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1.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 164: 108169, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360398

RESUMO

In June 2019, the Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust and JDRF International (JDRF) co-sponsored the Healthcare Professional Resource Workshop in San Francisco, California. The workshop convened stakeholders in the diabetes field in order to: [1] review information and resources created for healthcare professionals (HCPs) caring for people with diabetes on intensive insulin therapy; [2] share knowledge to scale and decentralize diabetes care; [3] identify synergies across the leading diabetes information resources; and [4] determine the areas of unmet need for HCPs caring for people with diabetes on intensive insulin therapy. Here, we summarize the conclusions and recommendations from the workshop.

2.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 4(5): 507-517, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393892

RESUMO

Treatment of patients with diabetes with insulin and pramlintide (an amylin analogue) is more effective than treatment with insulin only. However, because mixtures of insulin and pramlintide are unstable and have to be injected separately, amylin analogues are only used by 1.5% of people with diabetes needing rapid-acting insulin. Here, we show that the supramolecular modification of insulin and pramlintide with cucurbit[7]uril-conjugated polyethylene glycol improves the pharmacokinetics of the dual-hormone therapy and enhances postprandial glucagon suppression in diabetic pigs. The co-formulation is stable for over 100 h at 37 °C under continuous agitation, whereas commercial formulations of insulin analogues aggregate after 10 h under similar conditions. In diabetic rats, the administration of the stabilized co-formulation increased the area-of-overlap ratio of the pharmacokinetic curves of pramlintide and insulin from 0.4 ± 0.2 to 0.7 ± 0.1 (mean ± s.d.) for the separate administration of the hormones. The co-administration of supramolecularly stabilized insulin and pramlintide better mimics the endogenous kinetics of co-secreted insulin and amylin, and holds promise as a dual-hormone replacement therapy.

5.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(4): 621-627, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify differences and similarities in HbA1c levels and patterns regarding age and gender in eight high-income countries. SUBJECTS: 66 071 children and adolescents below18 years of age with type 1 diabetes for at least 3 months and at least one HbA1c measurement during the study period. METHODS: Pediatric Diabetes Quality Registry data from Austria, Denmark, England, Germany, Norway, Sweden, the United States, and Wales were collected between 2013 and 2014. HbA1c, gender, age, and duration were used in the analysis. RESULTS: Distribution of gender and age groups was similar in the eight participating countries. The mean HbA1c varied from 60 to 73 mmol/mol (7.6%-8.8%) between the countries. The increase in HbA1c between the youngest (0-9 years) to the oldest (15-17 years) age group was close to 8 mmol/mol (0.7%) in all countries (P < .001). Females had a 1 mmol/mol (0.1%) higher mean HbA1c than boys (P < .001) in seven out of eight countries. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of large differences in the mean HbA1c between countries, a remarkable similarity in the increase of HbA1c from childhood to adolescence was found.

6.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329127

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the control of cardiovascular risk factors in type 1 diabetes (T1D) registries from the United States and Germany/Austria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on individuals aged ≥12 years with T1D for ≥1 year, from the T1D Exchange Clinic Network (T1DX, United States) and the Prospective Diabetes Follow-up Registry (DPV, Germany/Austria) from 1 January 2016 to 31 March 2018 were analysed. Linear and logistic regression models adjusted for age groups, sex, duration of diabetes and minority status were used to compare clinical characteristics and achievement of diabetes management targets between registries. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 47 936 patients (T1DX, n = 19 442; DPV, n = 28 494). Achievement of HbA1c goals (<7.0%, ages 18-65 years; all others, <7.5%) was better in the DPV for those aged <65 years (all P < .001). However, more older adults (aged ≥65 years) in the T1DX achieved an HbA1c goal of <7.5% compared with DPV (70% vs. 50%, P < .001). The frequency of patients with overweight (53% vs. 51%, P < .001) and obesity (19% vs. 9%, P < .001) was higher in T1DX. The frequency of meeting blood pressure goals (84% vs. 66%, P < .001) and lipid goals (73% vs. 62%, P < .001) was higher in T1DX; this was observed across all age groups (all P < .001). Few young adults aged <26 years received antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications, respectively, despite indications in both registries (T1DX: 5% and 3%, DPV: 3% and 1%). CONCLUSION: A minority of patients with T1D achieve glycaemic targets and the majority are inadequately treated for hypertension and dyslipidaemia. This highlights the need for improved diabetes and cardiovascular risk management strategies in T1D.

