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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(18): 4865-4874, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581098

RESUMO

In ancient times, the original plants of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had experienced succession and change, including tangerine(Citrus reticulata), pomelo(C. grandis), and Huazhou pomelo(C. grandis 'Tomentosa'), a specific cultivar of C. grandis produced in Huazhou, Guangdong. Before the Qing Dynasty, tangerine was the main original plant, while Huazhou pomelo came to the fore in the Qing Dynasty. In the 1950 s and 1960 s, the producing area of Huazhou pomelo was destroyed, and thus it had to be supplemented with pomelo. From then on, C. grandis 'Tomentosa' and C. grandis were both listed as the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. This paper reviewed the historical evolution of the collection, processing, and efficacy of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium. The research showed that:(1)The harvest time of the original plants of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and Citri Grandis Exocarpium had changed from maturity to immaturity. The collection and processing of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was first recorded in the Illustrated Classics of Materia Medica in the Song Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the mesocarp of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum needed to be removed completely, and Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was processed into different specifications such as seven-piece, five-piece, and single piece. Furthermore, processed young fruits of Huazhou pomelo appeared.(2)Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium were processed with carp skin for the first time in the Master Lei's Discourse on Medicinal Processing. It was suggested that carp skin might be helpful for eliminating bones stuck in throat. During the Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, some other processing methods such as ba-king, stir-frying, and salt-processing appeared. Honey, soil, ginger juice, and alum were firstly used as adjuvants for the processing in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Exocarpium Rubrum was mainly prepared with salt in order to improve the effect of lowering Qi, while it was unnecessary for Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' because of its obvious effect of lowering Qi and eliminating phlegm. The stir-frying and honey-frying methods helped reduce the strong effect of Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa'.(3)According to the application of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium in history, their medicinal use began in Han and Tang Dynasties, developed in Song, Jin, and Yuan Dynasties, and matured in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' was originally applied in Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it still plays an important in role treating COVID-19 nowadays. Moreover, Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis had cold medicinal property, while Citri Grandis Exocarpium from C. grandis 'Tomentosa' had warm medicinal property, and thus they should not be treated the same. At present, Huazhou pomelo has a certain production scale. Therefore, it is recommended that in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, only C. grandis 'Tomentosa' should be included as the original plant of Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and C. grandis should be deleted. The results are conducive to the further development and utilization of Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Grandis Exocarpium, and support the rational use of Citri Grandis Exocarpium and its processed products.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Citrus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3123-3132, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467704

RESUMO

The chemical constituents from the leaves of Ilex guayusa were investigated. Sixteen triterpenoids were isolated from the 95% ethanol extract of dried leaves of I. guayusa by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column chromatographies and semi-prepa-rative HPLC. Those triterpenoids were identified by NMR, HR-MS, and literature analysis: 3ß-hydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-nor-urs-4(23)-ene-28,13ß-olide(1), 3ß-hydroxy-24-nor-4(23),12-oleanadien-28-methyl ester(2), oleanolic acid(3), 3ß,28-dihydroxy-12-oleanene(4), 2α,3ß-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-'nor-olean-4(23)-ene-28,13ß-olide(5), ursolic acid(6), 3ß,23-dihydroxy ursolic acid(7), 3ß,28-dihydroxy-12-ursene(8), 3ß-28-nor-urs-12-ene-3,17-diol(9), 3ß-hydroxyurs-11-ene-28,13ß-olide(10), 13ß,28-epoxy-3ß-hydroxy-11-ursene(11), 3ß-hydroxy-28,28-dimethoxy-12-ursene(12), 3ß-hydroxy-24-nor-urs-4(23),12-dien-28-oic acid(13), 3ß-hydroxy-24-nor-urs-4(23),12-dien-28-methyl ester(14), 2α,3ß-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-nor-urs-4(23)-ene-28,13ß-olide(15) and 2α,3ß-dihydroxy-11α,12α-epoxy-24-nor-urs-4(23),20(30)-dien-28,13ß-olide(16). Compounds 1-2 were new compounds, and compounds 4-5, 7 and 9-16 were isolated from I. guayusa for the first time.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ilex guayusa , Ácido Oleanólico , Triterpenos , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3156-3164, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467708

