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1.
Steroids ; 153: 108471, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400390

RESUMO

A series of novel 5α, 8α-endoperoxide steroidal hybrid derivatives containing isatin or indole substituents on the C-17 side chain were synthesized and characterized. The preliminary anti-proliferative activity of the compounds against HepG2, MCF-7, HT-29 and HeLa cell lines were investigated. Compounds 7g and 7l displayed significant anti-proliferative activity in vitro against HepG2 and Hela cells, with IC50 values lower than 8 µM. Furthermore, the biological functions of 7g were examined by flow cytometry and colony analysis. The results showed that 7g could induce HepG2 cell apoptosis, inhibited cell cycle progression, and colony growth. The studies indicated that structural modification at C-17 position could be a promising launch point for design steroidal anticancer agents.

2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2705-2714, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854662

RESUMO

A comprehensive and scientific understanding of non-point source pollutant transport pathways and source apportionment in combined sewer systems is essential for managing and improving the urban water environment. This study analyzed build-up and wash-off processes of pollutants on road surfaces and in sewers within a catchment of combined sewer systems in a typical old district in Zhuhai. Besides, source apportionment of the entire urban non-point source pollution was investigated by using the mass conservation method. The outcomes revealed that the build-up load of road deposited sediments in the study area was (28.81±10.69) g·m-2. The average wash-off load of road deposited sediments during five different rainfall events was (19.27±10.90) g·m-2 and the wash-off percentage was (52.69±13.3)%. The event mean concentrations of suspended solids (SS) in road runoff were 52-109 mg·L-1, and the event mean concentrations of SS in sewer runoff were 68-158 mg·L-1. Source apportionment analysis showed that road runoff, domestic wastewater, and sewer sediments contributed 39%-72%, <20%, and 13%-56% to SS, respectively. The thickness of sewer sediments increased by 1-14 cm during light and moderate rains, and the thickness decreased by 7-17 cm during heavy rains. It was found that rainfall characteristics affected the contribution percentages of pollution sources. The contribution of pollution from road runoff, domestic sewage, and sewer sediments in combined sewer systems were 2%-52%, 9%-65%, and 8%-81%, respectively. The derived outcomes should be useful for developing recommendations to control non-point source pollution in combined sewer systems and improve urban receiving water quality in China.

3.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717584

RESUMO

Astragalus mongholicus (MG) and Astragalus membranaceus (MJ), both generally known as Huangqi in China, are two perennial herbals widely used in variety diseases. However, there were still some differences in the chemical ingredients between MG and MJ. In this paper, metabolomics combined with the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was employed to contrastively analyze the chemical constituents between MG and MJ. As a result, principal component analysis showed that MG and MJ were separated clearly. A total of 53 chemical markers were successfully identified for the discrimination of MG and MJ. Of them, the contents of 36 components including Astragaloside I~III, Astragaloside IV, Agroastragaloside I, etc. in MJ were significantly higher than those in MG. On the contrary, the contents of 17 other components including coumaric acid, formononetin, sophoricoside, etc. in MG were obviously higher than those in MJ. The results showed that the distinctive constituents in MG and MJ were remarkable, and MJ may own stronger pharmacological activities than MG. In a word, MG and MJ may be treated as two different herbs. This paper demonstrated that metabolomics was a vitally credible technology to rapidly screen the characteristic chemical composition of traditional Chinese medicine.

4.
Pharmacol Res ; 152: 104499, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689521

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive systematic meta-analysis investigating the association of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and their subtypes with skin cancer (SC) and its subclasses (basal cell carcinoma BCC; squamous cell carcinoma SCC; melanoma; nonmelanoma skin cancer NMSC) in general, American and European populations. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched up to 24 February 2019. Pooled effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate associations. RESULTS: Results based on 26 original studies including 223,619 cases and 1,398,507 controls showed both NSAIDs and nonselective Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors to be statistically significantly associated with a reduced risk of SC, BCC, SCC and NMSC but not with melanoma. Conversely, no association was observed between selective Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors and SC or its subclasses. Further subgroup analysis showed that the results analyzed for American populations were almost the same as those for the general population. For European populations, neither NSAIDs nor its subtypes correlated significantly with susceptibility to SC or its subclasses. CONCLUSIONS: The use of NSAIDs might reduce the risk of SC, but many factors including study population, drug subtype, and disease subclass affect the significance of the association.

