations. In conclusion, these results can serve as references for researchers studying potential targets of diterpenoids from E. fischeriana on breast cancer in the future.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(94): 12619-12622, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757362

RESUMO

Four novel two-dimensional porphyrin COFs (M-TP-COF, M = H2, Co, Ni and Mn) with donor-acceptor dyads were fabricated and served as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The ORR catalytic activity of M-TP-COF was tuned by changing the M atom in the center of the porphyrin backbone. The experimental structure-function relationship was in accordance with the results of density functional theory calculations based on the O2-O2*-OOH*-O*-OH*-OH- route.

16.
Int Wound J ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818691

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristic and outcomes of inpatients with diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) in 2019 (prelockdown) and 2020 (postlockdown) due to the COVID-19 pandemic, at an emergency medical service unit. Prediction models for mortality and amputation were developed to describe the risk factors using a machine learning-based approach. Hospitalized DFU patients (N = 23) were recruited after the lockdown in 2020 and matched with corresponding inpatients (N = 23) before lockdown in 2019. Six widely used machine learning models were built and internally validated using 3-fold cross-validation to predict the risk of amputation and death in DFU inpatients under the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous DF ulcers, prehospital delay, and mortality were significantly higher in 2020 compared to 2019. Diabetic foot patients in 2020 had higher hs-CRP levels (P = .037) but lower hemoglobin levels (P = .017). The extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) performed best in all models for predicting amputation and mortality with the highest area under the curve (0.86 and 0.94), accuracy (0.80 and 0.90), sensitivity (0.67 and 1.00), and negative predictive value (0.86 and 1.00). A long delay in admission and a higher risk of mortality was observed in patients with DFU who attended the emergency center during the COVID-19 post lockdown. The XGBoost model can provide evidence-based risk information for patients with DFU regarding their amputation and mortality. The prediction models would benefit DFU patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; : 106078, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838620

RESUMO

Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA), an FDA-approved drug for cutaneous T cell lymphoma, has antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity and thus has therapeutic potential for inflammatory corneal neovascularization (CNV). However, its practical administration is limited due to its poor aqueous solubility and permeability. This study aimed to enhance the corneal permeability of SAHA by promoting its inclusion into a complex with hydroxypropyl-ß-CD (HPßCD) for topical application. In phase-solubility studies, the solubility of SAHA with HPßCD and sulfobutyl ether-ß-CD (SEßCD) was assessed at different temperatures, and complexation efficiencies (K) were calculated. The inclusion complexes (ICs) were prepared and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectrometry (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) after freeze-drying. The phase-solubility study showed that the complexation efficiencies of SAHA were higher in HPßCD solutions (297.35 M-1, 115.28 M-1 and 122.75 M-1) than in SEßCD solutions (169.75 M-1, 91.33 M-1 and 96.49 M-1) at 4°C, 25°C and 37°C. HPßCD was selected for SAHA-IC preparation, and characterization revealed IC formation. SAHA existed in an amorphous state in the ICs. The ex vivo corneal permeability of SAHA was also evaluated and found to be greater when formulated as an HPßCD solution than as a suspension. Irritation assays in rabbits showed that the SAHA-IC solution was not irritating after topical application. The ocular pharmacokinetics of SAHA in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were assessed following topical administration (0.2%), and a 0.2% SAHA suspension was used as the control. Compared to its formulation as a suspension, the formulation of SAHA as an HPßCD solution increased its corneal bioavailability by more than 3-fold and its conjunctival bioavailability by more than 2-fold. Thus, IC formation was effective at improving the ocular bioavailability of SAHA. This study provides an important alternative approach for developing liquid pharmaceutical formulations of SAHA for topical ocular applications.

18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 227: 113953, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731760

RESUMO

As epigenetic readers, bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) family proteins bind to acetylated-lysine residues in histones and recruit protein complexes to promote transcription initiation and elongation. Inhibition of BET bromodomains by small molecule inhibitors has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. Herein, we describe our efforts toward the discovery of a novel series of 1-(5-(1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-yl)-2,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)ethan-1-one derivatives as BET inhibitors. Intensive structural modifications led to the identification of compound 35f as the most active inhibitor of BET BRD4 with selectivity against BET family proteins. Further biological studies revealed that compound 35f can arrest the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase and induce apoptosis via decreasing the expression of c-Myc and other proteins related to cell cycle and apoptosis. More importantly, compound 35f showed favorable pharmacokinetic properties and antitumor efficacy in MV4-11 mouse xenograft model with acceptable tolerability. These results indicated that BET inhibitors could be potentially used to treat hematologic malignancies and some solid tumors.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721646

RESUMO

Gouty arthritis (GA) is a multifactorial disease whose pathogenesis is utterly complex, and the current clinical treatment methods cannot wholly prevent GA development. Western medicine is the primary treatment strategy for gouty arthritis, but it owns an unfavorable prognosis. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of GA are essential. In China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been adopted for GA prevention and treatment for thousands of years. Gout patients are usually treated with TCM according to their different conditions, and long-term results can be achieved by improving their physical condition. And TCM has been proved to be an effective method to treat gout in modern China. Nevertheless, the pharmacological mechanism of TCM for gout is still unclear, which limits its spread. The theory of prevention and treatment of gout with TCM is more well acknowledged in China than in abroad. In this article, Chinese herbs and ancient formula for gout were summarized first. A total of more than 570 studies published from 2004 to June 2021 in PubMed, Medline, CNKI, VIP, Web of Science databases and Chinese Pharmacopoeia and traditional Chinese books were searched; the current status of TCM in the treatment of GA was summarized from the following aspects: articular chondrocyte apoptosis inhibition, antioxidative stress response, inflammatory cytokine levels regulation, uric acid excretion promotion, immune function regulation, uric acid reduction, and intestinal flora improvement in subjects with gout. The literature review concluded that TCM has a specific curative effect on the prevention and treatment of GA, particularly when combined with modern medical approaches. However, lacking a uniform definition of GA syndrome differentiation and the support of evidence-based medicine in clinical practice have provoked considerable concern in previous studies, which needs to be addressed in future research.

20.
Mar Drugs ; 19(11)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822499

RESUMO

Alginate, the most abundant polysaccharides of brown algae, consists of various proportions of uronic acid epimers α-L-guluronic acid (G) and ß-D-mannuronic acid (M). Alginate oligosaccharides (AOs), the degradation products of alginates, exhibit excellent bioactivities and a great potential for broad applications in pharmaceutical fields. Alginate lyases can degrade alginate to functional AOs with unsaturated bonds or monosaccharides, which can facilitate the biorefinery of brown algae. On account of the increasing applications of AOs and biorefinery of brown algae, there is a scientific need to explore the important aspects of alginate lyase, such as catalytic mechanism, structure, and property. This review covers fundamental aspects and recent developments in basic information, structural characteristics, the structure-substrate specificity or catalytic efficiency relationship, property, molecular modification, and applications. To meet the needs of biorefinery systems of a broad array of biochemical products, alginate lyases with special properties, such as salt-activated, wide pH adaptation range, and cold adaptation are outlined. Withal, various challenges in alginate lyase research are traced out, and future directions, specifically on the molecular biology part of alginate lyases, are delineated to further widen the horizon of these exceptional alginate lyases.

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