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1.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(3): 324-329, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573143

RESUMO

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a small phospholipid that is present in all eukaryotic tissues and blood plasma. As an extracellular signaling molecule, LPA mediates many cellular functions by binding to six known G protein-coupled receptors and activating their downstream signaling pathways. These functions indicate that LPA may play important roles in many biological processes that include organismal development, wound healing, and carcinogenesis. Recently, many studies have found that LPA has various biological effects in different kinds of bone cells. These findings suggest that LPA is a potent regulator of bone development and remodeling and holds promising application potential in bone tissue engineering. Here, we review the recent progress on the biological regulatory function of LPA in bone tissue cells.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biológicos , Receptores de Ácidos Lisofosfatídicos , Osso e Ossos , Lisofosfolipídeos
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1873-1878, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377907

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a common microsporidian species, which can infect humans and various species of animals. However, little is known about E. bieneusi prevalence and genotypes in farmed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Shandong Province, China. In this study, a total of 356 fecal samples were collected from farmed raccoon dogs in Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai cities in Shandong Province, China. A total of 23 (6.5%) samples were E. bieneusi-positive by nested PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA. Statistical analysis showed that E. bieneusi prevalence in male raccoon dogs was higher than that in female raccoon dogs, and the highest E. bieneusi prevalence was detected in adult raccoon dogs. Sequence analysis revealed four known E. bieneusi genotypes (D, type IV, CHG1, and Peru8), and type IV (11/23) was the predominant genotype. The genotypes type IV, Peru8, and CHG1 were reported in raccoon dogs for the first time in China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three human-pathogenic genotypes (D, type IV, and Peru8) were clustered into group 1, and the CHG1 belonged to group 2. These findings expand the current understanding of E. bieneusi prevalence and genotype distribution in raccoon dogs in China. Our study also shows that raccoon dogs are hosts for E. bieneusi belonging to several genotypes, including zoonotic ones, highlighting the possibility of transmission of this pathogen between raccoon dogs and humans.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Cães Guaxinins/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fazendas , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência
3.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 181-184, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418387

RESUMO

Blastocystis, an enteric protist, has been reported to be an important cause of protozoal gastrointestinal manifestations in humans and animals worldwide. Animals harboring certain Blastocystis subtypes (STs) may serve as a potential source of human infection. However, information about the prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis in alpacas is limited. In the present study, a total of 366 fecal samples from alpacas in Shanxi Province, northern China, were examined for Blastocystis by PCR amplification of the small subunit rRNA gene, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of Blastocystis in alpacas was 23.8%, and gender difference in the prevalence of Blastocystiswas observed. The most predominant Blastocystis ST was ST10, followed by ST14 and ST5. The detection of ST5, a potentially zoonotic genotype, indicates that alpacas harboring ST5 could be a potential source of human infection with Blastocystis. These data provide new insight into the prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis in alpacas.

4.
Transl Stroke Res ; 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240524

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an immunosuppressive role in various diseases, yet their function remains controversial in stroke and obscure in diabetic stroke. In the present study, Tregs were found downregulated in the peripheral blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) stroke models and patients compared with controls. In ischemic stroke mice (both T2DM and wild type), endogenous Tregs boosted by CD28SA increased CD206+ M2 macrophage/microglia cells, decreased infarct volumes, and improved neurological recovery. Our results demonstrated the potential of boosting Tregs for treating T2DM stroke. Furthermore, we utilized an optical imaging probe (IRD-αCD206) to target M2 macrophage/microglia cells and demonstrated its effect in visualizing M2 macrophage/microglia cells in vivo in ischemic brain tissue.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320229

RESUMO

A new bicadmium-substituted vanadosilicate, [Cd(en)2]2[(en)2Cd2Si8V12O40(OH)8(H2O)0.5]·5H2O (1; en = ethylenediamine), had been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized. Structural analysis revealed that the kind of new [(en)2Cd2Si8V12O40(OH)8(H2O)0.5]4- polyoxoanionic cluster was derived from the classical {V18O42} cluster by replacing six {VO5} square pyramids with four {Si2O7} and two [Cd(en)]2+ groups. Notably, such mixed substitution of both main-group and transition metals in polyoxovanadates is much less developed. Furthermore, compound 1 displays efficient catalytic activity toward the selective oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde with a conversion of 97% and a selectivity of 87% in 8 h.

