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1.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical exome sequencing typically achieves diagnostic yields of 30%-57.5% in individuals with monogenic rare diseases. Undiagnosed diseases programmes implement strategies to improve diagnostic outcomes for these individuals. AIM: We share the lessons learnt from the first 3 years of the Undiagnosed Diseases Program-Victoria, an Australian programme embedded within a clinical genetics service in the state of Victoria with a focus on paediatric rare diseases. METHODS: We enrolled families who remained without a diagnosis after clinical genomic (panel, exome or genome) sequencing between 2016 and 2018. We used family-based exome sequencing (family ES), family-based genome sequencing (family GS), RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and high-resolution chromosomal microarray (CMA) with research-based analysis. RESULTS: In 150 families, we achieved a diagnosis or strong candidate in 64 (42.7%) (37 in known genes with a consistent phenotype, 3 in known genes with a novel phenotype and 24 in novel disease genes). Fifty-four diagnoses or strong candidates were made by family ES, six by family GS with RNA-seq, two by high-resolution CMA and two by data reanalysis. CONCLUSION: We share our lessons learnt from the programme. Flexible implementation of multiple strategies allowed for scalability and response to the availability of new technologies. Broad implementation of family ES with research-based analysis showed promising yields post a negative clinical singleton ES. RNA-seq offered multiple benefits in family ES-negative populations. International data sharing strategies were critical in facilitating collaborations to establish novel disease-gene associations. Finally, the integrated approach of a multiskilled, multidisciplinary team was fundamental to having diverse perspectives and strategic decision-making.

2.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 2(5): 500-517, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568833

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis results from somatic mutations in cancer driver genes in hematopoietic stem cells. We sought to identify novel drivers of clonal expansion using an unbiased analysis of sequencing data from 84,683 persons and identified common mutations in the 5-methylcytosine reader, ZBTB33, as well as in YLPM1, SRCAP, and ZNF318. We also identified these mutations at low frequency in myelodysplastic syndrome patients. Zbtb33 edited mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells exhibited a competitive advantage in vivo and increased genome-wide intron retention. ZBTB33 mutations potentially link DNA methylation and RNA splicing, the two most commonly mutated pathways in clonal hematopoiesis and MDS.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3394, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099641

RESUMO

The large majority of variants identified by GWAS are non-coding, motivating detailed characterization of the function of non-coding variants. Experimental methods to assess variants' effect on gene expressions in native chromatin context via direct perturbation are low-throughput. Existing high-throughput computational predictors thus have lacked large gold standard sets of regulatory variants for training and validation. Here, we leverage a set of 14,807 putative causal eQTLs in humans obtained through statistical fine-mapping, and we use 6121 features to directly train a predictor of whether a variant modifies nearby gene expression. We call the resulting prediction the expression modifier score (EMS). We validate EMS by comparing its ability to prioritize functional variants with other major scores. We then use EMS as a prior for statistical fine-mapping of eQTLs to identify an additional 20,913 putatively causal eQTLs, and we incorporate EMS into co-localization analysis to identify 310 additional candidate genes across UK Biobank phenotypes.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
Neurol Genet ; 7(1): e554, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977140

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the diagnostic utility of whole-genome sequencing and RNA studies in boys with suspected dystrophinopathy, for whom multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and exomic parallel sequencing failed to yield a genetic diagnosis, and to use remnant normal DMD splicing in 3 families to define critical levels of wild-type dystrophin bridging clinical spectrums of Duchenne to myalgia. Methods: Exome, genome, and/or muscle RNA sequencing was performed for 7 males with elevated creatine kinase. PCR of muscle-derived complementary DNA (cDNA) studied consequences for DMD premessenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing. Quantitative Western blot was used to determine levels of dystrophin, relative to control muscle. Results: Splice-altering intronic single nucleotide variants or structural rearrangements in DMD were identified in all 7 families. Four individuals, with abnormal splicing causing a premature stop codon and nonsense-mediated decay, expressed remnant levels of normally spliced DMD mRNA. Quantitative Western blot enabled correlation of wild-type dystrophin and clinical severity, with 0%-5% dystrophin conferring a Duchenne phenotype, 10% ± 2% a Becker phenotype, and 15% ± 2% dystrophin associated with myalgia without manifesting weakness. Conclusions: Whole-genome sequencing relied heavily on RNA studies to identify DMD splice-altering variants. Short-read RNA sequencing was regularly confounded by the effectiveness of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and low read depth of the giant DMD mRNA. PCR of muscle cDNA provided a simple, yet informative approach. Highly relevant to genetic therapies for dystrophinopathies, our data align strongly with previous studies of mutant dystrophin in Becker muscular dystrophy, with the collective conclusion that a fractional increase in levels of normal dystrophin between 5% and 20% is clinically significant.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 29(5): 816-826, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649541

