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1.
Curr Med Res Opin ; : 1-21, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral sitafloxacin versus oral moxifloxacin in the treatment of Chinese adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, positive-controlled clinical trial (chinadrugtrials.org.cn identifier: CTR20130046). CAP patients received sitafloxacin tablets 100 mg once daily (qd) or 100 mg twice daily (bid) to compare with moxifloxacin tablets 400 mg qd, for 7-10 days. The primary outcome was non-inferiority of sitafloxacin to moxifloxacin in clinical cure rate at test of cure (TOC) visit in per-protocol set (PPS). RESULTS: A total of 343 patients were randomized (sitafloxacin 100 mg qd, n = 117; sitafloxacin 100 mg bid, n = 116; moxifloxacin, n = 110), 291 patients were included in the PPS (sitafloxacin 100 mg qd, n = 96; sitafloxacin 100 mg bid, n = 94; moxifloxacin, n = 101). The clinical cure rate was 94.8% in the sitafloxacin 100 mg qd group, 96.8% in the sitafloxacin 100 mg bid group and 95.0% in the moxifloxacin group. At the TOC visit, the microbiological success rate was 97.0% (32/33) in the sitafloxacin 100 mg qd group, 97.1% (34/35) in the sitafloxacin 100 mg bid group and 94.9% (37/39) in the moxifloxacin group in the microbiological evaluable set (MES). The incidence of study-drug-related adverse events (AEs) was 23.3% (27/116) in the sitafloxacin 100 mg qd group, 29.8% (34/114) in the sitafloxacin 100 mg bid group and 28.2% (31/110) in the moxifloxacin group (p > .05). The common AEs related to study drug were dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, increased platelet count and alanine transaminase (ALT) elevation. All the AEs resolved completely after discontinuation of study drug. CONCLUSION: Sitafloxacin 100 mg qd or 100 mg bid for 7-10 days is not inferior to moxifloxacin 400 mg qd for 7-10 days in clinical efficacy for adult CAP patients. Sitafloxacin provides a safety profile comparable to moxifloxacin.

2.
ACS Cent Sci ; 6(8): 1386-1393, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875079

RESUMO

This work describes the first rigorous example of a single-component block copolymer system forming unconventional spherical phases. A library of discrete block polymers with uniform chain length and diverse architectures were modularly prepared through a combination of a step-growth approach and highly efficient coupling reactions. The precise chemical structure eliminates all the molecular defects associated with molar weight, dispersity, and compositional ratio. Complex spherical phases, including the Frank-Kasper phase (A15 and σ) and quasicrystalline phase, were experimentally captured by meticulously tuning the composition and architectures. A phase portrait with unprecedented accuracy was mapped out (up to one monomer resolution), unraveling intriguing details of phase behaviors that have long been compromised by inherent molecular weight distribution. This study serves as a delicate model system to bridge the existing gaps between experimental observations and theoretical assessments and to provide insights into the formation and evolution of the unconventional spherical phases in soft matter systems.

3.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749389

RESUMO

The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is endowed with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. It is essential to explore alternative techniques to supplement the arsenal of methods to kill drug-resistant bacteria. Herein, we established an "on-demand" nanoplatform based on acid-degradable scaffolds by conjugating glycomimetic-based galactose ligands to target a key lectin on P. aeruginosa and guanidine moieties. This nanoplatform could capture bacteria through ligand-receptor interactions and electrostatic interactions, and subsequently reactive oxygen species produced by entrapped photodynamic agent Ce6 under light irradiation eliminated drug-resistant P. aeruginosa and its biofilm. Approximately 95% of the planktonic bacteria were killed and more than 70% of the biofilm was disrupted under light irradiation. This strategy of copolymer modification could improve the biocompatibility and therapeutic efficiency levels of antibacterial therapeutics through the targeting of function. Hence, utilizing this smart nanoplatform may be of significance in developing new strategies to solve the growing problem of bacterial resistance.

