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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(8): 852-861, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most tuberculosis-related deaths in people with HIV could be prevented with earlier diagnosis and treatment. The only commercially available tuberculosis point-of-care test (Alere Determine TB LAM Ag [AlereLAM]) has suboptimal sensitivity, which restricts its use in clinical practice. The novel Fujifilm SILVAMP TB LAM (FujiLAM) assay has been developed to improve the sensitivity of AlereLAM. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the FujiLAM assay for the detection of tuberculosis in hospital inpatients with HIV compared with the AlereLAM assay. METHODS: For this diagnostic accuracy study, we assessed biobanked urine samples obtained from the FIND Specimen Bank and the University of Cape Town Biobank, which had been collected from hospital inpatients (aged ≥18 years) with HIV during three independent prospective cohort studies done at two South African hospitals. Urine samples were tested using FujiLAM and AlereLAM assays. The conduct and reporting of each test was done blind to other test results. The primary objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of FujiLAM compared with AlereLAM, against microbiological and composite reference standards (including clinical diagnoses). FINDINGS: Between April 18, 2018, and May 3, 2018, urine samples from 968 hospital inpatients with HIV were evaluated. The prevalence of microbiologically-confirmed tuberculosis was 62% and the median CD4 count was 86 cells per µL. Using the microbiological reference standard, the estimated sensitivity of FujiLAM was 70·4% (95% CI 53·0 to 83·1) compared with 42·3% (31·7 to 51·8) for AlereLAM (difference 28·1%) and the estimated specificity of FujiLAM was 90·8% (86·0 to 94·4) and 95·0% (87·7-98·8) for AlereLAM (difference -4·2%). Against the composite reference standard, the specificity of both assays was higher (95·7% [92·0 to 98·0] for FujiLAM vs 98·2% [95·7 to 99·6] for AlereLAM; difference -2·5%), but the sensitivity of both assays was lower (64·9% [50·1 to 76·7] for FujiLAM vs 38·2% [28·1 to 47·3] for AlereLAM; difference 26·7%). INTERPRETATION: In comparison to AlereLAM, FujiLAM offers superior diagnostic sensitivity, while maintaining specificity, and could transform rapid point-of-care tuberculosis diagnosis for hospital inpatients with HIV. The applicability of FujiLAM for settings of intended use requires prospective assessment. FUNDING: Global Health Innovative Technology Fund, UK Department for International Development, Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Wellcome Trust, Department of Science and Technology and National Research Foundation of South Africa, and South African Medical Research Council.

2.
PLoS Med ; 16(4): e1002794, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate, comprehensive, and timely detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is essential to inform patient treatment and enable public health surveillance. This is crucial for effective control of TB globally. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches have potential as rapid in vitro diagnostics (IVDs), but the complexity of workflows, interpretation of results, high costs, and vulnerability of instrumentation have been barriers to broad uptake outside of reference laboratories, especially in low- and middle-income countries. A new, solid-state, tabletop sequencing instrument, Illumina iSeq100, has the potential to decentralize NGS for individual patient care. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we evaluated WGS and targeted NGS for TB on both the new iSeq100 and the widely used MiSeq (both manufactured by Illumina) and compared sequencing performance, costs, and usability. We utilized DNA libraries produced from Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates for the evaluation. We conducted WGS on three strains and observed equivalent uniform genome coverage with both platforms and found the depth of coverage obtained was consistent with the expected data output. Utilizing the standardized, cloud-based ReSeqTB bioinformatics pipeline for variant analysis, we found the two platforms to have 94.0% (CI 93.1%-94.8%) agreement, in comparison to 97.6% (CI 97%-98.1%) agreement for the same libraries on two MiSeq instruments. For the targeted NGS approach, 46 M. tuberculosis-specific amplicon libraries had 99.6% (CI 98.0%-99.9%) agreement between the iSeq100 and MiSeq data sets in drug resistance-associated SNPs. The upfront capital costs are almost 5-fold lower for the iSeq100 ($19,900 USD) platform in comparison to the MiSeq ($99,000 USD); however, because of difference in the batching capabilities, the price per sample for WGS was higher on the iSeq100. For WGS of M. tuberculosis at the minimum depth of coverage of 30x, the cost per sample on the iSeq100 was $69.44 USD versus $28.21 USD on the MiSeq, assuming a 2 × 150 bp run on a v3 kit. In terms of ease of use, the sequencing workflow of iSeq100 has been optimized to only require 27 minutes total of hands-on time pre- and post-run, and the maintenance is simplified by a single-use cartridge-based fluidic system. As these are the first sequencing attempts on the iSeq100 for M. tuberculosis, the sequencing pool loading concentration still needs optimization, which will affect sequencing error and depth of coverage. Additionally, the costs are based on current equipment and reagent costs, which are subject to change. CONCLUSIONS: The iSeq100 instrument is capable of running existing TB WGS and targeted NGS library preparations with comparable accuracy to the MiSeq. The iSeq100 has reduced sequencing workflow hands-on time and is able to deliver sequencing results in <24 hours. Reduced capital and maintenance costs and lower-throughput capabilities also give the iSeq100 an advantage over MiSeq in settings of individualized care but not in high-throughput settings such as reference laboratories, where sample batching can be optimized to minimize cost at the expense of workflow complexity and time.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 691-706, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388399