RESUMO

Tianxiong has been used as a Chinese medicinal in China for thousands of years, and the earliest record can be traced back to the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. It is effective in dispersing wind, dissipating cold, and replenishing fire to streng-then yang. To clarify the origin of Tianxiong, the present herbalogical study reviewed the ancient and modern literature from the origin, processing, and clinical efficacy. Before the Tang Dynasty, although the description of Tianxiong was quite superficial, an apparent difference between Tianxiong and Fuzi was recognized. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Tianxiong and Fuzi were mistakenly recognized to be prepared from a same plant since their raw materials came from artificial cultivation. Medical literature in the Ming and Qing Dynasties mostly followed the previous records, with the origin of Tianxiong remaining controversial. There were three mainstream views about the origin of Tianxiong according the ancient medical books. First, Tianxiong was a kind of Aconiti Radix(Chuanwu) without attachment of Fuzi. Second, Tianxiong was the large Fuzi. Third, Tianxiong derived from Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix(Caowu) about 10 cm in length. By contrast, Fuzi in a large size was simply regarded as Tianxiong in modern times. The processing methods were diversified in the ancient times, and the fire-processing was continuously applied. With the deepening of the research on the efficacy and detoxification mechanism, more methods were discovered, such as processing with ginger juice, child's urine and alcohol. As for modern times, the processing of Tianxiong has not been nearly passed down. The characteristic processing of Tianxiong only handed down in Sichuan province and Lingnan area, which can be discriminated by the last step. The efficacies of Tianxiong can be directly understood from its literal name, including dispersing wind, dissipating cold, and replenishing fire to assist yang. Nowadays, Tianxiong is mostly used to strengthen yang.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Criança , China , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(3): 736-744, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645042

RESUMO

In ancient times, there were two types of "Juhong" came from the tangerines(Citrus reticulata) and the pomelos(C. grandis and its cultivars), which corresponded to Juhong and Huajuhong recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia respectively. In different periods, Juhong basically came from the same species and the same medicinal parts, but there were also some differences. This article sorted out the ancient and modern literature, under the guidance of "Succession theory of Medicinal materials varieties" and "Change theory of Medicinal materials varieties"(XIE Zong-wan), and combined with field investigation, the evolution and reasons of the original plants and medicinal parts of Juhong were analyzed. In the Han Dynasty and before, the peel of tangerines and pomelos were both used as medicine. In the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the way tangerine peel was used was dried and aged, and then "soaked in hot water and scraped off the mesocarp", which had the essence of only using exocarp as medicine of Juhong already, and its original plant was C. reticalata. In the Song Dynasty, the name of "Juhong" and its medicinal usage were recorded in book on materia medica, and the species and medicinal parts of tangerine were inherited from the previous dynasties. The way tangerine peel was used was only dried and aged without removing the mesocarp. The medicinal material obtained by the way was called Chenpi(dried and aged tangerine peel). The item "Juhong" listing as a separate medicinal material was first recorded in the Collected Discussions from Materia Medica(Bencao Huiyan) in the Ming Dynasty. In the Ming Dynasty, the Dao-di habitat of Juhong was recorded as Guangdong province in most books on materia medica, and the original plants probably were C. reticalata and C. grandis 'Tomentosa'(Huazhou pomelo, a special cultivated species of C. grandis produced in Huazhou, Guangdong, which was recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as "Huajuhong"), according to the records in the local chronicles. During the Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China, the original plants of Juhong were C. reticalata and C. grandis 'Tomentosa'. Of the two, the latter one was considered as the better. As far the medicinal part, it was still the exocarp, while the whole young fruit of C. grandis 'Tomentosa' began to be used as medicine. After the founding of The People's Republic of China, the exocarps of Citrus reticalata, C. grandis and C. grandis 'Tomentosa' were listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia under "Juhong". From the Northern and Southern Dynasties to the Republic of China, C. grandis exocarp was a fake of Juhong. Therefore, it was contradictory to historical records that C. grandis exocarp was listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia as Huajuhong. Juhong had been divided into two types as "Juhong" and "Huajuhong" since 1985. The medicinal part of Huajuhong was only the exocarp of immature and nearly mature fruits, but not the whole young fruit, the actual mainstream medicinal part of Huajuhong. The results are helpful to clarify the historical evolution of species and medicinal parts of Juhong and Huajuhong. It is suggested that in the next edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, only C. grandis 'Tomentosa' should be included as the original plant of Huajuhong, and C. grandis should be deleted, and the young fruit should be added in the medicinal parts besides the exocarp of immature and nearly mature fruit.