5.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621425

RESUMO

Jolkinolide A, jolkinolide B, 17-hydroxyjolkinolide A and 17-hydroxyjolkinolide B are abundant constitutes in Euphorbia Fischeriana Steud and exhibit profound bioactivities. In this study, they were selected as quality control to optimize the extraction of E. fischeriana. Response surface methodology employing Box-Behnken design was applied to test the optimal conditions for the extraction. The optimized conditions for the simultaneous extraction of four diterpenoids from E. fischeriana were: ethanol concentration 100%, extraction temperature 74 °C and extraction time 2.0 h. The extraction contents for jolkinolide A, jolkinolide B, 17-hydroxyjolkinolide A and 17-hydroxyjolkinolide B were 0.1763, 0.9643, 0.4245 and 2.8189 mg/g. The extract obtained under the optimal conditions was injected into UPLC-Q-TOF-MS system. Fifty-one peaks were identified. Two peaks were tentatively identified as new compounds. The compounds were diterpenoids, fatty oil, phenolics and others.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113217, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541818

RESUMO

Urban stormwater reuse is becoming increasingly prevalent to overcome the serious urban water scarcity being experienced around the world. Therefore, the adoption of reliable approaches to minimise the human health risk posed by pollutants commonly present in urban stormwater such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is critical for safe stormwater reuse. This study collected a total of 40 pollutant build-up samples and analysed the concentrations of nine heavy metals and 15 PAH species. Based on pollutant build-up data, pollutant concentrations in stormwater were estimated through modelling. Risk assessment was conducted using an existing model developed by previous studies. The study outcomes confirmed that simply evaluating the individual pollutant concentrations based on guideline threshold values cannot comprehensively estimate the overall human health risk posed by these pollutants. Accordingly, it is recommended that the assessment of the overall human health risk should be based on the pollutant mix present as provided by the models discussed in this paper. The study also demonstrated the practical application of a robust risk assessment model to derive the hierarchy of hazard control to provide a reliable underpinning to urban stormwater risk management. The outcomes suggest that decentralised hazard control methods such as the provision of custom designed Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) measures can be implemented in priority areas with high risk from stormwater pollution based on the risk assessment undertaken. Distributed hazard control methods can be applied to reduce the generation of primary toxic pollutants, especially chromium (Cr) and heavy PAHs, through elimination and substitution measures. The percentage reduction in traffic volume required to mitigate the human health risk can be quantified through the risk models presented. The study outcomes will contribute to the development of efficient, targeted and reliable stormwater management strategies and to identify viable opportunities for stormwater reuse.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Chuva , Medição de Risco , Gestão da Segurança , Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514398

RESUMO

Inspired by the significant bioactivity of ergosterol peroxide, we designed and synthesized four fluorescent coumarin and ergosterol peroxide conjugates 8a-d through the combination of ergosterol peroxide with 7-N,N-diethylamino coumarins fluorophore. The cytotoxicity of synthesized conjugates against three human cancer cells (HepG2, SK-Hep1, and MCF-7) was evaluated. The results of fluorescent imaging showed that the synthesized conjugates 8a-d localized and enriched mainly in mitochondria, leading to significantly enhanced cytotoxicity over ergosterol peroxide. Furthermore, the results of biological functions of 8d showed that it could suppress cell colony formation, invasion, and migration; induce G2/M phase arrest of HepG2 cells, and increase the intracellular ROS level.