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammation and is associated with multiple complex diseases. The genetic determinants of chronic inflammation remain largely unknown, and the causal role of CRP in several clinical outcomes is debated. We performed two genome-wide association studies (GWASs), on HapMap and 1000 Genomes imputed data, of circulating amounts of CRP by using data from 88 studies comprising 204,402 European individuals. Additionally, we performed in silico functional analyses and Mendelian randomization analyses with several clinical outcomes. The GWAS meta-analyses of CRP revealed 58 distinct genetic loci (p < 5 × 10-8). After adjustment for body mass index in the regression analysis, the associations at all except three loci remained. The lead variants at the distinct loci explained up to 7.0% of the variance in circulating amounts of CRP. We identified 66 gene sets that were organized in two substantially correlated clusters, one mainly composed of immune pathways and the other characterized by metabolic pathways in the liver. Mendelian randomization analyses revealed a causal protective effect of CRP on schizophrenia and a risk-increasing effect on bipolar disorder. Our findings provide further insights into the biology of inflammation and could lead to interventions for treating inflammation and its clinical consequences.

4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4228, 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315176

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels can cause gout, an excruciating disease with suboptimal treatment. Previous GWAS identified common variants with modest effects on serum urate. Here we report large-scale whole-exome sequencing association studies of serum urate and kidney function among ≤19,517 European ancestry and African-American individuals. We identify aggregate associations of low-frequency damaging variants in the urate transporters SLC22A12 (URAT1; p = 1.3 × 10-56) and SLC2A9 (p = 4.5 × 10-7). Gout risk in rare SLC22A12 variant carriers is halved (OR = 0.5, p = 4.9 × 10-3). Selected rare variants in SLC22A12 are validated in transport studies, confirming three as loss-of-function (R325W, R405C, and T467M) and illustrating the therapeutic potential of the new URAT1-blocker lesinurad. In SLC2A9, mapping of rare variants of large effects onto the predicted protein structure reveals new residues that may affect urate binding. These findings provide new insights into the genetic architecture of serum urate, and highlight molecular targets in SLC22A12 and SLC2A9 for lowering serum urate and preventing gout.

5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1793: 231-258, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876900

RESUMO

Differences between genomes can be due to single nucleotide variants (SNPs), translocations, inversions and copy number variants (CNVs, gain or loss of DNA). The latter can range from sub-microscopic events to complete chromosomal aneuploidies. Small CNVs are often benign but those larger than 250 kb are strongly associated with morbid consequences such as developmental disorders and cancer. Detecting CNVs within and between populations is essential to better understand the plasticity of our genome and to elucidate its possible contribution to disease or phenotypic traits.While the link between SNPs and disease susceptibility has been well studied, to date there are still very few published CNV genome-wide association studies; probably owing to the fact that CNV analysis remains a slightly more complex task than SNP analysis (both in term of bioinformatics workflow and uncertainty in the CNV calling leading to high false positive rates and unknown false negative rates). This chapter aims at explaining computational methods for the analysis of CNVs, ranging from study design, data processing and quality control, up to genome-wide association study with clinical traits.