4.
Redox Biol ; : 101653, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739156

RESUMO

The DNA lesions caused by oxidative damage are principally repaired by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) initiates BER through recognizing and cleaving the oxidatively damaged nucleobase 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). How the BER machinery detects and accesses lesions within the context of chromatin is largely unknown. Here, we found that the symmetrical dimethylarginine of histone H4 (producing H4R3me2s) serves as a bridge between DNA damage and subsequent repair. Intracellular H4R3me2s was significantly increased after treatment with the DNA oxidant reagent H2O2, and this increase was regulated by OGG1, which could directly interact with the specific arginine methyltransferase, PRMT5. Arginine-methylated H4R3 could associate with flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and enhance its nuclease activity and BER efficiency. Furthermore, cells with a decreased level of H4R3me2s were more susceptible to DNA-damaging agents and accumulated more DNA damage lesions in their genome. Taken together, these results demonstrate that H4R3me2s can be recognized as a reader protein that senses DNA damage and a writer protein that promotes DNA repair.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 278-282, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although COVID-19 is known to be caused by human-to-human transmission, it remains largely unclear whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological parameters could promote its transmission. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to study whether air quality index (AQI), four ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and CO) and five meteorological variables (daily temperature, highest temperature, lowest temperature, temperature difference and sunshine duration) could increase COVID-19 incidence in Wuhan and XiaoGan between Jan 26th to Feb 29th in 2020. RESULTS: First, a significant correlation was found between COVID-19 incidence and AQI in both Wuhan (R2=0.13, p<0.05) and XiaoGan (R2=0.223, p<0.01). Specifically, among four pollutants, COVID-19 incidence was prominently correlated with PM2.5 and NO2 in both cities. In Wuhan, the tightest correlation was observed between NO2 and COVID-19 incidence (R2=0.329, p<0.01). In XiaoGan, in addition to the PM2.5 (R2=0.117, p<0.01) and NO2 (R2=0.015, p<0.05), a notable correlation was also observed between the PM10 and COVID-19 incidence (R2=0.105, p<0.05). Moreover, temperature is the only meteorological parameter that constantly correlated well with COVID-19 incidence in both Wuhan and XiaoGan, but in an inverse correlation (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AQI, PM2.5, NO2, and temperature are four variables that could promote the sustained transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Betacoronavirus , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Biosci ; 452020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515357

RESUMO

We aimedto detect whether the effect of apigenin (Apig) on themyocardial infarction-induced cardiomyocyte injury of mouse myocardial cells and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mice was through regulating Parkin expression via miR-103-1-5p. The myocardial infarction cardiomyocyte model (Hypoxia/reoxygenation) was first constructed, then the mouse myocardial cells were treated with Apig, and the expression of miR-103-1-5p was decreased and the expression of Parkin was increased by qRT-PCR and Western blot. It was confirmed by miRNA pulldown and luciferase reporter system that miR-103-1-5p in mouse myocardial cells can bind to Parkin mRNA and inhibit Parkin expression.Next, a lentiviral vector silenced Parkin and overexpressingmiR-103-1-5pwas constructed and transfected into Apig-treated cells. Autophagy was detected by mitochondrial autophagy marker proteins [atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-interacting protein (p62) and bcl-2/Adenovirus E1B 19-kd interacting protein 3 (BNIP3)] viaWestern blot, mitochondrial function was detected by JC-1 probe, and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. It was confirmed that Apig regulated mitochondria autophagy through miR-103-1-5p and Parkin, which ultimately affected cardiomyocyte death. Finally, an AMI mouse model was constructed, and then the mice were treated with Apig. The infarct size was detected by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, and the Apig relieved the myocardial infarction. The expression of miR-103-1-5p was decreased and the expression of Parkin was increased by qRT-PCR andWestern blot. The above results simplified that the cardio protection of Apig and miR-103-1-5p against injury of myocardial infarction cardiomyocyte by targeting Parkin. These results provided a novel treatment againstmyocardial infarction cardiomyocyte.

7.
J Texture Stud ; 51(5): 830-840, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506528

RESUMO

In this study, effects of different steaming conditions (temperature-time scales) on quality characteristics of cooked whitefish (Coregonus peled) were characterized to guide product development. Investigation of three cooking conditions, including 60°C (3-20 min) 80°C (1-12 min) and 100°C (1-6 min) indicated that properties including textural properties, cooking loss, color change, water holding capacity (WHC), and protein content were all significantly correlated to the cooking condition. It was observed that the color changes of fish meat, especially the brightness L* were strongly correlated to the relative extraction rate (RER) of myofibrillar proteins (MFPs), which could be considered as a marker for the doneness of the cooked whitefish. Our results indicated that during the steaming process, the water holding capacity of the fish continued to decline, and the cooking loss continued to increase. However, a sudden jump in cooking loss occurred when the fish sample became overcooked. To minimize cooking loss, a good control of the doneness hence is needed to avoid overcooking. Moreover, results of this study demonstrated that low-temperature steaming could better maintain the springiness and cohesiveness of the fish as the myofibrillar proteins experienced less sudden swelling and shrinkage. Hence, low temperature steaming should be the preferred method for whitefish processing to minimize the negative impact on fish sensory qualities.