RESUMO

Variants in multiple tubulin genes have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders, including malformations of cortical development (MCD) and congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM). Distinct missense variants in the beta-tubulin encoding genes TUBB3 and TUBB2B cause MCD, CFEOM, or both, suggesting substitution-specific mechanisms. Variants in the alpha tubulin-encoding gene TUBA1A have been associated with MCD, but not with CFEOM. Using exome sequencing (ES) and genome sequencing (GS), we identified 3 unrelated probands with CFEOM who harbored novel heterozygous TUBA1A missense variants c.1216C>G, p.(His406Asp); c.467G>A, p.(Arg156His); and c.1193T>G, p.(Met398Arg). MRI revealed small oculomotor-innervated muscles and asymmetrical caudate heads and lateral ventricles with or without corpus callosal thinning. Two of the three probands had MCD. Mutated amino acid residues localize either to the longitudinal interface at which α and ß tubulins heterodimerize (Met398, His406) or to the lateral interface at which tubulin protofilaments interact (Arg156), and His406 interacts with the motor domain of kinesin-1. This series of individuals supports TUBA1A variants as a cause of CFEOM and expands our knowledge of tubulinopathies.

12.
iScience ; 24(1): 101948, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458610

RESUMO

Microtubules help building the cytoskeleton of neurons and other cells. Several components of the gamma-tubulin (γ-tubulin) complex have been previously reported in human neurodevelopmental diseases. We describe two siblings from a consanguineous Turkish family with dysmorphic features, developmental delay, brain malformation, and epilepsy carrying a homozygous mutation (p.Glu311Lys) in TUBGCP2 encoding the γ-tubulin complex 2 (GCP2) protein. This variant is predicted to disrupt the electrostatic interaction of GCP2 with GCP3. In primary fibroblasts carrying the variant, we observed a faint delocalization of γ-tubulin during the cell cycle but normal GCP2 protein levels. Through mass spectrometry, we observed dysregulation of multiple proteins involved in the assembly and organization of the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix, controlling cellular adhesion and of proteins crucial for neuronal homeostasis including axon guidance. In summary, our functional and proteomic studies link TUBGCP2 and the γ-tubulin complex to the development of the central nervous system in humans.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 29(1): 61-66, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862205

RESUMO

X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a severe congenital myopathy characterised by generalised weakness and respiratory insufficiency. XLMTM is associated with pathogenic variants in MTM1; a gene encoding the lipid phosphatase myotubularin. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of an exome-negative male proband with severe hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency and centralised nuclei on muscle biopsy identified a deep intronic MTM1 variant NG_008199.1(NM_000252.2):c.1468-577A>G, which strengthened a cryptic 5' splice site (A>G substitution at the +5 position). Muscle RNA sequencing was non-diagnostic due to low read depth. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) of muscle RNA confirmed the c.1468-577A>G variant activates inclusion of a pseudo-exon encoding a premature stop codon into all detected MTM1 transcripts. Western blot analysis establishes deficiency of myotubularin protein, consistent with the severe XLMTM phenotype. We expand the genotypic spectrum of XLMTM and highlight benefits of screening non-coding regions of MTM1 in male probands with phenotypically concordant XLMTM who remain undiagnosed following exome sequencing.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases não Receptoras/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Miopatias Congênitas Estruturais/patologia , Fenótipo , Sítios de Splice de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
15.
Genet Med ; 22(9): 1478-1488, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528171

