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1.
Aquat Toxicol ; 221: 105428, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035411

RESUMO

The contamination of coastal regions with different toxicants, including heavy metal ions such as copper and cadmium jeopardize health and survival of organisms exposed to this habitat. To study the effects of high copper and cadmium concentrations in these marine environments, we used the flatworm Macrostomum lignano as a model. This platyhelminth lives in shallow coastal water and is exposed to high concentrations of all toxicants that accumulate in these sea floors. We could show that both, cadmium and copper show toxicity at higher concentrations, with copper being more toxic than cadmium. At concentrations below acute toxicity, a reduced long-term survival was observed for both metal ions. The effects of sublethal doses comprise reduced physical activities, an increase in ROS levels within the worms, and alterations of the mitochondrial biology. Moreover, cell death events were substantially increased in response to sublethal concentrations of both metal ions and stem cell activity was reduced following exposure to higher cadmium concentrations. Finally, the expression of several genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism was substantially altered by this intervention. Taken together, M. lignano has been identified as a suitable model for marine toxicological studies as it allows to quantify several relevant life-history traits as well as of physiological and behavioral read-outs.

2.
Biomacromolecules ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045228

RESUMO

Biological pretreatment is a safe and environmentally friendly method for disrupting recalcitrant lignocellulose structures. Expansin and expansin-like proteins are used to open up the cellulose structure and display significant synergism when mixed with cellulases that catalyze the breakdown of (hemi)cellulose into sugars. However, the adsorption behavior of expansin in the presence of sugar products is yet unknown. In this work, we monitored the effects of various sugars on the real-time adsorption of Bacillus subtilis expansin (BsEXLX1) onto cellulose films using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. Cellobiose and xylose at low concentrations enhanced BsEXLX1 adsorption, whereas they disrupted adsorption at higher concentrations. Arabinose and mannose continuously inhibited expansin adsorption with increasing concentration. No obvious influence of glucose and galactose on BsEXLX1 adsorption was found. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy of cellulose upon BsEXLX1 adsorption in the presence of sugars showed that both hydrophilicity and roughness increased with BsEXLX1 treatment. These results give us the ability to modulate and control expansin adsorption and provide insights into effective expansin use during enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose in biorefineries.

3.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(1): 9, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907363

RESUMO

Blood-brain barrier damage is a critical pathological feature of ischemic stroke. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells are involved in maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity during the development. However, whether oligodendrocyte precursor cell could sustain blood-brain barrier permeability during ischemic brain injury is unknown. Here, we investigate whether oligodendrocyte precursor cell transplantation protects blood-brain barrier integrity and promotes ischemic stroke recovery. Adult male ICR mice (n = 68) underwent 90 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. After ischemic assault, these mice received stereotactic injection of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (6 × 105). Oligodendrocyte precursor cells transplantation alleviated edema and infarct volume, and promoted neurological recovery after ischemic stroke. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells reduced blood-brain barrier leakage via increasing claudin-5, occludin and ß-catenin expression. Administration of ß-catenin inhibitor blocked the beneficial effects of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Wnt7a protein treatment increased ß-catenin and claudin-5 expression in endothelial cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation, which was similar to the results of the conditioned medium treatment of oligodendrocyte precursor cells on endothelial cells. We demonstrated that oligodendrocyte precursor cells transplantation protected blood-brain barrier in the acute phase of ischemic stroke via activating Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Our results indicated that oligodendrocyte precursor cells transplantation was a novel approach to the ischemic stroke therapy.

4.
Neuropeptides ; : 102022, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987472

RESUMO

In recent years, emerging evidence has illustrated the indispensable role of sympathetic neurotransmitters and their receptors in cartilage mediation. The presence of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-positive sympathetic nerve fibres in cartilage and NPY-secretion function in chondrocytes raises the possibility of NPY directly regulating the function of chondrocytes. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate the effect of NPY and its receptors on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. Results showed NPY, especially at a concentration of 10-10 M, to significantly enhance proliferation of ATDC5 cells. Moreover, NPY effectively facilitated early chondrogenesis and late hypertrophy/mineralisation of ATDC5 cells via Y1 receptor signalling, rather than via Y2 receptor signalling. Taken together, the results help us to understand how NPY and its receptors affect the function of chondrocytes.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927742

RESUMO

Mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite (MZ) was used as support for Cu and Ce species, and the effects of structure and physical-chemical properties on selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 (NH3-SCR) were investigated. The characterization and experimental results show that the high activity of the Cu-Ce/MZ catalyst could be due to its high surface area, more and uniformly distributed active sites, and abundant oxidative species. Compared with the conventional ZSM-5 and SBA-15, the Cu-Ce/MZ possesses large amount of mesopores, and more accessible active sites, which are beneficial to accelerate the diffusion and improve the internal mass transfer in the denitration process. The Cu-Ce/MZ catalyst shows higher activity than Cu-Ce/ZSM-5 and Cu-Ce/SBA-15 at 200 °C.