Assuntos
Citrus , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , China , Frutas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
5.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 168: 109534, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285467

RESUMO

Photon-induced nuclear excitation (i.e. photo-excitation) can be used for production of nuclear isomers, which have potential applications in astrophysics, energy storage, medical diagnosis and treatment. This paper presents a feasibility study on photo-excitation production of four nuclear isomers (103mRh, 113m,115mIn and 176mLu) with intense γ-ray source based on laser-electron Compton scattering (LCS). The decay properties of these isomers and their potential applications in medical diagnosis and treatment were reviewed. The cross-section curve, simulated yield and activity of product of each photo-excitation process were calculated. The cutoff energy of LCS γ-ray beam was optimized by adjusting electron beam energy in order to maximize the isomer activity. It is found that the specific activity of the above-mentioned isomers can exceed ~0.2 GBq/g for 6-h target irradiation at an intensity of 1013 γ/s. Our simulation results suggest the prospect of producing medically interesting radionuclides with photo-excitation using the state-of-art LCS γ-ray beam facility.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3997-4003, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893600

RESUMO

Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus is a both medicinal and edible species specified by the China Ministry of Health, with a long history in China. According to the ancient monographs about materia medica, it was found that the records of the Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus on the original plants were confused. This paper reviewed the ancient monographs about materia medica, and made a summarization and textual research on the name, origin, habitat, processing methods, medicinal properties and clinicacy efficacy of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus based the comprehensive analysis on modern literatures and authoritative books of Chinese herbal medicine. The results indicated that there were many bynames of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. Before the Yuan Dynasty, there was a mixed use of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus and Citri Fructus, which were not distinguished from each other in terms of nature and taste until the Yuan dynasty. Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was a varietas of Citri Fructus. The main shape of the original plant of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus is "like a human hand with fingers" as recorded in ancient monographs about materia medica. The main places of origin of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus were Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian, Sichuan, which were relatively stable. There were fewer records about medicinal proces-sing methods of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. Only steaming and baking methods were found in ancient monographs about materia medica, and the steaming method could reduce the irritability of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. The processing of therapeutic dietary of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was widely used in folk, which was represented by Chaozhou Laoxianghuang, a traditional succade made of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. According to the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus had effects in soothing liver and regulating gas, relieving pain in the stomach, eliminating dampness and resolving phlegm, which was basically consistent with the descriptions in ancient monographs about materia medica. This paper defined the original plant of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, and sorted out and summarized the processing methods, nature and taste of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, so as to provide data support for the standardization of the processing technology and the development and utilization of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , China , Frutas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(11): 2694-2701, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627505