6.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(1): 335-348, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29093028

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg2+) homeostasis is critical for metabolism. However, the genetic determinants of the renal handling of Mg2+, which is crucial for Mg2+ homeostasis, and the potential influence on metabolic traits in the general population are unknown. We obtained plasma and urine parameters from 9099 individuals from seven cohorts, and conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of Mg2+ homeostasis. We identified two loci associated with urinary magnesium (uMg), rs3824347 (P=4.4×10-13) near TRPM6, which encodes an epithelial Mg2+ channel, and rs35929 (P=2.1×10-11), a variant of ARL15, which encodes a GTP-binding protein. Together, these loci account for 2.3% of the variation in 24-hour uMg excretion. In human kidney cells, ARL15 regulated TRPM6-mediated currents. In zebrafish, dietary Mg2+ regulated the expression of the highly conserved ARL15 ortholog arl15b, and arl15b knockdown resulted in renal Mg2+ wasting and metabolic disturbances. Finally, ARL15 rs35929 modified the association of uMg with fasting insulin and fat mass in a general population. In conclusion, this combined observational and experimental approach uncovered a gene-environment interaction linking Mg2+ deficiency to insulin resistance and obesity.

7.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 744, 2017 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963451

RESUMO

There are few examples of robust associations between rare copy number variants (CNVs) and complex continuous human traits. Here we present a large-scale CNV association meta-analysis on anthropometric traits in up to 191,161 adult samples from 26 cohorts. The study reveals five CNV associations at 1q21.1, 3q29, 7q11.23, 11p14.2, and 18q21.32 and confirms two known loci at 16p11.2 and 22q11.21, implicating at least one anthropometric trait. The discovered CNVs are recurrent and rare (0.01-0.2%), with large effects on height (>2.4 cm), weight (>5 kg), and body mass index (BMI) (>3.5 kg/m2). Burden analysis shows a 0.41 cm decrease in height, a 0.003 increase in waist-to-hip ratio and increase in BMI by 0.14 kg/m2 for each Mb of total deletion burden (P = 2.5 × 10-10, 6.0 × 10-5, and 2.9 × 10-3). Our study provides evidence that the same genes (e.g., MC4R, FIBIN, and FMO5) harbor both common and rare variants affecting body size and that anthropometric traits share genetic loci with developmental and psychiatric disorders.Individual SNPs have small effects on anthropometric traits, yet the impact of CNVs has remained largely unknown. Here, Kutalik and co-workers perform a large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of structural variation and find rare CNVs associated with height, weight and BMI with large effect sizes.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Relação Cintura-Quadril
8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 80(2): 129-139, 2016 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26742926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deletions and duplications of the 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus are prevalent copy number variations (CNVs), highly associated with autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Beyond language and global cognition, neuropsychological assessments of these two CNVs have not yet been reported. METHODS: This study investigates the relationship between the number of genomic copies at the 16p11.2 locus and cognitive domains assessed in 62 deletion carriers, 44 duplication carriers, and 71 intrafamilial control subjects. RESULTS: IQ is decreased in deletion and duplication carriers, but we demonstrate contrasting cognitive profiles in these reciprocal CNVs. Deletion carriers present with severe impairments of phonology and of inhibition skills beyond what is expected for their IQ level. In contrast, for verbal memory and phonology, the data may suggest that duplication carriers outperform intrafamilial control subjects with the same IQ level. This finding is reminiscent of special isolated skills as well as contrasting language performance observed in autism spectrum disorder. Some domains, such as visuospatial and working memory, are unaffected by the 16p11.2 locus beyond the effect of decreased IQ. Neuroimaging analyses reveal that measures of inhibition covary with neuroanatomic structures previously identified as sensitive to 16p11.2 CNVs. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous study of reciprocal CNVs suggests that the 16p11.2 genomic locus modulates specific cognitive skills according to the number of genomic copies. Further research is warranted to replicate these findings and elucidate the molecular mechanisms modulating these cognitive performances.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Deficiência Intelectual , Inteligência/genética , Linguagem , Memória/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtorno Autístico/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
9.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 73(1): 20-30, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26629640