8.
iScience ; 23(5): 101072, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371372

RESUMO

Aryl halide (Br, Cl, I) is among the most important compounds in pharmaceutical industry, material science, and agrochemistry, broadly utilized in diverse transformations. Tremendous approaches have been established to prepare this scaffold; however, many of them suffer from atom economy, harsh condition, inability to be scaled up, or cost-unfriendly reagents and catalysts. Inspired by vanadium haloperoxidases herein we presented a biomimetic approach for halogenation (Br, Cl, I) of (hetero)arene catalyzed by tungstate under mild pH in a cost-efficient and environment- and operation-friendly manner. Broad substrates, diverse functional group tolerance, and good chemo- and regioselectivities were observed, even in late-stage halogenation of complex molecules. Moreover, this approach can be scaled up to over 100 g without time-consuming and costly column purification. Several drugs and key precursors for drugs bearing aryl halides (Br, Cl, I) have been conveniently prepared based on our approach.

9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 70, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and the role of its colonization in pulmonary diseases has become a popular focus in recent years. The aim of this study was to develop a modified loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) DNA amongst non-HIV patients with various pulmonary diseases and use it to examine the prevalence and assess the association of P. jirovecii colonization with clinical characteristics of these diseases. METHODS: We modified the previously reported LAMP assay for P. jirovecii by adding real-time detection. This method was used to detect P. jirovecii colonization in pulmonary samples collected from 403 non-HIV patients with various pulmonary diseases enrolled from 5 hospitals in China. We determined the prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization in 7 types of pulmonary diseases and assessed the association of P. jirovecii colonization with clinical characteristics of these diseases. RESULTS: The modified LAMP assay showed no cross-reactivity with other common pulmonary microbes and was 1000 times more sensitive than that of conventional PCR. Using the modified LAMP assay, we detected P. jirovecii colonization in 281 (69.7%) of the 403 patients enrolled. P. jirovecii colonization was more common in interstitial lung diseases than in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (84.6% vs 64.5%, P < 0.05). Patients with acute exacerbation of COPD had a higher prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization compared to patients with stabilized COPD (67.4% vs 43.3%, P < 0.05). P. jirovecii colonization was associated with decreased pulmonary function, increased levels of 1,3-ß-D-glucan and C-reactive protein, and decreased levels of CD4+ T-cell counts (P < 0.05 for each). Approximately 70% of P. jirovecii colonized patients had confections with other fungi or bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a modified LAMP assay for detecting P. jirovecii. Our multi-center study of 403 patients supports that P. jirovecii colonization is a risk factor for the development of pulmonary diseases and highlights the need to further study the pathogenesis and transmission of P. jirovecii colonization in pulmonary diseases.

10.
Nanoscale ; 12(6): 3637-3645, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016263

RESUMO

Recently, the discovery and development of lead-free perovskite quantum dots (QDs) that are eco-friendly and stable has become an active research area in low-cost lighting and display fields. However, the low photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) caused by the residual surface states of such QDs severely hinders their practical applications and commercialization. In this work, a strategy of employing water-induced nanocomposites was proposed to improve the PLQY of cesium bismuth halide (Cs3Bi2X9) QDs, and a substantial enhancement by ∼130% (from 20.2% to 46.4%) was achieved by an optimized water treatment of Cs3Bi2Br9 QDs. A detailed analysis indicated that Cs3Bi2Br9/BiOBr nanocomposites, in which the Cs3Bi2Br9 QD core was encapsulated into a BiOBr matrix, can effectively suppress the surface defects of QDs, resulting in a longer PL lifetime and a larger exciton binding energy compared with the pristine sample. Finally, the Cs3Bi2Br9/BiOBr nanocomposites were used as the color-converting phosphors for down-conversion white light-emitting devices, which show a good operation stability in ambient air, significantly better than the reference device constructed with conventional lead-halide perovskites. We believe that the method used here provides an effective strategy to improve the fluorescence efficiency of lead-free perovskite QDs, which will create opportunities for their applications in lighting and displays.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(2)2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936016