RESUMO

Coicis Semen is widely used as a raw material which can be used as both medicine and food among people. According to the ancient monographs on materia medica and relevant documents on the processing specifications in various provinces and cities, herba logical study on the historical evolution of the processing methods of Coicis Semen was conducted in this paper from the aspects of collecting and processing methods of Coicis Semen, the processing methods in the past dynasties and the nature, flavour and efficacy of Coicis Semen. The results showed that the processing methods of Coicis Semen recorded in monographs on materia medica mainly included stir-frying, glutinous rice stir-frying, salt processing(including salt cooking and salt stir-frying), stir-frying with the earth scraped from the wall facing east, and ginger juice stir-frying, etc. Among them, stir-frying, and stir-frying with the earth scraped from the wall facing east are still used nowadays. The bran stir-frying is the improved version of glutinous rice stir-frying in order to be adaptive to the modern-day situation and the needs of the present. In addition, the ancient shell removal and kernel keeping method are also included in the processing procedures in modern local processing specifications, which are combined with frying to form a new method named "Fazhi" processing( "Fazhi" means a processing method of multiple procedures). The 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia records that Coicis Semen is helpful to clear dampness and promote diuresis, strengthen the spleen and prevent diarrhea, eliminate impediment, discharge pus, resolve toxin and a mass, etc., which are consistent with those contained in ancient monographs on materia medica. After the "Fazhi" processing, the cold nature of Coicis Semen has been removed and its nature,flavour and meridian tropism have been changed, so its application scopes expanded. The results of this study clearly traced the history of the collecting and proces-sing of Coicis Semen, summarized the nature, flavour and efficacy of Coicis Semen contained in both ancient and modern literature, and provided a historical basis for the standardization of the subsequent processing technology of Coicis Semen, the clinical application of various processed products, and the further development and utilization of medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Coix , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Gengibre , Materia Medica , Oryza , Culinária , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
8.
Chin J Integr Med ; 26(12): 943-946, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623703

RESUMO

With the worldwide growing interest and commercial value of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) industries and products, the protection issue of TCM knowledge is increasingly concerned by Chinese government. Here, we investigated the current situation and trend of TCM development and knowledge protection in China through accessing academic research tools including China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, VIP China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP) and Google Scholar, analyzing the latest data released by National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China Statistical Yearbook of Chinese Medicine and China Statistical Yearbook. Our results demonstrate that current administration in China is continuing to support TCM development by increasing investment and expanding the scale in TCM research and administration. The increasing attention of Chinese scholars and government has led to laws and regulations issued more densely to strengthen TCM knowledge protection and promote fair use and fast development.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2464-2472, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495607

RESUMO

Colla Corii Asini(Ejiao)is an important Chinese medicine used in China for thousands of years, and is well known for its famous tonic properties. The herbalogical study was detailed carried out based on the naming, habitat, harvesting, processing, medicinal properties and clinical efficacy. The results showed that the name of Ejiao could be traced back to Shennong's Materia Medica, and various names of Lvpi Jiao, Penfu Jiao and Fuzhi Jiao were recorded in other ancient books. In the many intervening centuries, the main materials of Ejiao had been replaced from cow leather before Tang Dynasty to donkey skin in the middle to late Tang Dynasty. This phenomenon could be probably caused by complicated social factors of various periods and different efficacy of Ejiao made by all kinds of raw materials. Ejiao was merely processed with the simple methods before Tang Dynasty, which subsequently improved avariety of methods to enhance the supplementation action. Most importantly, Ejiao has a wide clinic application along with the development of processing theories and methods, which can be found in various Classics, especially in imperial medical case record in Qing Dynasty.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Animais , Bovinos , China , Feminino , Gelatina , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
10.
J Anal Methods Chem ; 2020: 8950324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377441

RESUMO

We aimed to establish a quantitative analysis method of six constituents (5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) in Artemisia capillaris (Yinchen) and its decoction by using HPLC coupled with DAD. Besides, the transformation paths of the six constituents were analyzed in decoction preparation processing. The analytical method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability, and recovery and applied to assess the transformation trend and quantitative analysis of the six constituents in Yinchen decoction. The contents of six constituents varied greatly in Yinchen herb and Yinchen decoction, and there were inextricable internal relationships between them. Presumably 3-caffeoylquinic acid was isomerized to generate 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 4-caffeoylquinic acid. Similarly, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid were produced by isomerization of 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. In conclusion, this study provides a chemical basis for quality control of Yinchen decoction, and the changes of selected markers in decoction could give us some novel perspectives to study the relationship between substances and drug efficacy.