6.
Parasitol Int ; 77: 102126, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334094

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a common intestinal protozoa, which can cause the occurrence of diarrhea, weight loss, and even death in animals or human, this threatens the husbandry industry and public health. It can infect virtually humans and all domestic animals including sheep. Tan sheep is one of the most important sheep breeds, which is short-tailed indigenous sheep breed used for production of high quality meat and pelts in China. However, there are no report regarding the occurrence and multilocus genotyping of G. duodenalis in Tan sheep in northwestern China. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and multilocus genotypes of G. duodenalis in Tan sheep. 1014 fecal samples were collected from Tan sheep from Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and three loci (ß-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes) were amplified by nested PCR. The prevalence of G. duodenalis in Tan sheep was 14.5% (147/1014), two assemblages (assemblage A, n = 43; and E, n = 90) were detected, including one novel assemblage A at bg locus, one novel assemblage A at tpi locus, and 10 and 11 novel subtypes of assemblage E were detected at the bg and gdh loci, respectively. One MLGs was formed based on sequence variation among the three loci. Moreover, 9 Tan sheep were infected with two assemblages (A and E) based on the three loci. These findings expand the host range of G. duodenalis and revealed genetic diversity of G. duodenalis assemblages in Tan sheep.

7.
Parasitol Res ; 119(5): 1547-1551, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198626

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis are the common parasites that parasitize the intestinal tract of rabbits, which can seriously threaten the health of rabbits and lead to economic losses to the rabbit industry. However, information about the prevalence and transmission of these two parasites in rabbits is limited in China. The objective of this study was to survey the prevalence of Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis in rabbits in Shandong Province. A total of 616 rabbit fecal samples were collected from two cities (Rizhao and Weihai) in Shandong Province, eastern China, and Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis were identified by polymerase chain reaction based on species-specific markers. The prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 20% (123/616) and the Blastocystis prevalence was 0.97% (6/616). Five different Eimeria species (Eimeria intestinalis, E. perforans, E. magna, E. media, and E. irresidua) and the ST4 subtype of Blastocystis were identified in rabbits by sequence analysis. This is the first report of Blastocystis prevalence and subtype ST4 in rabbits in Shandong Province. The findings provide baseline data for the prevention and control of Eimeria spp. and Blastocystis in rabbits in Shandong Province, China.


Assuntos
Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Coelhos/parasitologia , Animais , Blastocystis/classificação , Blastocystis/genética , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Tipagem Molecular , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia
8.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(3): 200, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205851

RESUMO

Interferon lambda-2 (IL28A) has a wide antiviral effect with fewer side-effects. Autophagy is a host mechanism to maintain intracellular homeostasis and defends invasion of pathogenic microorganisms. HCV NS5A can disable host defense systems to support HCV replication. Thus, molecular mechanism of interaction among interferon lambda, autophagy, and HCV was concerned and explored in this study. We report that HCV NS5A activated an incomplete autophagy by promoting the autophagic ubiquitylation-like enzymes ATG3, ATG5, ATG7, ATG10, and autophagosome maker LC3B, but blocked autophagy flux; IL28A bound to NS5A at NS5A-ISDR region, and degraded HCV-NS5A by promoting autolysosome formations in HepG2 cells. A software prediction of IL28A protein conformation indicated a potential structure of IL28A homotetramer; the first α-helix of IL28A locates in the interfaces among the four IL28A chains to maintain IL28A homotetrameric conformation. Co-IP and cell immunofluorescence experiments with sequential deletion mutants demonstrate that IL28A preferred a homotetramer conformation to a monomer in the cells; the IL28A homotetramer is positively correlated with autolysosomal degradation of HCV NS5A and the other HCV proteins. Summarily, the first α-helix of IL28A protein is the key domain for maintaining IL28A homotetramer which is required for promoting formation of autolysosomes and degradation of HCV proteins in vitro.