RESUMO

Carbon fabric reinforced phenolic composites were widely used as TPSs (thermal protection system) material in the aerospace industry. However, their limited oxidative ablation resistance restricted their further utility in more serious service conditions. In this study, the surface-decorated ZrB2/SiC and its modified carbon fabric reinforced phenolic composites have been successfully prepared. The self-modification mechanism of the surface-decorated ZrB2/SiC particles were characterized. The mechanical performance and ablation behavior of the composites were investigated. Results showed that the ZrB2/SiC particles possessed a good surface-decorated effect, which achieved good compatibility with the phenolic resin. The mechanical performance of the modified phenolic composite was effectively improved. The anti-oxidative ablation performance of the composite was improved. The mass ablation rate of the surface-decorated ZrB2-SiC-modified carbon fabric reinforced phenolic composites was 25% lower than that of the unmodified composites. The formed ZrO2 ceramic layer attached to the surface of the residual chars prevented the heat energy and oxygen from the inner material. Meanwhile, the volatilization of SiO2 and B2O3 effectively increased the heat dissipation. All these results confirmed that the ZrB2-SiC particles can effectively improve the ablation resistance of the composite, which provided a basis for the application of the composites to more serious service environments.

12.
iScience ; 22: 214-228, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786518

RESUMO

C2, C3-disubstituted indole is one of the most frequently encountered motifs in bioactive alkaloids and medicinal chemistry. Thus, developing novel, concise, and efficient access to it is highly desired in drug discovery. Herein, we present such an approach to this scaffold by direct oxidative coupling of C2-substituted indoles and enolates. Compared with indole bearing no C2-substituent, higher yields (up to 96%) were obtained for C2-substituted indoles in most cases. Mechanistic studies showed the reaction went through a Fe-chelated radical-anion oxidative coupling procedure promoted by C2-substituent on indole by two means: (1) stabilizing C2-radical intermediate during the reaction; (2) reducing indole homocoupling. This approach serves as a synthetic useful tool to quickly build up bioactive small molecule library of C2, C3-disubstituted indoles, and several products showed promising anticancer activities. Besides, indomethacin and its analogs were conveniently prepared in three-step sequence efficiently, indicating the potential application of our approach in medicinal chemistry.

13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 120: 109482, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568990

RESUMO

Ferulic acid, a main ingredient of Ligusticum, exhibits anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation effects in heart diseases. Some studies indicate that gut microbiome is associated with the generation of ferulic acid. Whether the beneficial effect of ferulic is raised by the alteration of gut microbiota is still unknown. This study examined the effect of sodium ferulate on gut microbiome and cardiac function in TAC mice. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay verified that ferulic acid has low toxicity in vitro and that ferulic acid inhibited the up-regulation of ß-MHC and ANP induced by Angiotensin II. In addition, daily supplement of 50 mg/kg sodium ferulate improved the ejection fraction and changed the gut microbiota composition of TAC mice. Relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Parabacteroides are increased in TAC mice gavaged with sodium ferulate. In addition, Lactobacillus is negatively correlated with HW/BW and LW/BW ratio. These results suggest that the beneficial effect of ferulic in TAC mice is probably through the regulation of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Função Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(39): 21753-21760, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552403

RESUMO

C2N with uniform honeycomb holes and a nitrogen lattice, whose vacant sites are partially filled by C6 hexagons, has a great potential due to its editable properties. Here, by using first-principles calculations, a C2N/α-Te van der Waals (vdW) heterojunction and its electronic properties modulated by a vertical strain and external electric field were systematically investigated. The results showed that the C2N/α-Te vdW heterojunction had a unique type-II band alignment, whose indirect band gap value was 0.47/1.01 eV in DFT/HSE06. The band gap could be tuned by external perturbation from 0.49 eV to 1.16 eV in HSE06. A type-II to type-I transition occurred under an external electric field of 0.4 V Å-1. Interestingly, the C2N/α-Te vdW heterojunction possessed high optical absorption strength (∼105) and broad spectrum width (ultraviolet to near-infrared region). These results indicate that the C2N/α-Te heterojunction is promising for photovoltaic applications.