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 duplication is the copy number variant most frequently associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and comorbidities such as decreased body mass index (BMI). OBJECTIVES: To characterize the effects of the 16p11.2 duplication on cognitive, behavioral, medical, and anthropometric traits and to understand the specificity of these effects by systematically comparing results in duplication carriers and reciprocal deletion carriers, who are also at risk for ASD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This international cohort study of 1006 study participants compared 270 duplication carriers with their 102 intrafamilial control individuals, 390 reciprocal deletion carriers, and 244 deletion controls from European and North American cohorts. Data were collected from August 1, 2010, to May 31, 2015 and analyzed from January 1 to August 14, 2015. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of the duplication and deletion on clinical traits by comparison with noncarrier relatives. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Findings on the Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), Nonverbal IQ, and Verbal IQ; the presence of ASD or other DSM-IV diagnoses; BMI; head circumference; and medical data. RESULTS: Among the 1006 study participants, the duplication was associated with a mean FSIQ score that was lower by 26.3 points between proband carriers and noncarrier relatives and a lower mean FSIQ score (16.2-11.4 points) in nonproband carriers. The mean overall effect of the deletion was similar (-22.1 points; P < .001). However, broad variation in FSIQ was found, with a 19.4- and 2.0-fold increase in the proportion of FSIQ scores that were very low (≤40) and higher than the mean (>100) compared with the deletion group (P < .001). Parental FSIQ predicted part of this variation (approximately 36.0% in hereditary probands). Although the frequency of ASD was similar in deletion and duplication proband carriers (16.0% and 20.0%, respectively), the FSIQ was significantly lower (by 26.3 points) in the duplication probands with ASD. There also were lower head circumference and BMI measurements among duplication carriers, which is consistent with the findings of previous studies. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The mean effect of the duplication on cognition is similar to that of the reciprocal deletion, but the variance in the duplication is significantly higher, with severe and mild subgroups not observed with the deletion. These results suggest that additional genetic and familial factors contribute to this variability. Additional studies will be necessary to characterize the predictors of cognitive deficits.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Transtornos Cromossômicos/psicologia , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cognição , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Transtornos Cromossômicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Microcefalia/epidemiologia , Microcefalia/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto Jovem
10.
JAMA ; 313(20): 2044-54, 2015 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26010633

