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Nat Genet ; 51(6): 1052-1059, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152161


Maize is one of the most important crops globally, and it shows remarkable genetic diversity. Knowledge of this diversity could help in crop improvement; however, gold-standard genomes have been elucidated only for modern temperate varieties. Here, we present a high-quality reference genome (contig N50 of 15.78 megabases) of the maize small-kernel inbred line, which is derived from a tropical landrace. Using haplotype maps derived from B73, Mo17 and SK, we identified 80,614 polymorphic structural variants across 521 diverse lines. Approximately 22% of these variants could not be detected by traditional single-nucleotide-polymorphism-based approaches, and some of them could affect gene expression and trait performance. To illustrate the utility of the diverse SK line, we used it to perform map-based cloning of a major effect quantitative trait locus controlling kernel weight-a key trait selected during maize improvement. The underlying candidate gene ZmBARELY ANY MERISTEM1d provides a target for increasing crop yields.

Estudos de Associação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genômica , Fenótipo , Zea mays/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Endogamia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
Bioresour Technol ; 279: 202-208, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735929


A ZSM-5/SiC composite catalyst was synthesized and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy in this study. The composite catalyst had the characteristics of ZSM-5 and SiC, and the surface of SiC grew evenly with a layer of ZSM-5. The effect of the composite catalyst on the product distribution and chemical composition in a co-pyrolysis downdraft system was investigated. In a down system with a catalytic temperature of 450 °C, a feed-to-catalyst ratio of 2:1, and a soybean-soapstock-to-straw ratio of 1:1, the proportions of alkanes, olefins, aromatics, and phenoxy compounds were 6.82%, 4.5%, 73.56% and 11.11%, respectively. The composite catalyst combined the catalytic performance of ZSM-5 and SiC, increasing the proportion of aromatics and decreasing the proportion of oxygen-containing compound in the bio-oil. Moreover, the composite catalyst maintained its activity after reusing several times.

Biomassa , Compostos de Silício/química , Zeolitas/química , Catálise , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Pirólise , Temperatura Ambiente , Difração de Raios X