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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 353, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103482

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether catalpol exhibited neuroprotective effects in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mice through oxidative stress-mediated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat, and pyrin-domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and neuroinflammation. Deficits in behavioral tests, including open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and elevated plus-maze test (EPM), were ameliorated following catalpol administration. To study the potential mechanism, western blots, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis and immunofluorescence imaging were performed on the hippocampus samples. We found that the defects of behavioral tests induced by CUMS could be reversed by the absence of NLRP3 and NLRP3 inflammasome might be involved in the antidepressant effects of catalpol on CUMS mice. Similar to the NLRP3 inflammasome, the expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and inducible nitride oxide synthase (iNOS) were increased after CUMS. The current study demonstrated that catalpol possessed anti-inflammatory effect on CUMS mice and inhibited microglial polarization to the M1 phenotype. In addition, the activity of mitochondrial oxidative stress might be involved in the NLRP3 activation, which was proved by the downregulation of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and cleaved IL-1ß, after the administration of mitochondrion-targeted antioxidant peptide SS31. Taken together, we provided evidence that catalpol exhibited antidepressive effects on CUMS mice possibly via the oxidative stress-mediated regulation of NLRP3 and neuroinflammation.

2.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(1)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955508

RESUMO

Accumulating data has indicated that host microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) play essential roles in innate immune responses to viral infection; however, the roles and the underlying mechanisms of miRNAs in influenza A virus (IAV) replication remain unclear. The present study examined on the effects of miRNAs on hemagglutinin (H)1 neuraminidase (N)1 replication and antiviral innate immunity. Using a microarray assay, the expression profiles of miRNA molecules in IAV­infected A549 cells were analyzed. The results indicated that miR­221 was significantly downregulated in IAV­infected A549 cells. It was also observed that IAV infection decreased the expression levels of miR­221 in A549 cells in a dose­ and time­dependent manner. Functionally, upregulation of miR­221 repressed IAV replication, whereas knockdown of miR­221 had an opposite effect. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that miR­221 overexpression could enhance IAV­triggered IFN­α and IFN­ß production and IFN­stimulated gene expression levels, while miR­221­knockdown had the opposite effect. Target prediction and dual luciferase assays indicated that suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) was a direct target of miR­221 in A549 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of SOCS1 efficiently abrogated the influences caused by miR­221 inhibition on IAV replication and the type­I IFN response. It was also found that the miR­221 positively regulated NF­κB activation in IAV­infected A549 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that miR­221­downregulation promotes IAV replication by suppressing type­I IFN response through targeting SOCS1/NF­κB pathway. These findings suggest that miR­221 may serve as a novel potential therapeutic target for IAV treatment.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 126007, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992007

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) in marine and terrestrial environments have been intensively studied, but the dynamics of airborne MPs remains limited. Existing studies on atmospheric MPs are mostly derived from collection of atmospheric deposition, whereas direct measurements of airborne MPs are scarce. However, the abundance of airborne MPs is more relevant for evaluating human inhalation exposure risk. Herein, airborne MPs in indoor and outdoor environments from urban and rural areas of a coastal city in eastern China were investigated. MP concentrations (mean±SD) in indoor air (1583 ± 1180 n/m3) were an order of magnitude higher than outdoor air (189 ± 85 n/m3), and airborne MP concentrations in urban areas (224 ± 70 n/m3) were higher than rural areas (101 ± 47 n/m3). MPs smaller than 100 µm dominated airborne MPs, and the predominant shape of airborne MPs was fragments, as opposed to fibers. The larger MP size fractions contained a higher proportion of fibers, whereas the smaller size fractions were nearly exclusively composed of fragments. The health risk caused by ubiquitous airborne MPs should not be discounted as the maximum annual outdoor exposure of airborne MPs can reach 1 million/year, while indoor exposure may be even higher due to higher indoor airborne MP concentrations.