11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1188-1193, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237464

RESUMO

Cervi Colla, deer's gelatin, had two kinds of original sources historically, including the skin and antler of deer, known as Cervi Corii Colla(Lupijiao, LPJ) and Cervi Cornus Colla(Lujiaojiao, LJJ) respectively.LJJ is the mainstream of the market, while LPJ is only used by common people in Guizhou and Jilin etc. This article sorted out the ancient and modern literature(since Rites of the Zhou in Zhou Dynasty) on Cervi Colla and conducted the herbalogical study. The results of the study include:① In ancient China, there were six types of commonly-used Colla derived from six animals, including deer, horse, cow, rat, fish and rhinoceros. Cervi Colla was ranked the most top among them, and it was often used as adhesive to make bow and Chinese inksticks and more commonly used as a medicine.Cervi Cornus Colla was first described as a medicinal by the name "Bai Jiao"(white gelatin)in The Divine Husbandman's Classic of Material Medica(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing).② Initially, both the skin and antler were used as raw materials to make Cervi Colla, but antler became the only raw material, and deer skin disappeared from the mainstream of raw materials for Cervi Colla. This can be attributed to other diverse and luxurious uses of the skin, such as making dress and hats, etc., and the easy accessibility of deer antlers. ③ The sources of Cervi Colla were not limited to Cervus elaphus(red deer) or C. nippon(sika deer), and it also included animal from the family Cervidae, such as Elaphurus davidianus(elk) and C. unicolor(sambar). ④ The processing method was passed down from ancient times to the present, and no significant changes had occurred. ⑤ LPJ and LJJ had many similar effects, and their nature was both warm. The effect of LJJ was to warm the liver and kidney, replenish vital essence and blood, and to reinforce Yang. While the effect of LPJ was to reinforce both Yin and Yang, replenish blood, and stop bleeding. It has a unique advantage for both reinforcing Yin and Yang. The findings of this paper can provide support for the promotion of LPJ and the development of its medicinal value.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/química , Cervos , Gelatina/química , Materia Medica/química , Pele/química , Animais , China
12.
J Sep Sci ; 43(4): 736-747, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758848

RESUMO

In this study, we aim to determine the chemical constituents of six Chinese medicinal materials from the Citrus genus using high-performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Eight flavonoids and one coumarin were identified and further quantified as marker substances by high-performance liquid chromatography method. The separation was performed on an Agilent TC-C18 column with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient elution. The analytical method was fully validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, intra- and inter-day precision and repeatability, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and recovery. It was subsequently applied to evaluate the quality of 103 batches of the Chinese medicinal materials from the Citrus genus. In addition, the principal constituent analysis was used to compare the samples of different species from the Citrus genus leading to successful classification of the samples in accordance with their origins. It was found that the contents of nine constituents varied greatly in different ripening stages and varieties of the samples from the Citrus genus. In addition, neoeriocitrin and 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin were determined as two unique constituents of 'Zhiqiao' and 'Foshou', respectively. In conclusion, this study provides a chemical basis for quality control of Chinese medicinal materials from the Citrus genus.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Citrus/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Citrus/classificação , Flavonoides/química , Controle de Qualidade
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2185-2190, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359640

RESUMO

Chinese medicine is the traditional treasure of China nation. As the basis of Chinese medicine, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) plays an important part for the development of Chinese medicine. Genuine medicinal materials with special characteristics of TCM growing in special ecological environment, is recognized as the high quality medicine. Research on genuineness evaluation of TCM is the key to ensure its clinical applications, efficacy and the process of modernization and internationalization for Chinese medicine. Lingnan region of China is situated in the tropical and subtropical zones, where there are rich geothermal and hydrothermal resources. The superior natural and geographic environment of Lingnan has given birth to a variety of native herbal drugs. And treating and preventing diseases with Lingnan herbal drugs has a long story. This study mainly evaluated the genuineness of Lingnan herbal drugs from the aspects of ecological factor, thegenetic information, the history, the culture, the clinical efficacy and the processing, and proposed a new idea to investigate the genuineness of TCM, aiming to provide a scientific basis for genuineness evaluation.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , China , Meio Ambiente , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
14.
Chin J Nat Med ; 16(11): 871-880, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502769