15.
J Asthma ; : 1-8, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514546

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of tratinterol hydrochloride in bronchial asthma (BA) treatment. Methods: Patients enrolled in this study were distributed randomly into a treatment group (tratinterol hydrochloride) and an active control group (procaterol hydrochloride) and were treated for 2 weeks after running-in. The end points were changes in pulmonary function and clinical symptoms after administration. Safety indices were physical examinations, laboratory testing and spontaneous reporting. Findings: We enrolled 732 subjects, -365 in the treatment group and 367 in the active control group. Forced expiratory volume (FEV1), significantly increased in both group after treatment (P < 0.05). Least-squares (LS) means were -0.03/in the full-analysis set (FAS) and -0.02 in the per-protocol set (PPS) set, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for these sets were -0.09 to 0.03 and -0.08 to 0.04, respectively. Forced expiratory volume (FVC), morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and asthma scores were significantly different with pretreatment (P < 0.05). There was no difference in asymptomatic days or frequency of relief medicine use (P > 0.05). No serious adverse events occurred. Implications: Tratinterol hydrochloride was effective, safe and not inferior to procaterol hydrochloride in treating BA.

16.
FASEB J ; 33(11): 11668-11681, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348687

RESUMO

Multiple DNA repair pathways may be involved in the removal of the same DNA lesion caused by endogenous or exogenous agents. Although distinct DNA repair machinery fulfill overlapping roles in the repair of DNA lesions, the mechanisms coordinating different pathways have not been investigated in detail. Here, we show that Ku70, a core protein of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway, can directly interact with DNA polymerase-ß (Pol-ß), a central player in the DNA base excision repair (BER), and this physical complex not only promotes the polymerase activity of Pol-ß and BER efficiency but also enhances the classic NHEJ repair. Moreover, we find that DNA damages caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or etoposide promote the formation of Ku70-Pol-ß complexes at the repair foci. Furthermore, suppression of endogenous Ku70 expression by small interfering RNA reduces BER efficiency and leads to higher sensitivity to MMS and accumulation of the DNA strand breaks. Similarly, Pol-ß knockdown impairs total-NHEJ capacity but only has a slight influence on alternative NHEJ. These results suggest that Pol-ß and Ku70 coordinate 2-way crosstalk between the BER and NHEJ pathways.-Xia, W., Ci, S., Li, M., Wang, M., Dianov, G. L., Ma, Z., Li, L., Hua, K., Alagamuthu, K. K., Qing, L., Luo, L., Edick, A. M., Liu, L., Hu, Z., He, L., Pan, F., Guo, Z. Two-way crosstalk between BER and c-NHEJ repair pathway is mediated by Pol-ß and Ku70.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Autoantígeno Ku/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , DNA Polimerase beta/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Humanos
17.
Crit Care Med ; 47(9): e735-e743, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether XueBiJing injection improves clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING: Thirty-three hospitals in China. PATIENTS: A total of 710 adults 18-75 years old with severe community-acquired pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS: Participants in the XueBiJing group received XueBiJing, 100 mL, q12 hours, and the control group received a visually indistinguishable placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was 8-day improvement in the pneumonia severity index risk rating. Secondary outcomes were 28-day mortality rate, duration of mechanical ventilation and total duration of ICU stay. Improvement in the pneumonia severity index risk rating, from a previously defined endpoint, occurred in 203 (60.78%) participants receiving XueBiJing and in 158 (46.33%) participants receiving placebo (between-group difference [95% CI], 14.4% [6.9-21.8%]; p < 0.001). Fifty-three (15.87%) XueBiJing recipients and 84 (24.63%) placebo recipients (8.8% [2.4-15.2%]; p = 0.006) died within 28 days. XueBiJing administration also decreased the mechanical ventilation time and the total ICU stay duration. The median mechanical ventilation time was 11.0 versus 16.5 days for the XueBiJing and placebo groups, respectively (p = 0.012). The total duration of ICU stay was 12 days for XueBiJing recipients versus 16 days for placebo recipients (p = 0.004). A total of 256 patients experienced adverse events (119 [35.63%] vs 137 [40.18%] in the XueBiJing and placebo groups, respectively [p = 0.235]). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia, XueBiJing injection led to a statistically significant improvement in the primary endpoint of the pneumonia severity index as well a significant improvement in the secondary clinical outcomes of mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of ICU stay.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Physiol ; 10: 411, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024347