9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 321-326, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788771

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic enteric pathogen which can infect a wide range of animal species and humans. It is the most diagnosed species of Microsporidia in humans and has an impact on public health. Many infected animals including foxes may be a potential source for transmitting E. bieneusi to humans. However, limited information is available on the E. bieneusi prevalence and genotypes in farmed foxes in China. Therefore, in the present study, 344 fresh fecal samples were collected from farmed foxes (Vulpes vulpes and Vulpes lagopus) in Shandong Province, and the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi were examined based on sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The overall E. bieneusi prevalence was 9% (31/344); of them, 6.5% (9/138) in farmed silver foxes (V. vulpes) and 10.7% (22/206) in farmed arctic foxes (V. lagopus). Moreover, four known (Hum-q1, NCF2, HND-1, and Type IV) and two novel E. bieneusi genotypes (SDF1 and SDF2) were identified in farmed foxes in the present study. All of the E. bieneusi genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group based on phylogenetic analysis. In addition, 2, 4, 0, and 11 samples were successfully amplified at MS1, MS3, MS4, and MS7 loci, respectively. The present study reveals E. bieneusi prevalence and genotype distribution in farmed foxes in Shandong Province and enlarged the host and geographic information of E. bieneusi in China.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Raposas/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genótipo , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência
11.
Brain Res ; 1726: 146537, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672473

RESUMO

Higher visual centers could modulate visually-guided ocular growth, in addition to local mechanisms intrinsic to the eye. There is evidence that such central modulations could be species (even subspecies)-dependent. While the mouse has recently become an important experimental animal in myopia studies, it remains unclear whether and how visual centers modulate refractive development in mice, an issue that was examined in the present study. We found that optic nerve crush (ONC), performed at P18, could modify normal refractive development in the C57BL/6 mouse raised in normal visual environment. Unexpectedly, sham surgery caused a steeper cornea, leading to a modest myopic refractive shift, but did not induce significant changes in ocular axis length. ONC caused corneal flattening and re-calibrated the refractive set-point in a bidirectional manner, causing significant myopic (<-3 D, 54.5%) or hyperopic (>+3 D, 18.2%) shifts in refractive error in most (totally 72.7%) animals, both due to changes in ocular axial length. ONC did not change the density of dopaminergic amacrine cells, but increased retinal levels of dopamine and DOPAC. We conclude that higher visual centers are likely to play a role in fine-tuning of ocular growth, thus modifying refractive development in the C57BL/6 mouse. The changes in refractive error induced by ONC are accounted for by alternations in multiple ocular dimensions, including corneal curvature and axial length.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17074, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745136

RESUMO

Bullvalene C10H10 and its analogs semibullvalene C8H8, barbaralane C9H10, and 9-Borabarbaralane C8BH9 are prototypical fluxional molecules with rapid Cope rearrangements at finite temperatures. Detailed bonding analyses performed in this work reveal the existence of two fluxional π-bonds (2 2c-2e π → 2 3c-2e π → 2 2c-2e π) and one fluxional σ-bond (1 2c-2e σ → 1 4c-2e σ → 1 2c-2e σ) in their ground states and transition states, unveiling the universal π + σ double fluxional bonding nature of these fluctuating cage-like species. The highest occupied natural bond orbitals (HONBOs) turn out to be typical fluxional bonds dominating the dynamics of the systems. The 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR shielding tensors and chemical shifts of the model compound C8BH9 are computationally predicted to facilitate future experiments.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222702, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600235

RESUMO

Slope one is a popular recommendation algorithm due to its simplicity and high efficiency for sparse data. However, it often suffers from under-fitting since the global information of all relevant users/items are considered. In this paper, we propose a new scheme called enhanced slope one recommendation through local information embedding. First, we employ clustering algorithms to obtain the user clusters as well as item clusters to represent local information. Second, we predict ratings using the local information of users and items in the same cluster. The local information can detect strong localized associations shared within clusters. Third, we design different fusion approaches based on the local information embedding. In this way, both under-fitting and over-fitting problems are alleviated. Experiment results on the real datasets show that our approaches defeats slope one in terms of both mean absolute error and root mean square error.