RESUMO

Poliumoside is representative of phenylethanoid glycosides, which are widely found in many plants. Poliumoside is also regarded as the main active component of Callicarpa kwangtungensis Chun (CK), though its oral bioavailability in rat is extremely low (0.69%) and its in vivo and in vitro metabolism has not yet been systematically investigated. In the present study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method was employed to identify the metabolites and investigate the metabolic pathways of poliumoside in rat after oral administration 1.5 g·kg-1 of poliumoside. As a result, a total of 34 metabolites (30 from urine, 17 from plasma, and 4 from bile) and 9 possible metabolic pathways (rearrangment, reduction, hydration, hydrolyzation, dehydration, methylation, hydroxylation, acetylation, and sulfation) were proposed in vivo. The main metabolite, acteoside, was quantified after incubated with rat intestinal bacteria in vitro. In conclusion, the present study systematically explored the metabolites of poliumoside in vivo and in vitro, proposing metabolic pathways that may be significant for further metabolic studies of poliumoside.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Bile/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Callicarpa/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Glicosídeos/química , Intestinos/microbiologia , Plasma/química , Urina/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Ácidos Cafeicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Cafeicos/sangue , Ácidos Cafeicos/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeos/sangue , Glicosídeos/urina , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(24): 4923-4928, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717540

RESUMO

In the folk medicine, it was believed that the raw Sanqi could remove blood stasis, swelling and pain, while the cooked Sanqi could replenish blood. This article began with the first record of Sanqi in ancient herbal medicine literature, and the nature, flavor and efficacy of Sanqi, then listed the processing methods and usage of Sanqi recorded in ancient herbal medicine literature, and compared with the modern processing methods. The results showed that the processing methods of raw Sanqi included making powder, chewing, vinegar grinding and wine grinding, in which the method of making powder was still in use, and there were particle size requirements on the Sanqi powder listed in most modern preparation specifications. The processing methods of cooked Sanqi included baking, frying and steaming, in which the method of steaming was still in use, but had some changes. The new processing method was frying with edible oil. The results clarify the history of the processing of Sanqi, and provide a reference for the research and application of the processing methods of raw and cooked Sanqi.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Panax notoginseng
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(3): 523-530, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28952259

RESUMO

A rapid and sensitive UHPLC-HR-MSn method was developed for the identification of chemical constituents in capillary wormwood extract. ACQUITY UHPLC HSS T3 chromatography column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm) was used with 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile solution as the mobile phase in gradient elution. The extract was detected by ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap equipped with an ESI ion source in a negative mode. Based on the accurate mass measurements, retention time, mass fragmentation patterns and literature reports, a total of 50 compounds including 21 flavonoids, 22 phenolic acids, 6 coumarins and 1 other compound were tentatively screened and characterized. These results are helpful for the comprehensive quality control, better comprehension of the metabolism and further study of pharmacodynamic substance from capillary wormwood extract.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cumarínicos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Controle de Qualidade
17.
Indian J Surg ; 79(1): 6-12, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331259

RESUMO

The function of the donor foot has been affected after using big toe wrap-around flap for thumb reconstruction. A modified operation method has been developed to reduce the adverse effect on the donor foot. The current study compared the long-term effect of the classic and the modified operation methods on the donor foot. Gait analysis was carried out, including how the patient walked, the walking speed and walking distance, and how the patient jumped and ran. Plantar pressure was measured while the patient was standing and moving. A total of 45 patients who received the 2 different operation methods were included. The follow-up time was 4-10 years with a mean of 6.5 years. Various degrees of complications occurred for the 21 patients who received the classic operation method. For these patients, plantar pressure of the donor foot was obviously different comparing with the healthy unaffected foot while the patient was standing or walking. For the 24 patients who received the modified operation method, no obvious complications were observed and the plantar pressure of the donor foot and the healthy unaffected foot was similar while the patient was standing or walking. In conclusion, both the classic and the modified operation methods have affected the function of the donor foot after using the big toe wrap-around flap for thumb reconstruction. However, the donor foot was less affected when the modified operation method was used.