8.
Endocr Pract ; 26(5): 508-513, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045296

RESUMO

Objective: Every year, 500,000 youths in the U.S. with chronic disease turn 18 years of age and eventually require transfer to adult subspecialty care. Evidence-based interventions on the organization of transfer of care are limited, although engagement and retention in adult clinic are considered appropriate outcomes. Sustained continuity of care improves patient satisfaction and reduces hospitalization. Methods: We conducted a prospective, nonrandomized cohort study of patients with pediatric endocrine conditions, age 16 to 26 years, enrolled upon referral to the adult endocrine clinic of a physician trained in both adult and pediatric endocrinology (Med+Peds endocrinologist). Patients differed based on whether their referral originated from another pediatric endocrinologist (traditional transfer) or if the Med+Peds endocrinologist previously saw the patient in his pediatric endocrine clinic (guided transfer). Rather than relying on arbitrary age criteria, guided transfer to adult clinic occurred when physician and patient considered it appropriate. The primary outcome was show rate at the first and second adult visits. Results: Of 36 patients, 21 were referred by another pediatric endocrinologist and 15 underwent guided transfer. For traditional transfer, show rate to the first and second visit was 38%, compared to 100% in the guided transfer group (P = .0001). Subgroup analysis of 27 patients with diabetes revealed that both groups had similar initial hemoglobin A1c (P = .38), and the guided transfer group maintained hemoglobin A1c. Conclusion: Most traditional transfers were unsuccessful. Guided transfer was significantly more effective, with every patient successfully transferring, and could be implemented with adult endocrinologists willing to see patients in the pediatric clinic. Abbreviations: DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c; Med+Peds = Internal Medicine and Pediatrics.

9.
Diabetes Technol Ther ; 22(S1): S89-S108, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069148
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The T1D Exchange Clinic Registry figure of HbA1c levels according to age has become a classic picture of how average HbA1c varies from childhood to elderly. To further assess the course of HbA1c across the life span in T1D, we created similar figures stratified by device use and socio-economic status (SES). METHODS: Mean HbA1c was plotted versus age for 21,253 T1D Exchange Clinic Registry participants with an HbA1c measurement between January 1, 2016 and March 31, 2018 according to device use, race-ethnicity, and measures of SES. RESULTS: Across the age range from childhood to elderly, CGM use without an insulin pump had better average HbA1c than pump without CGM; and among CGM users, pump and injection users had similar HbA1c levels. Any device use (pump or CGM) was associated with better HbA1c levels than no device use across the age range. Lower SES and African American race were associated with higher HbA1c across the age range. Across all device use, SES, and race-ethnicity factors, average HbA1c levels were highest in adolescents and young adults. CONCLUSION: Although the plot of average HbA1c from early childhood to elderly shifts according to device use and SES factors, the shape of the plots remain reasonably constant with highest HbA1c levels in adolescents and young adults. These findings emphasize the importance of targeting adolescence and early adulthood as the ages with the greatest need for improving diabetes management irrespective of device use and SES.

12.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(2): e12582, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BMI fluctuations during puberty are common. Data on individual change in BMI from childhood to young adulthood are limited in youth with type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To compare longitudinal trajectories of body mass index z score (BMIz) from childhood to adolescence across three registries spanning five countries. METHODS: Data sources: T1DX (USA), DPV (Germany/Austria/Luxembourg) and ADDN (Australia). The analysis included 11,513 youth with type 1 diabetes, duration >1 year, at least one BMI measure at baseline (age 8-10 years) and >5 aggregated BMI measures by year of age during follow-up until age 17 years. BMIz was calculated based on WHO charts. Latent class growth modelling was used to identify subgroups following a similar trajectory of BMIz over time. RESULTS: Five distinct trajectories of BMIz were present in the T1DX and ADDN cohorts, while six trajectories were identified in the DPV cohort. Boys followed more often a low/near-normal pattern while elevated BMIz curves were more likely in girls (ADDN; DPV). For T1DX cohort, no sex differences were observed. Comparing the reference group (BMIz ~0) with the other groups during puberty, higher BMIz was significantly associated with older age at T1D onset, racial/ethnic minority and elevated HbA1c (all p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This multinational study presents unique BMIz trajectories in youth with T1D across three continents. The prevalence of overweight and the longitudinal persistence of overweight support the need for close monitoring of weight and nutrition in this population. The international and individual differences likely result from diverse genetic, environmental and therapeutic factors.

14.
J Pediatr ; 216: 1-3, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843101
15.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(6): 940-946, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To optimize treatment and prevent cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 1 diabetes, it is important to determine how cholesterol metabolism changes with type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare plasma levels of campesterol and ß-sitosterol, markers of cholesterol absorption, as well as lathosterol, a marker of cholesterol synthesis, in youth with and without type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from adolescent subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 175, mean age 15.2 years, mean duration of diabetes 8.2 years) and without diabetes (n = 74, mean age 15.4 years). Campesterol, ß-sitosterol, and lathosterol, were measured using targeted liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, compared between groups, and correlated with the available cardiometabolic variables. RESULTS: Campesterol and ß-sitosterol levels were 30% higher in subjects with type 1 diabetes and positively correlated with hemoglobin A1c levels. In contrast, lathosterol levels were 20% lower in subjects with type 1 diabetes and positively correlated with triglycerides, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Plasma markers suggest that cholesterol absorption is increased, whereas cholesterol synthesis is decreased in adolescent subjects with type 1 diabetes. Further studies to address the impact of these changes on the relative efficacy of cholesterol absorption and synthesis inhibitors in subjects with type 1 diabetes are urgently needed.