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: The association of copy number variations (CNVs), differing numbers of copies of genetic sequence at locations in the genome, with phenotypes such as intellectual disability has been almost exclusively evaluated using clinically ascertained cohorts. The contribution of these genetic variants to cognitive phenotypes in the general population remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features conferred by CNVs associated with known syndromes in adult carriers without clinical preselection and to assess the genome-wide consequences of rare CNVs (frequency ≤0.05%; size ≥250 kilobase pairs [kb]) on carriers' educational attainment and intellectual disability prevalence in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The population biobank of Estonia contains 52,000 participants enrolled from 2002 through 2010. General practitioners examined participants and filled out a questionnaire of health- and lifestyle-related questions, as well as reported diagnoses. Copy number variant analysis was conducted on a random sample of 7877 individuals and genotype-phenotype associations with education and disease traits were evaluated. Our results were replicated on a high-functioning group of 993 Estonians and 3 geographically distinct populations in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Italy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Phenotypes of genomic disorders in the general population, prevalence of autosomal CNVs, and association of these variants with educational attainment (from less than primary school through scientific degree) and prevalence of intellectual disability. RESULTS: Of the 7877 in the Estonian cohort, we identified 56 carriers of CNVs associated with known syndromes. Their phenotypes, including cognitive and psychiatric problems, epilepsy, neuropathies, obesity, and congenital malformations are similar to those described for carriers of identical rearrangements ascertained in clinical cohorts. A genome-wide evaluation of rare autosomal CNVs (frequency, ≤0.05%; ≥250 kb) identified 831 carriers (10.5%) of the screened general population. Eleven of 216 (5.1%) carriers of a deletion of at least 250 kb (odds ratio [OR], 3.16; 95% CI, 1.51-5.98; P = 1.5e-03) and 6 of 102 (5.9%) carriers of a duplication of at least 1 Mb (OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.29-8.54; P = .008) had an intellectual disability compared with 114 of 6819 (1.7%) in the Estonian cohort. The mean education attainment was 3.81 (P = 1.06e-04) among 248 (≥250 kb) deletion carriers and 3.69 (P = 5.024e-05) among 115 duplication carriers (≥1 Mb). Of the deletion carriers, 33.5% did not graduate from high school (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.12-1.95; P = .005) and 39.1% of duplication carriers did not graduate high school (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.27-2.8; P = 1.6e-03). Evidence for an association between rare CNVs and lower educational attainment was supported by analyses of cohorts of adults from Italy and the United States and adolescents from the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Known pathogenic CNVs in unselected, but assumed to be healthy, adult populations may be associated with unrecognized clinical sequelae. Additionally, individually rare but collectively common intermediate-size CNVs may be negatively associated with educational attainment. Replication of these findings in additional population groups is warranted given the potential implications of this observation for genomics research, clinical care, and public health.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Heterozigoto , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Escolaridade , Epilepsia/genética , Estônia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
11.
PLoS Genet ; 10(7): e1004508, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25078964

RESUMO

The phenotypic effect of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) depends on their parental origin. We present a novel approach to detect parent-of-origin effects (POEs) in genome-wide genotype data of unrelated individuals. The method exploits increased phenotypic variance in the heterozygous genotype group relative to the homozygous groups. We applied the method to >56,000 unrelated individuals to search for POEs influencing body mass index (BMI). Six lead SNPs were carried forward for replication in five family-based studies (of ∼4,000 trios). Two SNPs replicated: the paternal rs2471083-C allele (located near the imprinted KCNK9 gene) and the paternal rs3091869-T allele (located near the SLC2A10 gene) increased BMI equally (beta = 0.11 (SD), P<0.0027) compared to the respective maternal alleles. Real-time PCR experiments of lymphoblastoid cell lines from the CEPH families showed that expression of both genes was dependent on parental origin of the SNPs alleles (P<0.01). Our scheme opens new opportunities to exploit GWAS data of unrelated individuals to identify POEs and demonstrates that they play an important role in adult obesity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Impressão Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/patologia
12.
PLoS Genet ; 9(9): e1003796, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24068962

RESUMO

Calcium is vital to the normal functioning of multiple organ systems and its serum concentration is tightly regulated. Apart from CASR, the genes associated with serum calcium are largely unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 39,400 individuals from 17 population-based cohorts and investigated the 14 most strongly associated loci in ≤ 21,679 additional individuals. Seven loci (six new regions) in association with serum calcium were identified and replicated. Rs1570669 near CYP24A1 (P = 9.1E-12), rs10491003 upstream of GATA3 (P = 4.8E-09) and rs7481584 in CARS (P = 1.2E-10) implicate regions involved in Mendelian calcemic disorders: Rs1550532 in DGKD (P = 8.2E-11), also associated with bone density, and rs7336933 near DGKH/KIAA0564 (P = 9.1E-10) are near genes that encode distinct isoforms of diacylglycerol kinase. Rs780094 is in GCKR. We characterized the expression of these genes in gut, kidney, and bone, and demonstrate modulation of gene expression in bone in response to dietary calcium in mice. Our results shed new light on the genetics of calcium homeostasis.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cálcio/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homeostase/genética , Animais , Densidade Óssea/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Front Genet ; 4: 92, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23750167

