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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2705-2714, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854662

RESUMO

A comprehensive and scientific understanding of non-point source pollutant transport pathways and source apportionment in combined sewer systems is essential for managing and improving the urban water environment. This study analyzed build-up and wash-off processes of pollutants on road surfaces and in sewers within a catchment of combined sewer systems in a typical old district in Zhuhai. Besides, source apportionment of the entire urban non-point source pollution was investigated by using the mass conservation method. The outcomes revealed that the build-up load of road deposited sediments in the study area was (28.81±10.69) g·m-2. The average wash-off load of road deposited sediments during five different rainfall events was (19.27±10.90) g·m-2 and the wash-off percentage was (52.69±13.3)%. The event mean concentrations of suspended solids (SS) in road runoff were 52-109 mg·L-1, and the event mean concentrations of SS in sewer runoff were 68-158 mg·L-1. Source apportionment analysis showed that road runoff, domestic wastewater, and sewer sediments contributed 39%-72%, <20%, and 13%-56% to SS, respectively. The thickness of sewer sediments increased by 1-14 cm during light and moderate rains, and the thickness decreased by 7-17 cm during heavy rains. It was found that rainfall characteristics affected the contribution percentages of pollution sources. The contribution of pollution from road runoff, domestic sewage, and sewer sediments in combined sewer systems were 2%-52%, 9%-65%, and 8%-81%, respectively. The derived outcomes should be useful for developing recommendations to control non-point source pollution in combined sewer systems and improve urban receiving water quality in China.

2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(9): 1760-1769, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) by emergency medicine physicians is as accurate as radiology-performed ultrasound (RADUS). We aim to summarize the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for intussusception and to compare the performance between POCUS and RADUS. METHODS: Databases were searched from inception through February 2018 using pre-defined index terms. Peer-reviewed primary studies that investigated the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for intussusception in children were included. The study is reported using Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies (PRISMA-DTA). Meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for intussusception was conducted using the random-effects bivariate model. Subgroup analysis (POCUS vs RADUS) was also performed. Meta-regression was utilized to determine if the diagnostic accuracy between POCUS and RADUS was significantly different. RESULTS: Thirty studies (n = 5249) were included in the meta-analysis. Ultrasonography for intussusception has a sensitivity: 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-0.98), specificity: 0.98 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99), positive likelihood ratio: 43.8 (95% CI: 18.0-106.7) and negative likelihood ratio: 0.03 (95% CI: 0.02-0.04), with an area under ROC (AUROC) curve of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-1.00). Meta-regression suggested no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy for intussusception between POCUS and RADUS (AUROC: 0.95 vs 1.00, p = 0.128). CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggested POCUS has a high diagnostic accuracy for intussusception not significantly different from that of RADUS.

3.
Int J Mol Med ; 42(1): 248-258, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568908

RESUMO

Otitis media is one of the most common bacterial infections in children, contributing to hearing loss. A vital bacterial pathogen leading to otitis media development is the nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Inflammation response is reported as an important characristic for otitis media. Chemokine CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a 352-amino acid seven-span transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor, essential for inflammatory response. However, the possible molecular mechanism indicating the alteration of CXCR4 modulated by NTHi is poorly known. In the present study, NTHi enhanced CXCR4 expression through phosphorylation of IKKα and p38, which relied on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation in vitro as well as in the middle ear of mice in vivo. Previously, quercetin, a natural production mainly isolated from rutin, has shown anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we report that quercetin suppressed NTHi-induced CXCR4 expression levels in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin blocked CXCR4 activation through direct IKKß phosphorylation inhibition, as well as of p38 MAPK restraining. Hence, identification of quercetin may be a potential therapeutic strategy for treating otitis media induced by NTHi through inflammation suppression.


Assuntos
Haemophilus influenzae/fisiologia , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Média/enzimologia , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Orelha Média/patologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Haemophilus influenzae/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Otite Média/microbiologia , Otite Média/patologia , Fosforilação , Quercetina/farmacologia , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
4.
BMC Genomics ; 16: 224, 2015 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25885025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) regulate plant development, resistance to stress, and insect attack by inducing specific gene expression. However, little is known about the mechanism of plant defense against herbivore attack at a protein level. Using a high-resolution 2-D gel, we identified 62 MeJA-responsive proteins and measured protein expression level changes. RESULTS: Among these 62 proteins, 43 proteins levels were increased while 11 proteins were decreased. We also found eight proteins uniquely expressed in response to MeJA treatment. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001793. The proteins identified in this study have important biological functions including photosynthesis and energy related proteins (38.4%), protein folding, degradation and regulated proteins (15.0%), stress and defense regulated proteins (11.7%), and redox-responsive proteins (8.3%). The expression levels of four important genes were determined by qRT-PCR analysis. The expression levels of these proteins did not correlate well with their translation levels. To test the defense functions of the differentially expressed proteins, expression vectors of four protein coding genes were constructed to express in-fusion proteins in E. coli. The expressed proteins were used to feed Ostrinia furnacalis, the Asian corn borer (ACB). Our results demonstrated that the recombinant proteins of pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) and thioredoxin M-type, chloroplastic precursor (TRXM) showed the significant inhibition on the development of larvae and pupae. CONCLUSIONS: We found MeJA could not only induce plant defense mechanisms to insects, it also enhanced toxic protein production that potentially can be used for bio-control of ACB.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteômica , Zea mays/metabolismo , Animais , Ásia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/genética
5.
Pharmacol Res ; 68(1): 38-45, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23178558