4.
ChemMedChem ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949786

RESUMO

Immunotherapy is an effective way to mobilize the body's own immune system to confront tumor cells . However, the efficacy of immunotherapy is affected by tumor heterogeneity, and the low therapeutic response to immunotherapy may lead to negative outcomes, which reinforces the urgency for early benefit predictors. Evaluating the infiltration of immune cells in solid tumors and metabolism changes of tumors provide potential response targets for monitoring immune response. Non-invasive imaging identifying prognostic biomarkers can select the beneficiaries of targeted immunotherapy from non- responses. Quantitative biomarkers may eventually improve the cancer management, help customize individual treatment plans and predict the treatment outcomes. In this review, we summarize the non-invasive optical molecular imaging methods for monitoring immunotherapy. With the combination of imaging and immunotherapy, the prediction of immunotherapy response may promote the development of precision medicine.

5.
DNA Cell Biol ; 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042508

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is the most important adjuvant treatment for glioma; however, radioresistance is the major cause for inevitable recurrence and poor survival of glioma patients. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effect of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) on the radiosensitivity of glioma cells. Immunohistochemistry assay found that AEG-1 was generally overexpressed in glioma tissues and was correlated with poor clinicopathological features of glioma patients. AEG-1 knockdown inhibited proliferation of glioma cells. And γ-H2AX foci assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that AEG-1 depletion enhanced radiosensitivity and promoted apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest in G2 phase of glioma cells treated by ionizing radiation. Moreover, replication factor C5 (RFC5) was screened as the target of AEG-1 by using Affymetrix human gene expression array, and RFC5 expression was downregulated in AEG-1 knockdown glioma cells. Mechanistically, AEG-1 knockdown impaired homologous recombination repair activity induced by radiation through inhibiting RFC5 expression. Furthermore, the Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that high levels of AEG-1 and RFC5 were related to poor prognosis of glioma patients treated with radiotherapy. Taken together, our findings indicate that AEG-1 may serve as a reliable radiosensitizing target for glioma radiotherapy.

6.
Nano Lett ; 21(10): 4484-4493, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978427

RESUMO

Acute pneumonia can greatly increase the vulnerable risk of atherosclerotic plaque and contribute to the mortality of cardiovascular disease. To accurately assess the rupture risk caused by acute pneumonia, we developed a novel kind of ratiometric semiconducting polymer nanoparticle (RSPN) for photoacoustic imaging of vulnerable plaque in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice complicated with pneumonia. Specifically, RSPN can react with O2•- and exhibit the enhanced photoacoustic signals at about 690 nm, while 800 nm is regarded as an internal photoacoustic reference. As a result, RSPN can provide reliable determination of O2•- within aortic atherosclerosis by analyzing the ratios of photoacoustic signals, which can successfully reflect the oxidative stress level in vulnerable plaque. Therefore, RSPN enable to specifically distinguish plaque-bearing mice and plaque-bearing mice complicated with pneumonia from healthy mice, which provides a promising tool to predict the vulnerability of plaque for reducing the mortality of atherosclerotic-induced cardiovascular disease.

7.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 223, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of a comprehensive evaluation for pediatric clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) published in recent years. Here, we assessed the quality of pediatric CPGs, considering factors that might affect their quality. The aim of the study is to promote a more coherent development and application of CPGs. METHODS: Pediatric CPGs published in PubMed, MedLive, Guidelines International Network, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and World Health Organization between 2017 and 2019 were searched and collected. Paired researchers conducted screening, data extraction, and quality assessment using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE II). Linear regression analysis determined the factors affecting CPGs' quality. RESULTS: The study included a total of 216 CPGs, which achieved a mean score of 4.26 out of 7 points (60.86%) in the AGREE II assessment. Only 6.48% of the CPGs reached the "recommend" level. The remaining 69.91% should have been modified before recommendation, while the other 23.61% did not reach the recommended level at all. The overall quality of recent pediatric CPGs was higher than previously, and the proportion of CPGs with low-quality decreased over time. However, there were still too few CPGs that reached a high-quality level. The "applicability" and "rigor of development" domains had generally low scores. CPGs formulated by developing countries or regions, those that are not under an organizations or groups responsibility, and those that used non-evidence-based methods were found to be associated with poorer quality in different domains as independent or combinational factors. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of pediatric CPGs still needs to be improved. Specifically, a quality control before applying new CPGs should be essential to ensure their quality and applicability.