RESUMO

Differences between genomes can be due to single nucleotide variants, translocations, inversions, and copy number variants (CNVs, gain or loss of DNA). The latter can range from sub-microscopic events to complete chromosomal aneuploidies. Small CNVs are often benign but those larger than 500 kb are strongly associated with morbid consequences such as developmental disorders and cancer. Detecting CNVs within and between populations is essential to better understand the plasticity of our genome and to elucidate its possible contribution to disease. Hence there is a need for better-tailored and more robust tools for the detection and genome-wide analyses of CNVs. While a link between a given CNV and a disease may have often been established, the relative CNV contribution to disease progression and impact on drug response is not necessarily understood. In this review we discuss the progress, challenges, and limitations that occur at different stages of CNV analysis from the detection (using DNA microarrays and next-generation sequencing) and identification of recurrent CNVs to the association with phenotypes. We emphasize the importance of germline CNVs and propose strategies to aid clinicians to better interpret structural variations and assess their clinical implications.

14.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 114(6): 734-41, 2013 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23329815

RESUMO

To determine how astrocytic leptin signaling regulates the physiological response of mice to diet-induced obesity (DIO), we performed metabolic analyses and hypothalamic leptin signaling assays on astrocytic leptin-receptor knockout (ALKO) mice in which astrocytes lack functional leptin receptor (ObR) signaling. ALKO mice and wild-type (WT) littermate controls were studied at different stages of DIO with measurement of body wt, percent fat, metabolic activity, and biochemical parameters. When fed regular chow, the ALKO mice had similar body wt, percent fat, food intake, heat dissipation, respiratory exchange ratio, and activity as their WT littermates. There was no change in blood concentrations of triglyceride, soluble leptin receptor (sObR), mRNA for leptin and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in adipose tissue, and insulin sensitivity. Unexpectedly, in response to a high-fat diet the ALKO mice had attenuated hyperleptinemia and sObR, a lower level of leptin mRNA in subcutaneous fat, and a paradoxical increase in UCP1 mRNA. Thus, ALKO mice did not show the worsening of obesity that occurs with normal WT mice and the neuronal ObR mutation that results in morbid obesity. The findings are consistent with a competing, counterregulatory model between neuronal and astrocytic leptin signaling.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Receptores para Leptina/deficiência , Adiposidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Genótipo , Insulina/sangue , Canais Iônicos/genética , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Atividade Motora , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Receptores para Leptina/sangue , Receptores para Leptina/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Proteína Desacopladora 1
15.
J Med Genet ; 49(10): 660-8, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23054248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recurrent ~600 kb 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 deletion is among the most frequent known genetic aetiologies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related neurodevelopmental disorders. OBJECTIVE: To define the medical, neuropsychological, and behavioural phenotypes in carriers of this deletion. METHODS: We collected clinical data on 285 deletion carriers and performed detailed evaluations on 72 carriers and 68 intrafamilial non-carrier controls. RESULTS: When compared to intrafamilial controls, full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) is two standard deviations lower in carriers, and there is no difference between carriers referred for neurodevelopmental disorders and carriers identified through cascade family testing. Verbal IQ (mean 74) is lower than non-verbal IQ (mean 83) and a majority of carriers require speech therapy. Over 80% of individuals exhibit psychiatric disorders including ASD, which is present in 15% of the paediatric carriers. Increase in head circumference (HC) during infancy is similar to the HC and brain growth patterns observed in idiopathic ASD. Obesity, a major comorbidity present in 50% of the carriers by the age of 7 years, does not correlate with FSIQ or any behavioural trait. Seizures are present in 24% of carriers and occur independently of other symptoms. Malformations are infrequently found, confirming only a few of the previously reported associations. CONCLUSIONS: The 16p11.2 deletion impacts in a quantitative and independent manner FSIQ, behaviour and body mass index, possibly through direct influences on neural circuitry. Although non-specific, these features are clinically significant and reproducible. Lastly, this study demonstrates the necessity of studying large patient cohorts ascertained through multiple methods to characterise the clinical consequences of rare variants involved in common diseases.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Ordem dos Genes , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
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