Assuntos
Análise por Conglomerados , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Matemática , Algoritmos , Hábitos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Projetos de Pesquisa
14.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2729-2734, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321521

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a zoonotic parasite which is considered to be an opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals. A number of studies have reported E. bieneusi infection in various animals. However, no information is available on the occurrence of E. bieneusi in Tan sheep, a unique indigenous sheep species in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. The objectives of the present study were to examine the prevalence and identify the genotypes of E. bieneusi in Tan sheep in China. A total of 1014 fecal specimens of Tan sheep from six farms in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region were examined by nested PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The total prevalence of E. bieneusi was 12.2% (124/1014), ranging from 0.5 to 22.2% on six farms. Sequence analysis identified 10 genotypes of E. bieneusi, including three known genotypes, BEB6, COS-I, and CHG13, and seven novel genotypes designated as NX1 to NX7, which all belonged to group 2 by phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report describing the prevalence of E. bieneusi in Tan sheep, and the new genotypes identified in the current study expand the genotype distribution of E. bieneusi. These findings provide baseline data and have implications for the epidemiology and control of E. bieneusi infection in Tan sheep.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
15.
Hematology ; 24(1): 507-515, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242832

RESUMO

Background: Approximately, one-third of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are refractory to initial induction chemotherapy and relapse occurs in most patients who achieve remission. This study evaluates the efficacy of decitabine in the management of refractory or relapsed AML. Methods: After literature search in electronic databases (Google Scholar, Embase, Ovid, and PubMed) studies were selected by following pre-determined eligibility criteria. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to achieve effect sizes of complete remission (CR) rate, response rate (RR), and median survival after therapy. Subgroup analyses were performed with regards to use of decitabine with either epigenetics-based therapy, molecular therapy or chemotherapy. Results: Twenty studies were included (310 patients; age 55.1 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 43.8, 66.4]; 57% [52%, 63%] males). Overall RR was 46.1% [95% CI: 36.1%, 56.1%]. Overall CR rate was 23.5% [95% CI: 22.1%, 24.9%] but was 14.85% [95% CI: 3.8%, 25.9%] for decitabine with epigenetics-based therapies, 15.4% [95% CI: 6.7%, 24.0%] for decitabine with immunotherapy or molecular therapy, 34.8% [95% CI: 18.7%, 50.9%] for decitabine with chemotherapy, and 37.5% [36.4%, 38.7%] for decitabine with chemotherapy and molecular therapy. Median survival was 7.2 months [95% CI: 5.17, 9.3]. Major adverse events were neutropenia, nausea/vomiting, infections, fatigue, febrile neutropenia, diarrhea, thrombocytopenia, anemia, anorexia, leukopenia, hemorrhage, and hyperglycemia. Conclusion: Decitabine in combination with chemotherapy or molecular therapy has shown efficacious properties in refractory or relapsed AML patients.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Decitabina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Terapia de Salvação , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Decitabina/administração & dosagem , Decitabina/efeitos adversos , Decitabina/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia Febril/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Imunoterapia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão
16.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 25(9): 1030-1041, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218845

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: L-glutamine is an antioxidant that plays a role in a variety of biochemical processes. Given that oxidative stress is a key component of stroke pathology, the potential of L-glutamine in the treatment of ischemic stroke is worth exploring. AIMS: In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanisms of action of L-glutamine after cerebral ischemic injury. RESULTS: L-glutamine reduced brain infarct volume and promoted neurobehavioral recovery in mice. L-glutamine administration increased the expression of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) in astrocytes and endothelial cells. Such effects were abolished by the coadministration of Apoptozole, an inhibitor of the ATPase activity of HSP70. L-glutamine also reduced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis, and increased the level of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Cotreatment with Apoptozole abolished these effects. Cell culture study further revealed that the conditioned medium from astrocytes cultured with L-glutamine reduced the apoptosis of neurons after oxygen-glucose deprivation. CONCLUSION: L-glutamine attenuated ischemic brain injury and promoted functional recovery via HSP70, suggesting its potential in ischemic stroke therapy.

17.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 25(6): 748-758, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784219

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dl-3-N-butylphthalide (NBP), a small molecule drug used clinically in the acute phase of ischemic stroke, has been shown to improve functional recovery and promote angiogenesis and collateral vessel circulation after experimental cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. AIMS: To explore the potential molecular mechanism of angiogenesis induced by NBP after cerebral ischemia. RESULTS: NBP treatment attenuated body weight loss, reduced brain infarct volume, and improved neurobehavioral outcomes during focal ischemia compared to the control rats (P < 0.05). NBP increased the number of CD31+ microvessels, the number of CD31+ /BrdU+ proliferating endothelial cells, and the functional vascular density (P < 0.05). Further study demonstrated that NBP also promoted the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 (P < 0.05), which was accompanied by upregulated sonic hedgehog expression in astrocytes in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSION: NBP treatment promoted the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1, induced angiogenesis, and improved neurobehavioral recovery. These effects were associated with increased sonic hedgehog expression after NBP treatment. Our results broadened the clinical application of NBP to include the later phase of ischemia.