Assuntos
Organização Mundial da Saúde , Criança , Humanos
8.
Reprod Biol ; 21(2): 100505, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862590

RESUMO

The placenta develops from the outer trophoblastic layer following the differentiation of the fertilized ovum and is therefore more susceptible to epigenetic regulatory changes caused by environmental interventions and influences during assisted reproductive technology. Furthermore, the placenta regulates the development of the fetal heart, brain, kidneys, bones, and other tissues and organs [1]. Placental dysplasia leads to poor perinatal outcomes as well as long-term health risks later in life, including neurodevelopmental disorders, tumors, and adult metabolic syndrome [2,3]. In view of the decisive role of the placenta during intrauterine fetal development, Graham J. Burton, an expert in placentology from the University of Cambridge, formally proposed the theory of "placenta-derived chronic diseases" in 2018 based on embryonic-derived diseases [4]. In this review, we summarized the changes in placental morphology and structure, growth dynamics, imprinted and non-imprinted genes, and other aspects attributable to assisted reproduction technology. Our review provides a theoretical basis for further research on placental changes caused by assisted reproductive technology that are most strongly associated with an increased risk of neonatal long-term diseases.

9.
J Vis Exp ; (170)2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871456

RESUMO

Oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) is widely used to study abnormal vessel growth in ischemic retinal diseases, including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Most OIR studies observe retinal neovascularization at specific time points; however, the dynamic vessel growth in live mice along a time course, which is essential for understanding the OIR-related vessel diseases, has been understudied. Here, we describe a step-by-step protocol for the induction of the OIR mouse model, highlighting the potential pitfalls, and providing an improved method to quickly quantify areas of vaso-obliteration (VO) and neovascularization (NV) using immunofluorescence staining. More importantly, we monitored vessel regrowth in live mice from P15 to P25 by performing fluorescein fundus angiography (FFA) in the OIR mouse model. The application of FFA to the OIR mouse model allows us to observe the remodeling process during vessel regrowth.

10.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2031-2035, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884491

RESUMO

Intestinal protozoa Eimeria and Entamoeba can infect many animal species including alpacas. However, data on the prevalence and pathogenicity of species of the two genera Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas in China is scarce. The current study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas in two cities (Taiyuan and Xinzhou) in Shanxi Province, northern China, using PCR-based approaches. Eimeria spp. were only found in Taiyuan city, and the overall prevalence was 1.64%. All samples collected from male alpacas were PCR-negative for Eimeria. Four Eimeria-positive samples were tested positive as Eimeria lamae. The molecular prevalence of Entamoeba in alpacas was 18.03% (66/366), including 16.39% (50/305) in alpacas from Taiyuan city and 26.23% (16/61) from Xinzhou city, respectively. The Entamoeba prevalence in male alpacas (25.00%) was significantly higher than that in female alpacas (15.69%). Entamoeba bovis was the predominant species, and no Entamoeba histolytica infection was detected. Nine unique SSU rRNA gene sequences of Entamoeba were obtained which formed a new cluster. The results showed that sex and location might be the risk factors associated with prevalence of Eimeria spp., and sex might be the risk factor associated with prevalence of Entamoeba spp.. This is the first report of Entamoeba in alpacas worldwide. These findings expand our understanding of the prevalence and genetic diversity of Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas.