6.
Redox Biol ; 30: 101427, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986466

RESUMO

The pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) are the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the presence of overactivated glial cells and neuroinflammation. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) c-Rel subunit is closely related in the pathological progress of PD, however the roles and mechanisms of c-Rel in PD development remain unclear. Here, in neurotoxins-induced PD models, the dynamic changes of NF-κB c-Rel and its functions were evaluated. We found that c-Rel was rapidly activated in the nigrostriatal pathway, which mainly occurred in dopaminergic neurons and microglia. c-Rel could maintain neuronal survival by initiating the anti-apoptotic gene expression in MPP+-treated SH-SY5Y cells and it could inhibit microglial overactivation by suppressing the inflammatory gene expression in LPS-challenged BV2 cells. c-Rel inhibitor IT901 aggravated the damage of MPTP on dopaminergic neurons and promoted the activation of microglia in the nigrostriatal pathway of mice. Moreover, the expression of c-Rel in blood samples of PD patients decreased dramatically. Our results indicate that the NF-κB/c-Rel subunit plays an important role in neuroprotection and neuroinflammation inhibition during PD progression.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943602

RESUMO

Continuous irradiation during photodynamic therapy (PDT) inevitably induces tumor hypoxia, thereby weakening the PDT effect. In PDT-induced hypoxia, providing singlet oxygen from stored chemical energy may enhance the cell-killing effect and boost the therapeutic effect. Herein, we present a phototheranostic (DPPTPE@PEG-Py NPs) prepared by using a 2-pyridone-based diblock polymer (PEG-Py) to encapsulate a semiconducting, heavy-atom-free pyrrolopyrrolidone-tetraphenylethylene (DPPTPE) with high singlet-oxygen-generation ability both in dichloromethane and water. The PEG-Py can trap the 1 O2 generated from DPPTPE under laser irradiation and form a stable intermediate of endoperoxide, which can then release 1 O2 in the dark, hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, fluorescence-imaging-guided phototherapy demonstrates that this phototheranostic could completely inhibit tumor growth with the help of laser irradiation.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909818

RESUMO

With the extension of ion species in ion-beam radiotherapy, the sole dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) on linear energy transfer (LET) is insufficient when comparing RBE for ion beams with the same LET value. The aim of the present study was to provide a systematic study of the nanodosimetry for ion beams with the same LET value. Based on the calculated LET profiles of ion beams with range about 130 mm, lineal energy spectra and dose-averaged lineal energy [Formula: see text] on 4 nm site for various clinical ion beams were obtained. Then, the lineal energy spectra and [Formula: see text] values were compared for ion beams with the same LET values. The results showed that the relationships between [Formula: see text] and LET for various ion beams present an dependence on ion species. For ion beams with the same LET value, the ion beams with smaller nucleon number yielded greater [Formula: see text] values. The probability of the small-nucleon-number ion beams to generate large energy deposition events on nanoscale was higher than that of the large-nucleon-number ion beams. The dependence of the relationship between RBE and LET on ion species might be attributed to the fluctuation of energy depositions on nanometer scale.

9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(1): 321-326, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788771

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an opportunistic enteric pathogen which can infect a wide range of animal species and humans. It is the most diagnosed species of Microsporidia in humans and has an impact on public health. Many infected animals including foxes may be a potential source for transmitting E. bieneusi to humans. However, limited information is available on the E. bieneusi prevalence and genotypes in farmed foxes in China. Therefore, in the present study, 344 fresh fecal samples were collected from farmed foxes (Vulpes vulpes and Vulpes lagopus) in Shandong Province, and the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi were examined based on sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The overall E. bieneusi prevalence was 9% (31/344); of them, 6.5% (9/138) in farmed silver foxes (V. vulpes) and 10.7% (22/206) in farmed arctic foxes (V. lagopus). Moreover, four known (Hum-q1, NCF2, HND-1, and Type IV) and two novel E. bieneusi genotypes (SDF1 and SDF2) were identified in farmed foxes in the present study. All of the E. bieneusi genotypes belonged to the zoonotic group based on phylogenetic analysis. In addition, 2, 4, 0, and 11 samples were successfully amplified at MS1, MS3, MS4, and MS7 loci, respectively. The present study reveals E. bieneusi prevalence and genotype distribution in farmed foxes in Shandong Province and enlarged the host and geographic information of E. bieneusi in China.