RESUMO

Background: Mitochondrial dynamics play a critical role in mitochondrial function. The mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene encodes a mitochondrial membrane protein that participates in mitochondrial fusion to maintain and operate the mitochondrial network. Moreover, MFN2 is essential for mitophagy. In Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling, the combined effects of MFN2-mediated mitochondrial fusion and mitophagy are unclear. This study was designed to explore a novel strategy for preventing cardiomyocyte injury via modulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Methods: We studied the function of MFN2 in mitochondrial fusion and mitophagy in Ang II-stimulated cardiomyocyte injury. Cardiomyocyte injury experiments, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and apoptosis rate of cardiomyocytes were performed. The mitochondrial morphology in cardiomyocytes was examined via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy. Autophagic levels in response to Ang II were examined by immunoblotting of autophagy-related proteins. Moreover, PINK1/MFN2/Parkin pathway-related proteins were examined. Results: With stimulation by Ang II, MFN2 expression was progressively reduced. MFN2 deficiency impaired mitochondrial quality, resulting in exacerbated mitochondrial damage induced by Ang II. The Ang II-induced increases in ROS production and apoptosis rate were alleviated by MFN2 overexpression. Moreover, MFN2 alleviated the Ang II-induced reduction in MMP. MFN2 promoted mitochondrial fusion, and MFN2 promoted Parkin translocation and phosphorylation, leading to mitochondrial autophagy. The effects of MFN2 overexpression were reversed by autophagy inhibitors. Conclusion: Mitofusin 2 promotes Parkin translocation and phosphorylation, leading to mitophagy to clear damaged mitochondria. However, the beneficial effects of MFN2 were reversed by autophagy inhibitors. Additionally, MFN2 participates in mitochondrial fusion to maintain mitochondrial quality. Thus, MFN2 participated in mitophagy and mitochondrial fusion against Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte injury.

19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 57(6)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918046

RESUMO

Genotyping based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 of the rRNA operon has played an important role in understanding the transmission and epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii, one of the major opportunistic pathogens in individuals with AIDS and other immunocompromised individuals. The widespread use of this typing system has resulted in several problems, including inconsistent genotype nomenclatures, difficult data transferability, and complicated interpretation of the length variation in multiple homopolymeric tracts. The aim of this study was to establish a new, simplified genotype nomenclature system for P. jirovecii based on the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. We first analyzed the complete ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, and ITS2 sequences (termed ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) in 27 recent P. jirovecii isolates from China and identified 18 unique genotypes. Subsequently, we performed a comprehensive classification of more than 400 ITS1- and ITS2-related sequences from GenBank and an in-depth evaluation of the length variation of multiple homopolymeric tracts within ITS1-5.8S-ITS2. Integration of the results from these analyses led to a new, simplified genotype nomenclature system including 62 unique ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 genotypes, simply designated types 1 through 62. This new system offers several advantages over traditional ITS1- and ITS2-based typing systems, including a simpler analysis and interpretation process, a higher discriminative power, and no limitation in assigning potential new genotypes. This new system is expected to facilitate the standardization of P. jirovecii genotyping and easy data exchanges across different laboratories.


Assuntos
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções por Pneumocystis/diagnóstico , Infecções por Pneumocystis/microbiologia , Pneumocystis carinii/classificação , Pneumocystis carinii/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/genética , Óperon de RNAr , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Bases , Coinfecção , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Tipagem Molecular/normas
20.
Chem Sci ; 10(46): 10698-10705, 2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055380

RESUMO

As one of the most critical molecular parameters, molecular weight distribution has a profound impact on the structure and properties of polymers. Quantitative and comprehensive understanding, however, has yet to be established, mainly due to the challenge in the precise control and regulation of molecular weight distribution. In this work, we demonstrated a robust and effective approach to artificially engineer the molecular weight distribution through precise recombination of discrete macromolecules. The width, symmetry, and other characteristics of the distribution can be independently manipulated to achieve absolute control, serving as a model platform for highlighting the importance of chain length heterogeneity in structural engineering. Different from their discrete counterparts, each individual component in dispersed samples experiences a varied degree of supercooling at a specific crystallization temperature. Non-uniform crystal nucleation and growth kinetics lead to distinct molecular arrangements. This work could bridge the gap between discrete and dispersed macromolecules, providing fundamental perspectives on the critical role of molecular weight distribution.

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