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several hundred genetic muscle diseases have been described, all of which are rare. Their clinical and genetic heterogeneity means that a genetic diagnosis is challenging. We established an international consortium, MYO-SEQ, to aid the work-ups of muscle disease patients and to better understand disease etiology. METHODS: Exome sequencing was applied to 1001 undiagnosed patients recruited from more than 40 neuromuscular disease referral centers; standardized phenotypic information was collected for each patient. Exomes were examined for variants in 429 genes associated with muscle conditions. RESULTS: We identified suspected pathogenic variants in 52% of patients across 87 genes. We detected 401 novel variants, 116 of which were recurrent. Variants in CAPN3, DYSF, ANO5, DMD, RYR1, TTN, COL6A2, and SGCA collectively accounted for over half of the solved cases; while variants in newer disease genes, such as BVES and POGLUT1, were also found. The remaining well-characterized unsolved patients (48%) need further investigation. CONCLUSION: Using our unique infrastructure, we developed a pathway to expedite muscle disease diagnoses. Our data suggest that exome sequencing should be used for pathogenic variant detection in patients with suspected genetic muscle diseases, focusing first on the most common disease genes described here, and subsequently in rarer and newly characterized disease genes.


Assuntos
Exoma , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros , Anoctaminas , Exoma/genética , Glucosiltransferases , Humanos , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2539, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461613

RESUMO

Multi-nucleotide variants (MNVs), defined as two or more nearby variants existing on the same haplotype in an individual, are a clinically and biologically important class of genetic variation. However, existing tools typically do not accurately classify MNVs, and understanding of their mutational origins remains limited. Here, we systematically survey MNVs in 125,748 whole exomes and 15,708 whole genomes from the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD). We identify 1,792,248 MNVs across the genome with constituent variants falling within 2 bp distance of one another, including 18,756 variants with a novel combined effect on protein sequence. Finally, we estimate the relative impact of known mutational mechanisms - CpG deamination, replication error by polymerase zeta, and polymerase slippage at repeat junctions - on the generation of MNVs. Our results demonstrate the value of haplotype-aware variant annotation, and refine our understanding of genome-wide mutational mechanisms of MNVs.


Assuntos
Exoma , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Ilhas de CpG , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Mutação
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2523, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461616

RESUMO

Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are tissue-specific cis-regulators of protein translation. Isolated reports have shown that variants that create or disrupt uORFs can cause disease. Here, in a systematic genome-wide study using 15,708 whole genome sequences, we show that variants that create new upstream start codons, and variants disrupting stop sites of existing uORFs, are under strong negative selection. This selection signal is significantly stronger for variants arising upstream of genes intolerant to loss-of-function variants. Furthermore, variants creating uORFs that overlap the coding sequence show signals of selection equivalent to coding missense variants. Finally, we identify specific genes where modification of uORFs likely represents an important disease mechanism, and report a novel uORF frameshift variant upstream of NF2 in neurofibromatosis. Our results highlight uORF-perturbing variants as an under-recognised functional class that contribute to penetrant human disease, and demonstrate the power of large-scale population sequencing data in studying non-coding variant classes.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Variação Genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Proteínas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Fases de Leitura Aberta
18.
Nature ; 581(7809): 444-451, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461652