11.
Neurology ; 96(23): e2812-e2823, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Large systolic blood pressure (SBP) variability has been proposed as a novel risk factor for dementia above and beyond SBP levels, but the underlying neuropathology is largely unknown. We investigated the relationship among visit-to-visit SBP variability, cognitive deterioration, and underlying neuropathologic changes. METHODS: We used longitudinal data (between 2005 and 2019) from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. A total of 13,284 dementia-free participants ≥50 years of age were followed up over a median of 5.0 (interquartile range 3.1-7.6) years. Neuropathology data were available in 1,400 autopsied participants. Visit-to-visit SBP variability was quantified from repeated annual SBP measurements. Cognitive deterioration was defined as conversion from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia or from MCI to dementia. RESULTS: Larger visit-to-visit SBP variability was associated with cognitive deterioration (adjusted odds ratio comparing extreme quintiles 2.64, 95% confidence interval 2.29-3.04, p < 0.001). It was also associated with a higher burden of vascular pathology (including microinfarcts, white matter lesions, atherosclerosis of the circle of Willis, and arteriolosclerosis) and with neurofibrillary tangle pathology assessed by Braak staging (all p < 0.05). The association with cognitive deterioration and vascular pathology appeared stronger among those with normal cognition vs those with MCI at baseline. These findings were observed after adjustment for age, sex, mean SBP, and other confounding variables. Similar results were observed for diastolic blood pressure variability. CONCLUSION: Larger visit-to-visit SBP variability was associated with cognitive deterioration. It was also associated with cerebrovascular pathology and neurofibrillary tangles. These results suggest the intertwined role of vascular and Alzheimer disease pathology in the etiology of dementia.

12.
Bioresour Technol ; 333: 125186, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892423

RESUMO

Two types of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) seed sludge were selected to evaluate their responses to copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) exposure. Antibiotic-exposed anammox granules (R1) were more likely to be inhibited by 5.0 mg L-1 CuNPs than the normal anammox granules (C1). The nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of C1 decreased by 9.00% after two weeks of exposure to CuNPs, whereas that of R1 decreased by 20.32%. Simultaneously, the abundance of Candidatus. Kuenenia decreased by 27.65% and 36.02% in C1 and R1 under CuNPs stress conditions, respectively. Generally, R1 was more susceptible to CuNPs than C1. The correlation analysis indicated that the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and copA triggered by intI1 facilitated the generation of multiresistance in the anammox process. Moreover, the potential multiresistance mechanism of anammox bacteria was hypothesized based on previous results. The results will generate new ideas for the treatment of complex wastewater using the anammox process.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Nanopartículas , Anaerobiose , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Reatores Biológicos , Cobre , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Esgotos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921578

RESUMO

microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNA with a length of about 22 nucleotides, are involved in the energy metabolism of skeletal muscle cells. However, their molecular mechanism of metabolism in rabbit skeletal muscle is still unclear. In this study, 16 rabbits, 8 in the control group (CON-G) and 8 in the experimental group (HFD-G), were chosen to construct an obese model induced by a high-fat diet fed from 35 to 70 days of age. Subsequently, 54 differentially expressed miRNAs, 248 differentially expressed mRNAs, and 108 differentially expressed proteins related to the metabolism of skeletal muscle were detected and analyzed with three sequencing techniques (small RNA sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, and tandem mass tab (TMT) protein technology). It was found that 12 miRNAs and 12 core genes (e.g., CRYL1, VDAC3 and APIP) were significantly different in skeletal muscle from rabbits in the two groups. The network analysis showed that seven miRNA-mRNA pairs were involved in metabolism. Importantly, two miRNAs (miR-92a-3p and miR-30a/c/d-5p) regulated three transcription factors (MYBL2, STAT1 and IKZF1) that may be essential for lipid metabolism. These results enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with rabbit skeletal muscle metabolism and provide a basis for future studies in the metabolic diseases of human obesity.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Coelhos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
14.
Langmuir ; 37(14): 4056-4063, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793250

RESUMO

A large subset of haptic surfaces employs electroadhesion to modulate both adhesion and friction at a sliding finger interface. The current theory of electroadhesion assumes that the applied electric field pulls the skin into stronger contact, increasing friction by increasing the real contact area, yet it is unknown what role environmental moisture plays in the effect. This paper uses atomic force microscopy (AFM)to determine the effect of humidity on the adhesion and friction between the single nanoscale asperity and individual human finger corneocytes. An analytical model of the total effective load of the AFM tip is developed to explain the humidity-voltage dependence of nanoscale adhesion and friction at contacting asperities. The results show that the electrowetting effect at the interface at high humidity accounts for 35% of the adhesive force but less than 8% of the total friction, implying that the electrowetting effect can be enhanced by optimizing surface topography to promote the formation and rupture of liquid menisci.


