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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in technology, patients with Cardiogenic Shock (CS) presenting with ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI) still have a poor prognosis with high mortality rates. A large proportion of these patients have multi-vessel coronary artery disease, the treatment of which is still unclear. We aimed to assess the trends in management of CS patients with multi-vessel disease (MVD), particularly looking at the incidence and outcomes of complete revascularisation compared to culprit vessel only. METHODS AND RESULTS: We undertook an observational cohort study of 21,210 STEMI patients treated between 2005 and 2015 at the 8 Heart Attack Centres in London, UK. Patients' details were recorded prospectively into local databases using the British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) PCI dataset. 1058 patients presented with CS and MVD. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Patients were followed-up for a median of 4.1 years (IQR range: 2.2-5.8 years). 497 (47.0%) patients underwent complete revascularisation during primary PCI for CS with stable rates seen over time. These patients were more likely to be male, hypertensive and more likely to have poor LV function compared to the culprit vessel intervention group. Although crude, in hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rates were similar (40.8% vs. 36.0%, p = 0.558) between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no significant differences in mortality rates between the two groups (53.8% complete revascularisation vs. 46.8% culprit vessel intervention, p = 0.252) during the follow-up period. After multivariate cox analysis (HR 0.69 95% CI (0.44-0.98)) and the use of propensity matching (HR: 0.81 95% CI: 0.62-0.97) complete revascularisation was associated with reduced mortality. A number of co-variates were included in the model, including age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, previous PCI, previous MI, chronic renal failure, Anterior infarct, number of treated vessels, pre-procedure TIMI flow, procedural success and GP IIb/IIIA use. CONCLUSION: In a contemporary observational series of CS patients with MVD, complete revascularisation appears to be associated with better outcomes compared to culprit vessel only intervention. This supports on-going clinical trials in this area and provides further evidence of the association of complete revascularisation in STEMI with good outcomes.

3.
Cardiol J ; 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ST2 is a circulating biomarker that is well established for predicting outcome in heart failure (HF). This is the first study to look at ST2 concentrations in optimally treated patients with stable but significant left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) compared to patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). METHODS: Two cohorts were retrospectively studied: 94 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe AS (63 with normal ejection fraction [EF] and 31 with reduced EF), and 50 patients with severe LVSD from non-valvular causes. ST2 pre-procedural samples were taken, and repeated again at 3 and 6 months. Patients were followed-up for 2 years. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: Baseline concentrations of soluble ST2 did not differ significantly between the HF group and AS group with normal EF (EF ≥ 50%). However, in the AS group with a low EF (EF < 50%) ST2 concentrations were significantly higher that the HF group (p = 0.009). New York Heart Association class IV HF, baseline N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and gender were all independent predictors of soluble ST2 (sST2) baseline concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Raised ST2 concentrations in the context of severe AS may be a marker for subclinical or clinical left ventricular dysfunction. More research is required to assess its use for assessment of prognosis and response to treatment.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 40(31): 2620-2629, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220238

RESUMO

AIMS: The public reporting of healthcare outcomes has a number of potential benefits; however, unintended consequences may limit its effectiveness as a quality improvement process. We aimed to assess whether the introduction of individual operator specific outcome reporting after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the UK was associated with a change in patient risk factor profiles, procedural management, or 30-day mortality outcomes in a large cohort of consecutive patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was an observational cohort study of 123 780 consecutive PCI procedures from the Pan-London (UK) PCI registry, from January 2005 to December 2015. Outcomes were compared pre- (2005-11) and post- (2011-15) public reporting including the use of an interrupted time series analysis. Patients treated after public reporting was introduced were older and had more complex medical problems. Despite this, reported in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events rates were significantly lower after the introduction of public reporting (2.3 vs. 2.7%, P < 0.0001). Interrupted time series analysis demonstrated evidence of a reduction in 30-day mortality rates after the introduction of public reporting, which was over and above the existing trend in mortality before the introduction of public outcome reporting (35% decrease relative risk 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.77; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The introduction of public reporting has been associated with an improvement in outcomes after PCI in this data set, without evidence of risk-averse behaviour. However, the lower reported complication rates might suggest a change in operator behaviour and decision-making confirming the need for continued surveillance of the impact of public reporting on outcomes and operator behaviour.