RESUMO

Anti-tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) drugs are approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Many studies have investigated the effect of these drugs on the T cell response; however, some clues have indicated that it may also target B cells. This study was carried out to explore the potential effects and mechanisms of etanercept, a soluble TNF-α receptor, on the function of B cells and their development into memory B cells in type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA). Beginning on day 24 after CII immunisation, the mice were evaluated every 2-3 days to determine two clinical parameters: their arthritis global assessment and swollen joint count (SJC). The serum concentrations of IgG1, IgG2a and anti-CII antibodies and the splenic pathology and proliferation of B cells were measured. The percentage of total memory B cells in the spleen was analysed with flow cytometry. BAFFR was detected by immunohistochemistry. In CIA mice, etanercept markedly suppressed the arthritis global assessment and the SJC, reduced the production of anti-CII, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies, and prevented spleen histopathology to varying degrees; however, it had no obvious effect on splenic B cell proliferation. Etanercept also decreased the percentage of total CD27(+) memory B cells in the spleen. Treatment with etanercept was associated with a further increase in BAFFR expression, a significant reduction in CD27 expression, and a negative correlation between the levels of BAFFR and the percentage of memory B cells. Our findings showed that increased BAFFR expression has a regulatory effect on the activation of B cells and the generation of memory B cells, which may be one of the mechanisms of the therapeutic effects of etanercept.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/farmacologia , Animais , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Receptor do Fator Ativador de Células B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo II/imunologia , Etanercepte , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Memória Imunológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Baço/patologia , Membro 7 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia
6.
Bing Du Xue Bao ; 28(5): 567-71, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23233935

RESUMO

In order to establish a rapid and accurate method for the detection of Ebola virus (EBOV), the primers used in SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR were designed based on the EBOV NP gene sequences published in GenBank. The SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR was established and optimized for the detection of EBOV. The EBOV RNA that was transcribed in vitro was used as a template. The sensitivity of this method was found to reach 1.0 x 10(2) copies/microL and the detection range was 10(2) - 10(10). No cross reaction with RNA samples from Marburg virus, Dengue virus, Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Influenza virus (H1N1 and H3N2) and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus E genomic RNA was found. The method would be useful for the detection and monitoring of EBOV in China.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Primers do DNA/química , Primers do DNA/genética , Ebolavirus/genética , Humanos , Compostos Orgânicos/química
7.
Mol Immunol ; 49(1-2): 380-6, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21967866

RESUMO

In addition to modulate B cells function, B cell activating factor belonged to TNF family (BAFF) also regulates T cells response via BAFFR and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin-ligand interactor (TACI) expressing on activated T cells. This study explored the effect of a recombinant fusion protein containing the extracellular ligand-binding portion of TACI and the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G (TACI-Ig) on activated T cells that were obtained from antigen-specific T-cell responses mice model induced by keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH), the characteristics of KLH-challenged mice were observed simultaneously. KLH immunization leaded to a significant positive relationship between BAFF level in serum and the extent of spleen histopathology. Serum concentration of BAFF, APRIL, IgM and IgG antibodies to KLH, and IL-4 were increased under KLH immunization, but IL-2 synthesis was decreased, resulting in a downregulation of IL-2/IL-4 ratio. Antigen-specific T cells proliferation, IL-5 production, the percentage of Th and activation T cells were significantly upregulated, however, IL-2 secretion and the percentage of naïve T cells were downregulated in vitro. RhBAFF co-stimulation further evoked T cells hyperplasy, IL-4 and IFN-γ expression, the subgroups of Th, early antigen activation and activation T cells were also further increased. On the contrary, naïve T cells were further reduced under rhBAFF stimuli. Administration of rhTACI-Ig significantly inhibited T cells proliferation, cytokines production and T cells differentiation, and the inhibitory effects might be associated with its ability to neutralize both the exogenous and endogenetic BAFF and APRIL.