RESUMO

Structural variants (SVs) rearrange large segments of DNA1 and can have profound consequences in evolution and human disease2,3. As national biobanks, disease-association studies, and clinical genetic testing have grown increasingly reliant on genome sequencing, population references such as the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD)4 have become integral in the interpretation of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs)5. However, there are no reference maps of SVs from high-coverage genome sequencing comparable to those for SNVs. Here we present a reference of sequence-resolved SVs constructed from 14,891 genomes across diverse global populations (54% non-European) in gnomAD. We discovered a rich and complex landscape of 433,371 SVs, from which we estimate that SVs are responsible for 25-29% of all rare protein-truncating events per genome. We found strong correlations between natural selection against damaging SNVs and rare SVs that disrupt or duplicate protein-coding sequence, which suggests that genes that are highly intolerant to loss-of-function are also sensitive to increased dosage6. We also uncovered modest selection against noncoding SVs in cis-regulatory elements, although selection against protein-truncating SVs was stronger than all noncoding effects. Finally, we identified very large (over one megabase), rare SVs in 3.9% of samples, and estimate that 0.13% of individuals may carry an SV that meets the existing criteria for clinically important incidental findings7. This SV resource is freely distributed via the gnomAD browser8 and will have broad utility in population genetics, disease-association studies, and diagnostic screening.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Médica/normas , Genética Populacional/normas , Genoma Humano/genética , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Padrões de Referência , Seleção Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Nature ; 581(7809): 459-464, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461653

RESUMO

Naturally occurring human genetic variants that are predicted to inactivate protein-coding genes provide an in vivo model of human gene inactivation that complements knockout studies in cells and model organisms. Here we report three key findings regarding the assessment of candidate drug targets using human loss-of-function variants. First, even essential genes, in which loss-of-function variants are not tolerated, can be highly successful as targets of inhibitory drugs. Second, in most genes, loss-of-function variants are sufficiently rare that genotype-based ascertainment of homozygous or compound heterozygous 'knockout' humans will await sample sizes that are approximately 1,000 times those presently available, unless recruitment focuses on consanguineous individuals. Third, automated variant annotation and filtering are powerful, but manual curation remains crucial for removing artefacts, and is a prerequisite for recall-by-genotype efforts. Our results provide a roadmap for human knockout studies and should guide the interpretation of loss-of-function variants in drug development.


Assuntos
Genes Essenciais/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Essenciais/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Artefatos , Automação , Consanguinidade , Éxons/genética , Mutação com Ganho de Função/genética , Frequência do Gene , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Serina-Treonina Proteína Quinase-2 com Repetições Ricas em Leucina/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Proteínas Priônicas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tamanho da Amostra , Proteínas tau/genética
20.
Nature ; 581(7809): 452-458, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461655

RESUMO

The acceleration of DNA sequencing in samples from patients and population studies has resulted in extensive catalogues of human genetic variation, but the interpretation of rare genetic variants remains problematic. A notable example of this challenge is the existence of disruptive variants in dosage-sensitive disease genes, even in apparently healthy individuals. Here, by manual curation of putative loss-of-function (pLoF) variants in haploinsufficient disease genes in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD)1, we show that one explanation for this paradox involves alternative splicing of mRNA, which allows exons of a gene to be expressed at varying levels across different cell types. Currently, no existing annotation tool systematically incorporates information about exon expression into the interpretation of variants. We develop a transcript-level annotation metric known as the 'proportion expressed across transcripts', which quantifies isoform expression for variants. We calculate this metric using 11,706 tissue samples from the Genotype Tissue Expression (GTEx) project2 and show that it can differentiate between weakly and highly evolutionarily conserved exons, a proxy for functional importance. We demonstrate that expression-based annotation selectively filters 22.8% of falsely annotated pLoF variants found in haploinsufficient disease genes in gnomAD, while removing less than 4% of high-confidence pathogenic variants in the same genes. Finally, we apply our expression filter to the analysis of de novo variants in patients with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability or developmental disorders to show that pLoF variants in weakly expressed regions have similar effect sizes to those of synonymous variants, whereas pLoF variants in highly expressed exons are most strongly enriched among cases. Our annotation is fast, flexible and generalizable, making it possible for any variant file to be annotated with any isoform expression dataset, and will be valuable for the genetic diagnosis of rare diseases, the analysis of rare variant burden in complex disorders, and the curation and prioritization of variants in recall-by-genotype studies.


Assuntos
Doença/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/normas , Distribuição de Poisson , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
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