5.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(5): 433-443, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the Acurate neo (NEO) and Evolut PRO (PRO) devices. BACKGROUND: The NEO and PRO bioprostheses are 2 next-generation self-expanding devices developed for TAVR. METHODS: The NEOPRO (A Multicenter Comparison of Acurate NEO Versus Evolut PRO Transcatheter Heart Valves) registry retrospectively included patients who underwent transfemoral TAVR with either NEO or PRO valves at 24 centers between January 2012 and March 2018. One-to-one propensity score matching resulted in 251 pairs. Pre-discharge and 30-day Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 defined outcomes were evaluated. Binary logistic regression was performed to adjust the treatment effect for propensity score quintiles. RESULTS: A total of 1,551 patients (n = 1,263 NEO; n = 288 PRO) were included. The mean age was 82 years, and the mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 5.1%. After propensity score matching (n = 502), VARC-2 device success (90.6% vs. 91.6%; p = 0.751) and pre-discharge moderate to severe (II+) paravalvular aortic regurgitation (7.3% vs. 5.7%; p = 0.584) were comparable between the NEO and PRO groups. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in any 30-day clinical outcome between matched NEO and PRO pairs, including all-cause mortality (3.2% vs. 1.2%; p = 0.221), stroke (2.4% vs. 2.8%; p = 1.000), new permanent pacemaker implantation (11.0% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.565), and VARC-2 early safety endpoint (10.6% vs. 10.4%; p = 1.000). Logistic regression on the unmatched cohort confirmed a similar risk of VARC-2 device success, paravalvular aortic regurgitation II+, and 30-day clinical outcomes after NEO and PRO implantation. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter registry, transfemoral TAVR with the NEO and PRO bioprostheses was associated with high device success, acceptable rates of paravalvular aortic regurgitation II+, and good 30-day clinical outcomes. After adjusting for potential confounders, short-term outcomes were similar between the devices.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(5): 537-545, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Very little is known about long-term valve durability after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the incidence of structural valve degeneration (SVD) 5 to 10 years post-procedure. METHODS: Demographic, procedural, and in-hospital outcome data on patients who underwent TAVR from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from the U.K. TAVI (United Kingdom Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) registry. Patients in whom echocardiographic data were available both at baseline and ≥5 years post-TAVR were included. Hemodynamic SVD was determined according to European task force committee guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients (79.3 ± 7.5 years of age; 46% female) with paired post-procedure and late echocardiographic follow-up (median 5.8 years, range 5 to 10 years) were included. A total of 149 patients (64%) were treated with a self-expandable valve and 80 (34.7%) with a balloon-expandable valve. Peak aortic valve gradient at follow-up was lower than post-procedure (17.1 vs. 19.1 mm Hg; p = 0.002). More patients had none/trivial aortic regurgitation (AR) (47.5% vs. 33%), and fewer had mild AR (42.5% vs. 57%) at follow-up (p = 0.02). There was 1 case (0.4%) of severe SVD 5.3 years after implantation (new severe AR). There were 21 cases (8.7%) of moderate SVD (mean 6.1 years post-implantation; range 4.9 to 8.6 years). Twelve of these (57%) were due to new AR and 9 (43%) to restenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term transcatheter aortic valve function is excellent. In the authors' study, 91% of patients remained free of SVD between 5 and 10 years post-implantation. The incidence of severe SVD was <1%. Moderate SVD occurred in 1 in 12 patients.

8.
Circulation ; 139(10): 1249-1258, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous mechanical circulatory support devices are increasingly used in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS), despite limited evidence for their effectiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes associated with use of the Impella device compared with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and medical treatment in patients with AMI-CS. METHODS: Data of patients with AMI-CS treated with the Impella device at European tertiary care hospitals were collected retrospectively. All patients underwent early revascularization and received optimal medical treatment. Using IABP-SHOCK II (Intraaortic Balloon Pump in Cardiogenic Shock II) trial inclusion and exclusion criteria, 372 patients were identified and included in this analysis. These patients were matched to 600 patients from the IABP-SHOCK II trial. The following baseline criteria were used as matching parameters: age, sex, mechanical ventilation, ejection fraction, prior cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and lactate. Primary end point was 30-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: In total, 237 patients treated with an Impella could be matched to 237 patients from the IABP-SHOCK II trial. Baseline parameters were similarly distributed after matching. There was no significant difference in 30-day all-cause mortality (48.5% versus 46.4%, P=0.64). Severe or life-threatening bleeding (8.5% versus 3.0%, P<0.01) and peripheral vascular complications (9.8% versus 3.8%, P=0.01) occurred significantly more often in the Impella group. Limiting the analysis to IABP-treated patients as a control group did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective analysis of patients with AMI-CS, the use of an Impella device was not associated with lower 30-day mortality compared with matched patients from the IABP-SHOCK II trial treated with an IABP or medical therapy. To further evaluate this, a large randomized trial is warranted to determine the effect of the Impella device on outcome in patients with AMI-CS. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT03313687.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467680