Assuntos
Hemocianinas/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Fator Ativador de Células B/imunologia , Fator Ativador de Células B/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Separação Celular , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Baço/citologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Membro 13 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Membro 13 da Superfamília de Ligantes de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo
8.
J Control Release ; 133(3): 238-44, 2009 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18951932

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to design and characterize quercetin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (QT-SLNs), clarify the absorption mechanism of QT-SLNs and to evaluate the potential of using solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as an oral delivery carrier for poorly water soluble drugs. QT-SLNs were prepared by an emulsification and low-temperature solidification method. The QT-SLNs presented as spherically shaped under transmission electron microscopy, with an average diameter of 155.3 nm. The average drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading and zeta potential were 91.1%, 13.2% and -32.2 mV, respectively. Drug release from QT-SLNs was fitted to a double phase kinetics model and the equation was as follows: 100-Q=98.87e(-0.1042t)+42.45e(-0.0258t). The absorption of QT-SLNs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was studied using an in situ perfusion method in rats. It was found that the absorption percent in the stomach for 2 h was only 6.20%, the absorption process of intestine was first-process with passive diffusion mechanism, and the main absorptive segments were ileum and colon. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats after oral administration of quercetin at 50 mg/kg in the form of either QT-SLNs or suspension. The plasma concentration-time curves were both fitted to a one-compartment model. The relative bioavailability of QT-SLNs to quercetin suspension was 571.4%. The T(max) and MRT for quercetin in plasma were both delayed. Our studies provide evidence that SLNs are valuable as an oral delivery carrier to enhance the absorption of a poorly water soluble drug, quercetin.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Quercetina/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Disponibilidade Biológica , Colo/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos , Duodeno/metabolismo , Glicerídeos/química , Íleo/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Lecitinas/química , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18666693

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical use of virtual endoscopy in the traumatic ossicular chain disruption with intact tympanum pre- and post-operation. METHODS: The series consisted of 17 cases with temporal bone fracture and 4 cases with tympanum contusion. All were examinated with a high resolution spiral CT by axial and oblique coronal planes of the temporal bone. Three-dimensional reconstruction was processed using the virtual endoscopy software. Ten cases of traumatic ossicular chain disruption were performed with intact canal wall epitympanum approach Ossicular reposition. Eleven patients with facial paralysis were performed ossiculoplasty and facial nerve decompression. Nine cases re-examinated virtual endoscopy after operation. RESULTS: Seventeen cases with temporal bone fractures and traumatic ossicular chain disruption, including 3 cases with the long process of the incus fracture, 9 cases with incus bone dislocation, and 5 cases with incus shedding. In the 4 cases of tympanum contusion, 2 cases with incus bone dislocation, 2 cases with incus bone shedding. The axial plane of temporal bone CT could only showed the fracture line and the hammer and incus bone irregular shape. Perioperatively virtual endoscopy showed hammer incus joint separation, incus stirrup dislocation and joint deformation. Surgery confirmed that the incus body was torn off below the hammer following bone displacement, soft tissue wrapped articular surface, incus and stapes just connected with soft tissue. During the tympanum contusion operation could see incus bone-shedding was valgus. Three to six months after surgery, re-examinated virtual endoscopy showed incus bone dislocation ossicular chain was restored to normal, temporal bone shedding ossicular chain connecting almost intact Hearing increased significantly to the level of practical hearing. The coincidence of traumatic disruption of the ossicular chain by virtual endoscopy and surgery was 100%. CONCLUSION: Virtual endoscopy was valuable for providing accurate assessment and individual program for treating and following-up the traumatic ossicular chain disruption.


Assuntos
Ossículos da Orelha/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico por imagem , Ossículos da Orelha/lesões , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Yi Chuan ; 28(1): 97-104, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16469724

RESUMO

The DNA techniques most commonly used in avian molecular phylogeny include DNA hybridization, RFLP and DNA sequence analysis, among which DNA sequence analysis is supposed to be the most effective and reliable. DNA hybridization techniques have been widely used in aves, based on which a new avian classification system was born. In avian RFLP analyses, mtDNA are widely used as target sequences. Mitochondrial DNA genes are the most frequently used in avian molecular phylogeny. Although mtDNA phylogenies are likely to be correct in many cases, use of mtDNA sequences can be problematic with such constraints as unilateral inheritance, multiple substitutions, saturations at the third-coded sites, strong bias in base composition and probable nuclear pseudogenes of mtDNA sequences. Although bias are still on the mtDNA sequences, more and more authors turn to nuclear DNA sequences and prefer to a combination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences. And single-copy nuclear DNA receives the most favor. scnDNA introns can perform well in recovering relationships among intermediate to even distantly related congeneric species. scnDNA exons can be used in avian higher ranks. With the exception of molecular markers' own problems including variable rates of nucleotide site evolution, gene hybridization, gene horizontal transfer and lineage sorting, avian molecular phylogeny also faces methodological problems, such as molecular markers selection, taxon sampling and data processing. More attention should be paid to the standardization of methods, not to the new molecular markers.


Assuntos
Aves/classificação , Aves/genética , DNA/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Evolução Molecular
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