18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(23): 4393-4399, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28933118

RESUMO

To study the influence of three different drying methods (including 50 ℃-drying, 80 ℃-drying and -70 ℃-freeze-drying methods) on steroidal saponins and homoisoflavonoids in Ophiopogon japonicus,a HPLC-DAD-ELSD-MSn method was investigated to screen and identify the differential components. Through comparing the HPLC chromatograms with that of fresh O. japonicus, 50 ℃-drying medicine was similar with fresh medicine whereas the other two drying methods had great influence on the components of O. japonicus. In this study, 36 differential components were screened, among which 24 constituents(13 homoisoflavonoids and 11 steroidal saponins) were identified via HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS.As a result, it was revealed that different drying methods had significant influences on the components of steroidal saponins and homoisoflavonoids. Among them, 50 ℃-drying method was the most suitable drying approach when the stability of components, cost and practicability were considered.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Flavonoides/análise , Ophiopogon/química , Saponinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas
19.
J Anal Methods Chem ; 2015: 642401, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26609463

RESUMO

[BMIM]OH was used in mobile and stationary phase of thin layer chromatography (TLC) to analyze berberine hydrochloride and tetrahydropalmatine for the first time. Supported imidazole ionic liquid with hydroxide ion on silica gel (SiO2·Im(+)·OH(-)) was synthesized through simple procedure and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, on the plates prepared by SiO2·Im(+)·OH(-), the contents of the above alkaloids in the Chinese patent medicine (CPM) of "Stomacheasy" capsule were successfully determined by TLC scanner. The key conditions and chromatographic behaviors were also investigated in detail. According to similar ways, ionic liquids (ILs) also can be used in other planar chromatographies in two modes. This study is expected to be helpful in expanding the application of IL and its bonded silica gel in TLC separation field.

20.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 35(3): 689-94, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26117880

RESUMO

In order to explore rapid reliable Hebra cistanche detection methods, identification of 3 different sources of Hebra cistanche: cistanche deserticola, cistanche tubulosa, sand rossia is studied via fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with pattern recognition. It is found in experiment that cistanche samples have obvious fluorescence properties. Forty fluorescence spectral images of 3 different sources of Hebra cistanche samples are collected through fluorescent spectral imaging system. After carrying on denoising and binarization processing to these images, the spectral curves of each sample was drawn according to the spectral cube. The obtained spectra data in the 450 - 680 nm wavelength range is regarded as the study object of discriminant analysis. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to reduce the dimension of spectroscopic data of the three kinds of cistanche and fisher distinction is used in combination to classify them; During the experiment were compared the effects of three methods of data preprocessing on the model: multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), standard normal variable correction (SNV) and first-order differential (FD) and then according to the cumulative contribution rate of the principal component and the effect of number of factors on the discriminant model to optimize the number of principal components factor. The results showed that. identification of the best after the first derivative pretreatment then the first four principal components is extracted to carry on fisher discriminant, discriminant model of 3 different sources of Hebra cistanche is set up through PCA combined with fisher discriminant the precision of original discrimination is 100%, recognition rate of the cross validation is 95%. It was thus shown that the fluorescent spectral imaging technology combined with principal components analysis and fisher distinction can be used for the identification study of 3 different sources of Hebra cistanche and has the advantages of easy operation, speediness, reliability.


Assuntos
Cistanche/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Cistanche/química , Análise Discriminante , Fluorescência , Modelos Teóricos , Imagem Óptica , Plantas Medicinais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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