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to report clinical outcomes of patients unsuitable for surgical coronary revascularization (CABG) treated with percutaneous revascularization (PCI) or medical therapy alone (MT). The decision to revascularize patients referred for CABG but who are unsuitable should be made at Heart Team meetings. The clinical outcomes in this important patient subset are not known, and while cases are considered individually, these decisions are not guided by robust data. Clinical data were analyzed for patients referred to the Heart Team for consideration of CABG over a 4-year period in a UK tertiary referral center. Outcome data for those managed with urgent PCI or MT were considered over a further 3-year period. 133 patients were treated with PCI and 117 with MT. MACE at 30 days were no different between groups (MT 10.3% versus PCI 12.2%); however, at 1 year MACE were higher in the MT group (MT 39.3% versus PCI 26.7%, P < 0.01). Log rank for MACE-free survival to 1 and 3 years was significantly lower in the MT group [HR 1.77 (0.60-1.11); P < 0.001]. Residual SYNTAX was an independent predictor of death. MT [OR 1.75 (1.03-2.99); P = 0.04] and a residual SYNTAX score [OR 6.45 (2.53-16.45); P < 0.001] were independent predictors of MACE at 1 year in the whole group. Our data reveal better outcomes in patients treated with PCI over MT at 1-3 years in CABG-ineligible patients. Patients without complete revascularization have worse outcomes.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(17): 1989-1999, 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) present with multivessel disease (MVD). There is uncertainty in the role of complete coronary revascularization in this group of patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of complete revascularization compared with culprit vessel-only intervention in a large contemporary cohort of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for NSTEMI. METHODS: The authors undertook an observational cohort study of 37,491 NSTEMI patients treated between 2005 and 2015 at the 8 heart attack centers in London. Clinical details were recorded at the time of the procedure into local databases using the British Cardiac Intervention Society (BCIS) PCI dataset. A total of 21,857 patients (58.3%) presented with NSTEMI and MVD. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 4.1 years (interquartile range: 2.2 to 5.8 years). RESULTS: A total of 11,737 (53.7%) patients underwent single-stage complete revascularization during PCI for NSTEMI, rates that significantly increased during the study period (p = 0.006). Those patients undergoing complete revascularization were older and more likely to be male, diabetic, have renal disease and a history of previous myocardial infarction/revascularization compared with the culprit-only revascularization group. Although crude, in-hospital major adverse cardiac event rates were similar (5.2% vs. 4.8%; p = 0.462) between the 2 groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated significant differences in mortality rates between the 2 groups (22.5% complete revascularization vs. 25.9% culprit vessel intervention; p = 0.0005) during the follow-up period. After multivariate Cox analysis (hazard ratio: 0.90; 95% confidence interval: 0.85 to 0.97) and the use of propensity matching (hazard ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.76 to 0.98) complete revascularization was associated with reduced mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In NSTEMI patients with MVD, despite higher initial (in-hospital) mortality rates, single-stage complete coronary revascularization appears to be superior to culprit-only vessel PCI in terms of long-term mortality rates. This supports the need for further randomized study to confirm these findings.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341836

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this analysis was to evaluate the final 5-year safety and effectiveness of the PROMUS Element platinum-chromium everolimus-eluting stent in unselected patients treated in routine clinical practice. BACKGROUND: The prospective, open-label PROMUS Element™ European Post-Approval Surveillance Study (PE-PROVE) enrolled 1,010 "real-world" patients who received the PROMUS Element stent. Adverse event rates were low at 1-year, and the incidence of stent thrombosis was 0.6%. METHODS: The primary endpoint was target vessel failure (TVF; overall and PE stent-related), a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI) related to the target vessel, or target vessel revascularization (TVR) at 1-year post-implantation. Five-year clinical outcomes were evaluated in overall as well as high-risk patient subgroups. RESULTS: The overall 5-year TVF rate was 14.9%, with 7.0% being related to the study stent. Cardiac death, MI and TVR related to the study stent occurred in 0.5%, 3.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. Stent thrombosis through 5-year follow-up was 1.0%. The rates of overall and study stent related TVF were numerically higher in patients with medically treated diabetes, long lesions (≥28 mm), and small diameter vessels (≤2.5 mm) compared to the overall study population. Additionally, favorable stent thrombosis rates through 5 years were reported for the PROMUS Element stent in these high-risk subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The final 5-year data from the PE-PROVE study demonstrate favorable outcomes and low rates of adverse events with the PE stent when used in "real-world" patients with coronary artery disease.