Assuntos
Eletroumectação , Fricção , Nanoestruturas/química , Pele/citologia , Humanos , Umidade , Microscopia de Força Atômica
15.
Oncol Rep ; 45(5)2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846814

RESUMO

More than 70% of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), one of the leading cause of gynecological cancer­related deaths worldwide, are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. Currently, the mainstay for treatment of advanced EOC is tumor debulking surgery followed by combined platinum­ and paclitaxel (PTX)­based chemotherapy. However, most patients eventually develop chemoresistance, which remains a major obstacle to successful treatment. Herein, by using clinical specimens and experimentally induced cell models, we found that the expression levels of hsa­miR­105 were significantly decreased in PTX­resistant EOC tissues and cell lines. Follow­up functional experiments demonstrated that repression of hsa­miR­105 conferred resistance to paclitaxel in EOC cells, whereas restoration of hsa­miR­105 expression in situ via intratumoral injection of hsa­miR­105 micrON™ agomir potentiated in vivo sensitivity to PTX and thereafter significantly inhibited tumor growth in a PTX­challenged xenograft model. Mechanistically, hsa­miR­105 exerted its tumor suppressor function by directly inhibiting the zinc and ring finger 2 (ZNRF2) signaling pathway. Importantly, aberrant expression of hsa­miR­105 in both tumor and circulating samples predicted a poor post­chemotherapy prognosis in EOC patients. These findings collectively suggest that hsa­miR­105 may act as a potent tumor suppressor miRNA during the progression of EOC, likely affecting cell proliferation, invasiveness and chemosensitivity to PTX, and functioning at least in part via inhibition of ZNRF2 signaling. The stability and availability and ease in measurement of circulating hsa­miR­105 make it a valuable diagnostic/prognostic biomarker candidate for chemotherapy of EOC.

16.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860609

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that subclinical disruption in blood pressure (BP) dynamics, captured by lower complexity and higher variability, may contribute to dementia risk, above and beyond BP levels. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 1835 older adults from 1997 to 2016, with BP complexity quantified by sample entropy and BP variability quantified by coefficient of variation using beat-to-beat BP measured at baseline. RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-four participants developed dementia over 20 years. Reduced systolic BP (SBP) complexity was associated with a higher risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] comparing extreme quintiles: 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-2.20). Higher SBP variability was also associated with a higher risk of dementia (HR comparing extreme quintiles: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.11-2.22. These findings were observed after adjusting for age, sex, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, mean SBP, and other confounding factors. DISCUSSIONS: Our findings suggest that lower complexity and higher variability of beat-to-beat SBP are potential novel risk factors or biomarkers for dementia.

17.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pathological invasion level of extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is strongly related with its risk staging, treatment, and prognosis. However, the current evaluation before treatments fails to evaluate pathological invasion level of EMPD. High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) may play a key role to solve this problem. The purpose was to explore the performance of HFUS in the evaluation of pathological invasion level of EMPD. METHODS: Sixty pathologically proven EMPD patients were retrospectively enrolled and divided into 2 groups as follows: in situ in the epidermis (IE) (n = 42) and invasion into the dermis or subcutaneous (ID) (n = 18) groups. Clinical and HFUS features were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Between the 2 groups, HFUS features (lesion shape, internal echogenicity and echotexture, surface shape, epidermal hyperechoic layer on the surface, the "pseudopod sign", and color Doppler ultrasound features) and clinical features were comparable (all P >.05). Tumor growth pattern significantly differed between the 2 groups (P <.05). Infiltration depth was significantly deeper for the ID group than the IE group (P <.05). With a cutoff value of 1.55 mm for infiltration depth, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.833. CONCLUSIONS: HFUS features of tumor growth pattern and infiltration depth may contribute to the assessment of invasion level of EMPD.