10.
Anticancer Drugs ; 31(1): 44-54, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503013

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors therapy, such as gefitinib, have proven to be effective for lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor-sensitive mutations. However, drug resistance remains inevitable and the underlying mechanisms are still elusive and poorly understood. In order to explore the mechanisms underlying tyrosine kinase inhibitors resistance, we used long non-coding RNA microarray analysis and found that long non-coding RNA H19 was highly expressed in gefitinib-resistant cell lines. In addition, knockdown of long non-coding RNA H19 was found to be able to decrease cell proliferation, half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of gefitinib, migration and invasion. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that long non-coding RNA H19 positively regulated dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 expression via sponging miR-148b-3p. Furthermore, overexpression or inactivation of miR-148b-3p could enhance or reverse the inhibitory effect of long non-coding RNA H19 inhibition in lung adenocarcinoma cells, respectively. High expression of either long non-coding RNA H19 or dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 was associated with poorer overall survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma, while high expression of miR-148b was associated with better overall survival. Overall, our data revealed that long non-coding RNA H19 confers resistance to gefitinib via miR-148b/dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 axis in lung adenocarcinoma, which offers a new insight into the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors therapy resistance.

11.
Brain Res ; 1726: 146537, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672473

RESUMO

Higher visual centers could modulate visually-guided ocular growth, in addition to local mechanisms intrinsic to the eye. There is evidence that such central modulations could be species (even subspecies)-dependent. While the mouse has recently become an important experimental animal in myopia studies, it remains unclear whether and how visual centers modulate refractive development in mice, an issue that was examined in the present study. We found that optic nerve crush (ONC), performed at P18, could modify normal refractive development in the C57BL/6 mouse raised in normal visual environment. Unexpectedly, sham surgery caused a steeper cornea, leading to a modest myopic refractive shift, but did not induce significant changes in ocular axis length. ONC caused corneal flattening and re-calibrated the refractive set-point in a bidirectional manner, causing significant myopic (<-3 D, 54.5%) or hyperopic (>+3 D, 18.2%) shifts in refractive error in most (totally 72.7%) animals, both due to changes in ocular axial length. ONC did not change the density of dopaminergic amacrine cells, but increased retinal levels of dopamine and DOPAC. We conclude that higher visual centers are likely to play a role in fine-tuning of ocular growth, thus modifying refractive development in the C57BL/6 mouse. The changes in refractive error induced by ONC are accounted for by alternations in multiple ocular dimensions, including corneal curvature and axial length.

13.
J Cell Biochem ; 121(1): 93-102, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081181

RESUMO

Porphyromonas gingivalis, as a major pathogen of periodontitis, could rapidly adhere to and invade host gingival epithelial cells (GECs) for the induction of infection. One ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene was found to be upregulated during this infection process, however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we systemically investigated the messenger RNA level changes of all ABC transporter family genes in P. gingivalis while being internalized within GECs by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We identified that two ABC transporter genes, PG_RS04465 (PG1010) and PG_RS07320 (PG1665), were significantly increased in P. gingivalis after coculturing with GECs. Mutant strains with knockout (KO) of these two genes were generated by homogenous recombination. PG_RS04465 and PG_RS07320 KO mutants showed no change in the growth of bacteria per se. Knockdown of PG_RS07320, but not PG_RS04465, caused decreased endotoxin level in the bacteria. In contrast, both mutant strains showed decreased Arg- and Lys-gingipains activities, with significantly reduced adhesion and invasion capabilities. Secreted interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and IL-6 levels in GECs cocultured with PG_RS04465 or PG_RS07320 KO mutants were also decreased, whereas, only the cells cocultured with PG_RS07320 KO mutants showed significant decrease. In addition, virulence study using mouse revealed that both KO mutant strains infection caused less mouse death than wild-type strains, showing reduced virulence of two KO strains. These results indicated that ABC transporter genes PG_RS04465 and PG_RS07320 are positive regulators of the virulence of P. gingivalis.