17.
Diabetes Care ; 42(12): 2190-2196, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In September 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the Medtronic 670G "hybrid" closed-loop system. In Auto Mode, this system automatically controls basal insulin delivery based on continuous glucose monitoring data but requires users to enter carbohydrates and blood glucose for boluses. To track real-world experience with this first commercial closed-loop device, we prospectively followed pediatric and adult patients starting the 670G system. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a 1-year prospective observational study of patients with type 1 diabetes starting the 670G system between May 2017 and May 2018 in clinic. RESULTS: Of the total of 84 patients who received 670G and consented, 5 never returned for follow-up, with 79 (aged 9-61 years) providing data at 1 week and 3, 6, 9, and/or 12 months after Auto Mode initiation. For the 86% (68 out of 79) with 1-week data, 99% (67 out of 68) successfully started. By 3 months, at least 28% (22 out of 79) had stopped using Auto Mode; at 6 months, 34% (27 out of 79); at 9 months, 35% (28 out of 79); and by 12 months, 33% (26 out of 79). The primary reason for continuing Auto Mode was desire for increased time in range. Reasons for discontinuation included sensor issues in 62% (16 out of 26), problems obtaining supplies in 12% (3 out of 26), hypoglycemia fear in 12% (3 out of 26), multiple daily injection preference in 8% (2 out of 26), and sports in 8% (2 out of 26). At all visits, there was a significant correlation between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and Auto Mode utilization. CONCLUSIONS: While Auto Mode utilization correlates with improved glycemic control, a focus on usability and human factors is necessary to ensure use of Auto Mode. Alarms and sensor calibration are a major patient concern, which future technology should alleviate.

18.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(10): 2000-2016, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although diabetic kidney disease demonstrates both familial clustering and single nucleotide polymorphism heritability, the specific genetic factors influencing risk remain largely unknown. METHODS: To identify genetic variants predisposing to diabetic kidney disease, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses. Through collaboration with the Diabetes Nephropathy Collaborative Research Initiative, we assembled a large collection of type 1 diabetes cohorts with harmonized diabetic kidney disease phenotypes. We used a spectrum of ten diabetic kidney disease definitions based on albuminuria and renal function. RESULTS: Our GWAS meta-analysis included association results for up to 19,406 individuals of European descent with type 1 diabetes. We identified 16 genome-wide significant risk loci. The variant with the strongest association (rs55703767) is a common missense mutation in the collagen type IV alpha 3 chain (COL4A3) gene, which encodes a major structural component of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Mutations in COL4A3 are implicated in heritable nephropathies, including the progressive inherited nephropathy Alport syndrome. The rs55703767 minor allele (Asp326Tyr) is protective against several definitions of diabetic kidney disease, including albuminuria and ESKD, and demonstrated a significant association with GBM width; protective allele carriers had thinner GBM before any signs of kidney disease, and its effect was dependent on glycemia. Three other loci are in or near genes with known or suggestive involvement in this condition (BMP7) or renal biology (COLEC11 and DDR1). CONCLUSIONS: The 16 diabetic kidney disease-associated loci may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of this condition and help identify potential biologic targets for prevention and treatment.

19.
J Pediatr ; 215: 7-8, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383469
20.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 20(8): 1110-1117, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate copeptin concentrations in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine the associations between copeptin and measures of arterial stiffness and kidney dysfunction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This analysis included 169 adolescents with T1D (12-19 years of age, 59% girls, mean HbA1c 9.0 ± 1.5% and diabetes duration of 8.6 ± 2.9 years), in addition to 61 controls without T1D. Arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV), carotid-radial PWV (CR-PWV), augmentation index normalized to heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@HR75), and brachial artery distensibility (BAD). Serum copeptin, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by serum creatinine and cystatin C were also assessed. RESULTS: Compared to controls, adolescents with T1D had higher median (Q1-Q3) copeptin (7.5 [5.2-11.3] vs 6.4 [4.8-8.3] pmol/L, P = .01), mean ± SD eGFR (121 ± 23 vs 112 ± 16 mL/min/1.73m2 , P = .002) and lower BAD (7.1 ± 1.3 vs 7.2 ± 1.2%, P = .02). Adolescents with T1D in the in high tertile copeptin group (>9.1 pmol/L) had higher AIx@HR75 (10.7 ± 1.2 vs 5 ± 1.2, P = .001), CR-PWV (5.30 ± 1.0 vs 5.18 ± 1.0 m/s, P = .04), and UACR (12 ± 1 vs 8 ± 1 mg/g, P = .025) compared to those in low tertile (<5.8 pmol/L) after adjusting for age, sex, and eGFR. Copeptin inversely associated with CF-PWV independent of age, sex, eGFR, SBP, and HbA1c in T1D adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that elevated copeptin was associated with worse arterial stiffness in adolescents with T1D. These findings suggest that copeptin could improve CVD risk stratification in adolescents with T1D.

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