18.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(3)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804122

RESUMO

Rapid industrial development has caused a series of environmental problems, which is not conducive to sustainable development of society as a whole. It is necessary to build a sustainable development evaluation system. Most of the existing literature has evaluated corporate sustainable performance from the economy, environment and society on the basis of triple bottom lines. Considering the research gap and the practice need, an evaluation system is established from four dimensions, referred to as economy, society, environment and responsibility management, and 29 indicators are designed to measure these four dimensions. Twenty seven listed Chinese mining corporations are selected as research samples, and the entropy-weight-based Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method is applied to calculate indicators' weights. Results show that the four dimensions of sustainable performance weights from high to low are society, environment, economy, and management process.

19.
Neural Regen Res ; 16(11): 2276-2283, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818513

RESUMO

Axon regeneration and remyelination of the damaged region is the most common repair strategy for spinal cord injury. However, achieving good outcome remains difficult. Our previous study showed that porcine decellularized optic nerve better mimics the extracellular matrix of the embryonic porcine optic nerve and promotes the directional growth of dorsal root ganglion neurites. However, it has not been reported whether this material promotes axonal regeneration in vivo. In the present study, a porcine decellularized optic nerve was seeded with neurotrophin-3-overexpressing Schwann cells. This functional scaffold promoted the directional growth and remyelination of regenerating axons. In vitro, the porcine decellularized optic nerve contained many straight, longitudinal channels with a uniform distribution, and microscopic pores were present in the channel wall. The spatial micro topological structure and extracellular matrix were conducive to the adhesion, survival and migration of neural stem cells. The scaffold promoted the directional growth of dorsal root ganglion neurites, and showed strong potential for myelin regeneration. Furthermore, we transplanted the porcine decellularized optic nerve containing neurotrophin-3-overexpressing Schwann cells in a rat model of T10 spinal cord defect in vivo. Four weeks later, the regenerating axons grew straight, the myelin sheath in the injured/transplanted area recovered its structure, and simultaneously, the number of inflammatory cells and the expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans were reduced. Together, these findings suggest that porcine decellularized optic nerve loaded with Schwann cells overexpressing neurotrophin-3 promotes the directional growth of regenerating spinal cord axons as well as myelin regeneration. All procedures involving animals were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Sun Yat-sen University (approval No. SYSU-IACUC-2019-B034) on February 28, 2019.

20.
Chem Asian J ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904239

RESUMO

Visible-light-driven photocatalytic Cr(VI) reduction is a promising pathway to moderate environmental pollution, in which the development of photocatalysts is pivotal. Herein, three hourglass-type phosphomolybdate-based hybrids with the formula of: (H2 bpe)3 [Zn(H2 PO4 )][Zn(bpe)(H2 O)2 ]H{Zn[P4 Mo6 O31 H6 ]2 } ⋅ 6H2 O (1) Na6 [H2 bz]2 [ZnNa4 (H2 O)5 ]{Zn [P4 Mo6 O31 H3 ]2 } ⋅ 2H2 O (2) and (H2 mbpy) {[Zn(mbpy)(H2 O)]2 [Zn(H2 O)]2 }{Zn[P4 Mo6 O31 H6 ]2 } ⋅ 10H2 O (3) (bpe=trans-1,2-bi(4-pyridyl)-ethylene; bz=4,4'-diaminobiphenyl; mbpy=4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'bipyridine) were synthesized under the guidance of the functional organic moiety modification strategy. Structural analysis showed that hybrids 1-3 have similar 2D layer-like spatial arrangements constructed by {Zn[P4 Mo6 ]2 } clusters and organic components with different conjugated degree. With excellent redox properties and wide visible-light absorption capacities, hybrids 1-3 display favourable photocatalytic activity for Cr(VI) reduction with 79%, 70% and 64% reduction rates, which are superior to that of only inorganic {Zn[P4 Mo6 ]2 } itself (21%). The investigation of organic components on photocatalytic performance of hybrids 1-3 suggested that the organic counter cations (bpe, bz and mbpy) can effectively affect the visible-light absorption, as well as the recombination of photogenerated carriers stemmed from {Zn[P4 Mo6 ]2 } clusters, further promoting their photocatalytic performances towards Cr(VI) reduction. This work provides an experimental basis for the design of functionalized photocatalysts via the modification of organic species.

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