18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 508(1): 138-144, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473217

RESUMO

Age-related skeletal changes is closely associated with imbalanced bone remodeling characterized by elevated osteocyte apoptosis and osteoclast activation. Since osteocytes are the commander of bone remodeling, attenuating increased osteocyte apoptosis may improve age-related bone loss. Exosomes, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, hold promising potential for cell-free therapy due to multiple abilities, such as promoting proliferation and suppressing apoptosis. We aimed to explore the effect of exosomes derived from adipose mesenchymal stem cell (ADSCs-exo) on osteocyte apoptosis and osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vitro. The osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 was used as a model, and apoptosis was induced by hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD). Our results showed that ADSCs-exo noticeably reduced H/SD-induced apoptosis in MLO-Y4 cells via upregulating the radio of Bcl-2/Bax, diminishing the production of reactive oxygen species and cytochrome c, and subsequent activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Additionally, ADSCs-exo lowered the expression of RANKL both at the mRNA and protein levels, as well as the ratio of RANKL/OPG at the gene level. As determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, reduced osteoclastogenesis was further validated in bone marrow monocytes cultured under conditioned medium from exosome-treated MLO-Y4. Together, ADSCs-exo could antagonize H/SD induced osteocyte apoptosis and osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis, indicating the therapeutic potential of ADSCs-exo in age-related bone disease.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Exossomos/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
19.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 40(2): 199-207, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795134

RESUMO

Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge contains various active constituents, some of which have been developed as commercially available medicine. Moreover, some other ingredients in Salvia miltiorrhiza play roles in anti-platelet activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanism of miltirone, a lipophilic compound of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The ability of miltirone to modulate platelet function was investigated by a variety of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Platelet aggregation and dense granule secretion induced by various agonists were measured with platelet aggregometer. Clot retraction and spreading were imaged by digital camera and fluorescence microscope. Ferric chloride-induced carotid injury model and pulmonary thromboembolism model were used to check miltirone antithrombotic effect in vivo. To elucidate the mechanisms of anti-platelet activity of miltirone, flow cytometry and western blotting were performed. Miltirone (2, 4, 8 µM) was shown to suppress platelet aggregation, dense granule, and α granule secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, miltirone inhibited the clot retraction and spreading of washed platelets. It reduced the phosphorylation of PLCγ2, PKC, Akt, GSK3ß and ERK1/2 in the downstream signal pathway of collagen receptor. It also reduced the phosphorylation of Src and FAK in the integrin αIIbß3-mediated "outside-in" signaling, while it did not suppress the phosphorylation of ß3. In addition, miltirone prolonged the occlusion time and reduced collagen/epinephrine-induced pulmonary thrombi. Miltirone suppresses platelet "inside-out" and "outside-in" signaling by affecting PLCγ2/PKC/ERK1/2, PI3K/Akt, and Src/FAK signaling. Therefore, miltirone might represent a potential anti-platelet candidate for the prevention of thrombotic disorders.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Animais , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Adv Mater ; 31(5): e1806197, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537033

RESUMO

Hybrid supercapacitors generally show high power and long life spans but inferior energy densities, which are mainly caused by carbon negative electrodes with low specific capacitances. To improve the energy densities, the traditional methods include optimizing pore structures and modifying pseudocapacitive groups on the carbon materials. Here, another promising way is suggested, which has no adverse effects to the carbon materials, that is, constructing electron-rich regions on the electrode surfaces for absorbing cations as much as possible. For this aim, a series of hierarchical porous carbon materials are produced by calcinating carbon dots-hydrogel composites, which have controllable surface states including electron-rich regions. The optimal sample is employed as the negative electrode to fabricate hybrid supercapacitors, which show remarkable specific energy densities (up to 62.8-90.1 Wh kg-1 ) in different systems.

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