14.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 481, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are beneficial to lung adenocarcinoma patients with sensitive EGFR mutations, resistance to these inhibitors induces a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype. Here, we clarify the function and molecular mechanism of shisa3 as a suppressor that can reverse EGFR-TKI resistance and inhibit CSC properties. METHODS: The suppresser genes involved in EGFR-TKI resistance were identified and validated by transcriptome sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Biological function analyses, cell half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), self-renewal, and migration and invasion capacities, were detected by CCK8, sphere formation and Transwell assays. Tumorigenesis and therapeutic effects were investigated in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (nod-scid) mice. The underlying mechanisms were explored by Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses. RESULTS: We found that low expression of shisa3 was related to EGFR-TKI resistance in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Ectopic overexpression of shisa3 inhibited CSC properties and the cell cycle in the lung adenocarcinoma cells resistant to gefitinib/osimertinib. In contrast, suppression of shisa3 promoted CSC phenotypes and the cell cycle in the cells sensitive to EGFR-TKIs. For TKI-resistant PC9/ER tumors in nod-scid mice, overexpressed shisa3 had a significant inhibitory effect. In addition, we verified that shisa3 inhibited EGFR-TKI resistance by interacting with FGFR1/3 to regulate AKT/mTOR signaling. Furthermore, combinational administration of inhibitors of FGFR/AKT/mTOR and cell cycle signaling could overcome EGFR-TKI resistance associated with shisa3-mediated CSC capacities in vivo. CONCLUSION: Taken together, shisa3 was identified as a brake to EGFR-TKI resistance and CSC characteristics, probably through the FGFR/AKT/mTOR and cell cycle pathways, indicating that shisa3 and concomitant inhibition of its regulated signaling may be a promising therapeutic strategy for reversing EGFR-TKI resistance.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 58(24): 16667-16675, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802669

RESUMO

Photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a promising technology approach to highly efficiently and environmentally tackle the problem of Cr(VI) pollution, in which the key challenge is in the development of effective photocatalysts. In this work, highly reduced hourglass-type molybdophosphate hybrids with the formulas [Zn(mbpy)(H2O)2]2[Zn(mbpy)(H2O)]2{Zn[P4Mo6O31H7]2}·9H2O (1), [Na(H2O)2]2[Zn(mbpy)(H2O)]2[Zn(mbpy)(H2O)2]2{Zn[P4Mo6O31H6]2}·15H2O (2), and (H2mbpy){[Zn(mbpy)(H2O)]2[Zn(H2O)]2}{Zn[P4Mo6O31H6]2}·10H2O (3) (mbpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and used as photocatalysts for the reduction of Cr(VI) under mild conditions. Structural analysis showed that the inorganic moieties in crystals 1-3 are composed of a unique 0D single cluster form, a 1D chainlike structure, and a 2D-layered structure, respectively, in which polyanions were constructed by hourglass-type molybdophosphates with one Zn(II) ion as the central metal. These hybrids displayed good performance for the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by virtue of their wide visible-light adsorption, suitable energy band structures, and specific spatial arrangements of polyanionic species. Among them, hybrid 2 exhibits the best photocatalytic performance with a Cr(VI) reduction conversion rate of almost 94.7% within 180 min of reaction time. The photocatalysis mechanism investigation revealed that highly reduced hourglass-type molybdophosphate clusters can be illuminated by visible light. The photoinduced electrons induced by hourglass-type polyanions can directly reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), while the photogenerated holes are used to oxidize the sacrificial agent isopropyl alcohol to acetone. This work provides new guidance for the design and preparation of highly efficient photocatalysts for the reduction of Cr(VI).