8.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(9): 1760-1769, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) by emergency medicine physicians is as accurate as radiology-performed ultrasound (RADUS). We aim to summarize the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for intussusception and to compare the performance between POCUS and RADUS. METHODS: Databases were searched from inception through February 2018 using pre-defined index terms. Peer-reviewed primary studies that investigated the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for intussusception in children were included. The study is reported using Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies (PRISMA-DTA). Meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for intussusception was conducted using the random-effects bivariate model. Subgroup analysis (POCUS vs RADUS) was also performed. Meta-regression was utilized to determine if the diagnostic accuracy between POCUS and RADUS was significantly different. RESULTS: Thirty studies (n = 5249) were included in the meta-analysis. Ultrasonography for intussusception has a sensitivity: 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-0.98), specificity: 0.98 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99), positive likelihood ratio: 43.8 (95% CI: 18.0-106.7) and negative likelihood ratio: 0.03 (95% CI: 0.02-0.04), with an area under ROC (AUROC) curve of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-1.00). Meta-regression suggested no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy for intussusception between POCUS and RADUS (AUROC: 0.95 vs 1.00, p = 0.128). CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggested POCUS has a high diagnostic accuracy for intussusception not significantly different from that of RADUS.

9.
Molecules ; 24(3)2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720731

RESUMO

Stainless steel wire mesh supported molecularly imprinted composite membranes for selective separation of Ebracteolata Compound B (ECB) were prepared based on surface polymerization using ECB separated from Euphorbia fischeriana as a template, acrylamide as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, azodiisobutyronitrile as an initiator, and stainless steel wire mesh as support. Structure and purity of ECB were characterized by nuclear magenetic resonance (¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The molecularly imprinted composite membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The membrane adsorbed on the ECB reached equilibrium about 30 min later, with a maximum adsorption amount of 3.39 µmol/cm². Adsorption behavior between ECB and the molecularly imprinted composite membranes followed pseudo-second-order kinetics equation and Freundlich isotherm model. The molecularly imprinted composite membranes that could selectively identify and transport ECB in similar structures have a permeation rate of 38.71% to ECB. The ECB content in the permeation solution derived from the extract of Euphorbia fischeriana through the imprinted membrane was 87%. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that an efficient approach with the molecularly imprinted composite membranes for selective separation of ECB from Euphorbia fischeriana.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/química , Acetofenonas/isolamento & purificação , Euphorbia/química , Membranas Artificiais , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Aço Inoxidável , Adsorção , Permeabilidade , Polimerização , Polímeros/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Aço Inoxidável/química , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16016, 2018 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375454

RESUMO

Current liver fibrosis scoring by computer-assisted image analytics is not fully automated as it requires manual preprocessing (segmentation and feature extraction) typically based on domain knowledge in liver pathology. Deep learning-based algorithms can potentially classify these images without the need for preprocessing through learning from a large dataset of images. We investigated the performance of classification models built using a deep learning-based algorithm pre-trained using multiple sources of images to score liver fibrosis and compared them against conventional non-deep learning-based algorithms - artificial neural networks (ANN), multinomial logistic regression (MLR), support vector machines (SVM) and random forests (RF). Automated feature classification and fibrosis scoring were achieved by using a transfer learning-based deep learning network, AlexNet-Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), with balanced area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) values of up to 0.85-0.95 versus ANN (AUROC of up to 0.87-1.00), MLR (AUROC of up to 0.73-1.00), SVM (AUROC of up to 0.69-0.99) and RF (AUROC of up to 0.94-0.99). Results indicate that a deep learning-based algorithm with transfer learning enables the construction of a fully automated and accurate prediction model for scoring liver fibrosis stages that is comparable to other conventional non-deep learning-based algorithms that are not fully automated.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Aprendizado Profundo , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microscopia , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Environ Pollut ; 243(Pt B): 1226-1234, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267919

RESUMO

An in-depth understanding of the impacts of surface roughness on road-deposited sediment (RDS) build-up and wash-off is essential for the estimation of surface runoff loads and design of RDS control measures. In this study, RDS build-up and wash-off dynamic processes were investigated on paired asphalt and concrete road surfaces with 35 days of continuous sampling during different natural rainfall events. Our results showed that RDS build-up loads and grain size composition were affected by surface roughness, while the impact of surface roughness on the length of the dynamic equilibrium period was not notable. Selective wash-off of RDS with different effects according to grain size are more likely to occur on asphalt road surfaces during rainfall-runoff, but the RDS wash-off percentage is not affected by surface roughness during snowmelt-runoff. Both total apparent depression depth and micro-depression structures influence RDS build-up and wash-off dynamics. These results imply that surface roughness has combined effects on RDS build-up and wash-off dynamics during the generation and control of urban diffuse pollution.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Movimentos da Água , Cidades , Chuva , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 14: 1507-1513, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197520

RESUMO

Background: The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on nasal symptoms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) remains controversial. In addition, possible mechanism(s) remains unclear. Objective: To examine whether CPAP contributes to the onset and exacerbation of allergic rhinitis (AR) in OSAHS patients based on patient-reported changes in nasal symptoms with and without CPAP therapy and the detection of house dust mites (HDMs) in CPAP filters and household environments. Materials and methods: In a cohort of OSAHS patients, 350 patients who were undergoing CPAP therapy and 100 patients who declined CPAP therapy were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were contacted by telephone and asked to compare their nasal symptoms before and after CPAP therapy. HDMs in air conditioner and CPAP device filters and in household dust samples were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: The prevalence of AR was higher in the CPAP group vs the non-CPAP group (15.8% vs 7.0%, respectively; P = 0.025). The onset of AR among the OSAHS patients with no previous history of AR significantly increased within the first year of CPAP therapy compared with the control group (5.7% vs 0%, respectively; P = 0.031). Meanwhile, the patients with a history of AR were more likely to experience exacerbated rhinitis symptoms within the second year of treatment compared with the control group (7.5% vs 0%, respectively; P = 0.005). There was no significant difference in HDM concentrations between the CPAP and air conditioner filters, yet the concentrations in both the filters were higher than the concentrations in the bedroom dust samples (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: CPAP is associated with the onset and exacerbation of AR in OSAHS patients. Long-term exposure to high concentrations of HDM allergens may be a significant factor.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 164: 696-703, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172206

RESUMO

Pollution has become a serious issue in the urban water environment as stormwater runoff transports a range of pollutants to receiving water bodies, undermining water quality and posing human and ecosystem health risks. Commonly, the primary focus of stormwater quality research is on the role of pollutants directly accumulating at the ground phase. However, atmospheric phase can also exert a significant impact on stormwater quality through atmospheric deposition. Unfortunately, only limited research has focused on the linkage between atmospheric and ground phases in relation to urban stormwater quality. The study discussed in this paper characterised the four primary transport pathways, atmospheric build-up (AB), atmospheric deposition (AD) and road surface build-up (BU) and wash-off (WO) in relation to heavy metals, which is a key urban stormwater pollutant. The research outcomes confirmed the direct linkage between atmospheric phase and ground phase and in turn the significance of atmospheric heavy metals as a contributing source to stormwater runoff pollution. Zn was the most dominant heavy metal in all four pathways. For the AB pathway, atmospheric heavy metal pollution on weekdays is more serious than weekends. For the AD pathway, dry atmospheric deposition of heavy metals is positively correlated to dry days, whilst wet (bulk) deposition is related to rainfall depth. For the BU pathway, heavy-duty vehicle traffic volume was found to be the most important source. For the WO pathway, industrial and commercial areas tend to produce higher heavy metal concentrations in stormwater runoff than residential areas. The study results will contribute to the creation of effective urban stormwater pollution mitigation strategies and thereby enhancing the quality of the urban water environment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Fenômenos Químicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , Análise de Componente Principal , Chuva/química , Qualidade da Água
14.
Chemosphere ; 211: 557-565, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092536