17.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 350, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are a subset of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); it has been regarded as one of the most promising stem cells. We previously found that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of hASC. However, the mechanisms involved in the growth of hASCs by FGF-2 have not been investigated. METHODS: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were cultured with FGF-2, and cell growth was assessed. Effects of FGF Receptor (FGFR) inhibitor (NVP-BGJ398), ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059), PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) and Src inhibitor (PP1) on the proliferation were investigated. At the same time, we assessed the effect of FGFR inhibitor on several signaling enzymes such as ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and Akt, in protein level. The involvement of Src activation by FGF-2 was also examined. RESULTS: FGF-2 markedly promoted proliferation of hASCs at concentrations lower than 10 ng/ml and stimulated cell progression to the S and G2/M phases. Proliferation was blocked by the FGFR inhibitor (NVP-BGJ398) and various signaling pathway inhibitors, such as Erk1/2 inhibitor (PD98059), PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and p38MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). The FGFR inhibitor reduced the activation of protein kinases, such as AKT, Erk1/2, JNK, and p38, in several signaling pathways. The downstream kinase of FGFR, Src, was activated by FGF-2, and its activation was canceled by the FGFR inhibitor. MEK1/2, a downstream kinase of Src, was parallelly regulated by FGF-2. The Src inhibitor (PP1) markedly blocked the proliferation of hASCs via inhibition of Src and MEK1/2. CONCLUSION: Src activation is indispensable for FGF-2-mediated proliferation of ASCs, as well as the subsequent activation of multi-signaling pathways.

18.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 32(12): 550-552, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764145

RESUMO

Hydroxyurea is an oral medication associated with painful, nonhealing ulcers, for which there is no effective treatment but permanent discontinuation of hydroxyurea. The authors present a case of leg ulcers that likely occurred as a result of hydroxyurea use in a patient with essential thrombocythemia. Topical treatment with allogeneic platelet-rich plasma and artificial dermis completely healed the leg ulcers without hydroxyurea cessation.

19.
Med Phys ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705768

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although carbon-ion therapy is becoming increasingly attractive to the treatment of tumors, details about the ionization pattern formed by therapeutic carbon-ion beam in tissue have not been fully investigated. In this work, systematic calculations for the nanodosimetric quantities and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of a clinically relevant carbon-ion beam were studied for the first time. METHODS: The method combining both track structure and condensed history Monte Carlo (MC) simulations was adopted to calculate the nanodosimetric quantities. Fragments and energy spectra at different positions of the radiation field of a clinically relevant carbon-ion pencil beam were generated by means of MC simulations in water. Nanodosimetric quantities such as mean ionization cluster size ( M 1 ), the first moment of conditional cluster size ( M 1 C 2 ), cumulative probability ( F 2 ), and conditional cumulative probability ( F 3 C 2 ) at these positions were then acquired based on the spectra and the pre-calculated nanodosimetric database created by track structure MC simulations. What's more, a novel approach to calculate RBE based on the said nanodosimetric quantities was introduced. The RBE calculations were then conducted for the carbon-ion beam at different water-equivalent depths. RESULTS: Lateral distributions at various water-equivalent depths of both the nanodosimetric quantities and RBE values were obtained. The values of M 1 , M 1 C 2 , F 2 , and F 3 C 2 were 1.49, 2.67, 0.30, and 0.38 at the plateau at the beam central axis and maximized at 2.79, 5.69, 0.47, and 0.68 at the depths around the Bragg peak, respectively. At a given depth, M 1 and F 2 decreased laterally with increasing the distance to the beam central axis while M 1 C 2 and F 3 C 2 remained nearly unchanged at first and then decreased except for M 1 C 2 at the rising edge of the Bragg peak. The calculated RBE values were 1.07 at the plateau and 3.13 around the Bragg peak. Good agreement between the calculated RBE values and experimental data was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Different nanodosimetric quantities feature the track structure of therapeutic carbon-ion beam in different manners. Detailed ionization patterns generated by carbon-ion beam could be characterized by nanodosimetric quantities. Moreover the combined method adopted in this work to calculate nanodosimetric quantities is not only valid but also convenient. Nanodosimetric quantities are significantly helpful for the RBE calculations in carbon-ion therapy.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17074, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745136

RESUMO

Bullvalene C10H10 and its analogs semibullvalene C8H8, barbaralane C9H10, and 9-Borabarbaralane C8BH9 are prototypical fluxional molecules with rapid Cope rearrangements at finite temperatures. Detailed bonding analyses performed in this work reveal the existence of two fluxional π-bonds (2 2c-2e π → 2 3c-2e π → 2 2c-2e π) and one fluxional σ-bond (1 2c-2e σ → 1 4c-2e σ → 1 2c-2e σ) in their ground states and transition states, unveiling the universal π + σ double fluxional bonding nature of these fluctuating cage-like species. The highest occupied natural bond orbitals (HONBOs) turn out to be typical fluxional bonds dominating the dynamics of the systems. The 13C-NMR and 1H-NMR shielding tensors and chemical shifts of the model compound C8BH9 are computationally predicted to facilitate future experiments.

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