RESUMO

Understanding pollutant transport process and source apportionment is critical to urban stormwater pollution mitigation. Previous studies have investigated transport and sources of road deposited sediments (RDS) and sewer sediments individually, and most of these studies focused on stormwater pollution in combined sewer systems. However, studies about pollutant transport and source apportionment of the entire urban non-point source pollution process in separate sewer systems are lacking. This study analyzed particle size distribution and chemical pollutants in five media during the entire pollutant process including RDS, roof runoff, road runoff, sewer sediments, and sewer runoff. The outcomes found that mass percentage of fine particles became greater during pollutant transport in stormwater runoff. According to transport characteristics, particles were grouped into three types: particles <20 µm, 20-105 µm, and >105 µm. Particles <20 µm had the highest mobility capacity and particles >105 µm had the lowest mobility capacity, while mobility capacity of particles 20-105 µm was uncertain. Pollutant concentrations in road runoff were significantly influenced by rainfall intensity and pollutant concentrations in sewer runoff could become lower during rainy seasons ignoring rainfall intensity. RDS was the main contributor of heavy metals while organic matter and nutrients were primarily contributed by sewer sediments. Roof runoff, road runoff and sewer sediments contributed 5.35%, 69.24% and 25.41% particles to urban receiving water, respectively. Based on the outcomes, several suggestions were given for stormwater management.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Difusa/análise , Esgotos/química
15.
Cent Eur J Immunol ; 43(1): 1-8, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731687

RESUMO

Aim of the study: To investigate the effects of mast cells on the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of prostate cancer cells. Material and methods: The mast cell P815 and prostate cancer LNCaP cells were chosen using a Transwell chamber to construct a two-cell cocultured in vitro model to observe the migration of mast cells to prostate cancer cells. Results: In the migration experiment, the migration rate of mast cells from the experimental group (%) was 10.167 ±0.833, the mast cell migration rate (%) of the control group was 0.833 ±0.208, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The MTT test showed that the OD value of cells in each group over time increased gradually, and 24 h after LNCaP cells were cocultured with different concentrations of mast cells, the OD value was significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). QRT-PCR and western blot results showed that, compared with the control group, E-cad expression from the experimental group was significantly weakened; N-cad and vimentin expression increased (p < 0.05), and c-kit and SCF expression from experimental group were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). After the addition of c-kit neutralising antibodies, compared with the control group, the mast cell migration rate of experimental group decreased significantly and prostate cancer cell proliferation significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Mast cells could promote the proliferation of prostate cancer cells and the occurrence of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which could promote the invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer cells.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 238: 866-873, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631231

RESUMO

Metals deposited on urban road surfaces and incorporated in stormwater runoff are discharged into receiving waters, influencing their quality and can pose human health risks. Effective design of stormwater treatment measures is closely dependent on the in-depth understanding of stormwater pollutant sources and the associated health risks. The study discussed in this paper has linked the sources of metals in stormwater runoff and the accompanying human health risk to rainfall characteristics. The study outcomes confirmed that the metal contributions to stormwater runoff from the primary sources were in the order of sea salt > soil > traffic. Although traffic contributes a relatively lower percentage to wash-off, the human health risks posed by traffic sourced metals were relatively much higher. This implies that traffic sources should receive particular attention in treating stormwater. These outcomes have the potential to contribute to enhancing effective source control measures in order to safeguard natural waterways from polluted road wash-off.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais/análise , Chuva/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo , Movimentos da Água
17.
Int J Mol Med ; 42(1): 248-258, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568908

RESUMO

Otitis media is one of the most common bacterial infections in children, contributing to hearing loss. A vital bacterial pathogen leading to otitis media development is the nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Inflammation response is reported as an important characristic for otitis media. Chemokine CXC receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a 352-amino acid seven-span transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor, essential for inflammatory response. However, the possible molecular mechanism indicating the alteration of CXCR4 modulated by NTHi is poorly known. In the present study, NTHi enhanced CXCR4 expression through phosphorylation of IKKα and p38, which relied on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) translocation in vitro as well as in the middle ear of mice in vivo. Previously, quercetin, a natural production mainly isolated from rutin, has shown anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we report that quercetin suppressed NTHi-induced CXCR4 expression levels in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin blocked CXCR4 activation through direct IKKß phosphorylation inhibition, as well as of p38 MAPK restraining. Hence, identification of quercetin may be a potential therapeutic strategy for treating otitis media induced by NTHi through inflammation suppression.


Assuntos
Haemophilus influenzae/fisiologia , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Otite Média/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Média/enzimologia , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Orelha Média/patologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Haemophilus influenzae/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Otite Média/microbiologia , Otite Média/patologia , Fosforilação , Quercetina/farmacologia , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 613-614: 1130-1139, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954374

RESUMO

Intense Low-Impact Development (LID) construction in China could lead to increasingly severe stormwater and receiving water pollution due to the lack of appropriate regulation for mitigating pollution from LID construction. Samples of road-deposited sediments (RDS) were collected from 50 study sites at seven LID construction stages and four road hierarchies to analyze the pollution process and determine the size of the region influenced by LID construction. Six heavy metals were analyzed, and the RDS index model was adopted to estimate the potential heavy metal load washed off by stormwater runoff. Analysis of variance revealed that the excavation and gravel filling of rain gardens and excavation of porous pavements were critical LID construction stages that contributed the largest masses of RDS per unit area to road surfaces. Although the concentration of heavy metals at LID construction sites was lower than at sites without LID construction, the load of heavy metals washed off from LID construction was much higher. In addition, the sizes of regions influenced by accumulated RDS from LID construction descended in the following order: arterial road (600-775m)>collector road (150-200m)>access road (100-150m)>laneway (20-30m). According to the characteristics of LID construction at the study sites, the potential total solid loads in stormwater throughout China were estimated to reach 36,694t by 2020 and 146,777t by 2030. According to the results of analysis, several recommendations are provided for designing LID construction regulations to mitigate stormwater pollution.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 144: 593-600, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688995

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most toxic chemical pollutants present in urban stormwater. Consequently, urban stormwater reuse is constrained due to the human health risk posed by these pollutants. This study developed a scientifically robust approach to assess the risk to human health posed by HMs and PAHs in urban stormwater in order to enhance its reuse. Accordingly, an innovative methodology was created consisting of four stages: quantification of traffic and land use parameters; estimation of pollutant concentrations for model development; risk assessment, and risk map presentation. This methodology will contribute to catchment scale assessment of the risk associated with urban stormwater and for risk mitigation. The risk map developed provides a simple and efficient approach to identify the critical areas within a large catchment. The study also found that heavy molecular weight PAHs (PAHs with 5-6 benzene rings) in urban stormwater pose higher risk to human health compared to light molecular PAHs (PAHs with 2-4 benzene rings). These outcomes will facilitate the development of practical approaches for applying appropriate mitigation measures for the safe management of urban stormwater pollution and for the identification of enhanced reuse opportunities.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Austrália , Humanos , Chuva , Medição de Risco , Urbanização
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 139: 416-422, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28208113

RESUMO

An in-depth understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) build-up on urban roads is essential for effective stormwater treatment design. Past research studies have pointed out the relationship between influential factors and PAHs build-up individually. However, these studies do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationships and the hierarchy of factors in terms of their importance in influencing PAHs build-up. This paper presents the outcomes of an in-depth investigation into the range of influential factors, including traffic volume, land use, distance to highway and roughness of road surfaces by ranking them in terms of their influence on PAHs build-up. A number of data analysis techniques including forward stepwise linear regression (FSWLR), principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were employed for the analyses undertaken. The outcomes confirmed that traffic volume is ranked first while land use and roughness of road surfaces are second and the third, respectively. Distance to highway did not show a significant influence on PAHs build-up. Additionally, it was noted that a high traffic volume tended to produce high loads of PAHs with more than 4 rings and the spatial variability of PAHs build-up were relatively higher in high traffic volume areas. These outcomes contributed to the formulation of a robust stormwater treatment strategy and generation of priority area maps focusing on the removal of PAHs.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Transportes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Drenagem Sanitária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Lineares , Análise de Componente Principal , Chuva
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