12.
Am Heart J ; 204: 92-101, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a global public health issue. There is wide variation in both regional and inter-hospital survival rates from OHCA and overall survival remains poor at 7%. Regionalization of care into cardiac arrest centers (CAC) improves outcomes following cardiac arrest from ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) through concentration of services and greater provider experience. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) recommends delivery of all post-arrest patients to a CAC, but that randomized controlled trials are necessary in patients without ST elevation (STE). METHODS/DESIGN: Following completion of a pilot randomized trial to assess safety and feasibility of conducting a large-scale randomized controlled trial in patients following OHCA of presumed cardiac cause without STE, we present the rationale and design of A Randomized tRial of Expedited transfer to a cardiac arrest center for non-ST elevation OHCA (ARREST). In total 860 patients will be enrolled and randomized (1:1) to expedited transfer to CAC (24/7 access to interventional cardiology facilities, cooling and goal-directed therapies) or to the current standard of care, which comprises delivery to the nearest emergency department. Primary outcome is 30-day all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes are 30-day and 3-month neurological status and 3, 6 and 12-month mortality. Patients will be followed up for one year after enrolment. CONCLUSION: Post-arrest care is time-critical, requires a multi-disciplinary approach and may be more optimally delivered in centers with greater provider experience. This trial would help to demonstrate if regionalization of post-arrest care to CACs reduces mortality in patients without STE, which could dramatically reshape emergency care provision.

13.
Int J Cardiol ; 268: 170-175, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The durability of TAVR prostheses has come under major scrutiny since the move towards lower risk patients. We sought to compare the rate of structural valve deterioration (SVD) over time between transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). METHODS: We included all TAVR and SAVR patients (age ≥ 75 years) that were performed in our centre from 2005 until 2015. Applying the internationally "agreed on" definitions of SVD, we surveyed all available serial echocardiographic follow-ups. RESULTS: We included 269 TAVR and 174 SAVR cases. Post-intervention, TAVR patients had lower mean and peak gradients but higher rate of mild aortic regurgitation. SAVR patients had longer follow-up (in months, SAVR: 53 (30, 85) Vs TAVR: 33.4 (23, 52)). SVD as per Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 (VARC-2) was similar between the two groups (TAVR 28% Vs SAVR 31%; P = 0.593) but moderate haemodynamic SVD (European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Intervention (EAPCI) criteria) was more common among SAVR cases (TAVR 11.5% Vs SAVR 20.7%; P = 0.007). Using Kaplan-Meier estimates, the rate of SVD over time was not different between the two groups as per VARC-2 criteria but different when moderate haemodynamic SVD criteria were applied (Log Rank P = 0.022) in favour of TAVR. The mean gradient rose steadily over time but more so post-SAVR (ß = 0.52 ±â€¯0.24 in comparison to TAVR at every given time point; P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Structural valve deterioration is common on long-term follow-up post-TAVR. The rate is similar to post-SAVR cases according to VARC-2 criteria but less according to the moderate haemodynamic SVD criteria.

14.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(14): 1313-1321, 2018 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the effect on long-term survival of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Angiographic guidance for PCI has substantial limitations. The superior spatial resolution of OCT could translate into meaningful clinical benefits, although limited data exist to date about their effect on clinical endpoints. METHODS: This was a cohort study based on the Pan-London (United Kingdom) PCI registry, which includes 123,764 patients who underwent PCI in National Health Service hospitals in London between 2005 and 2015. Patients undergoing primary PCI or pressure wire use were excluded leaving 87,166 patients in the study. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at a median of 4.8 years. RESULTS: OCT was used in 1,149 (1.3%) patients, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was used in 10,971 (12.6%) patients, and angiography alone in the remaining 75,046 patients. Overall OCT rates increased over time (p < 0.0001), with variation in rates between centers (p = 0.002). The mean stent length was shortest in the angiography-guided group, longer in the IVUS-guided group, and longest in the OCT-guided group. OCT-guided procedures were associated with greater procedural success rates and reduced in-hospital MACE rates. A significant difference in mortality was observed between patients who underwent OCT-guided PCI (7.7%) compared with patients who underwent either IVUS-guided (12.2%) or angiography-guided (15.7%; p < 0.0001) PCI, with differences seen for both elective (p < 0.0001) and acute coronary syndrome subgroups (p = 0.0024). Overall this difference persisted after multivariate Cox analysis (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26 to 0.81; p = 0.001) and propensity matching (hazard ratio: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.77; p = 0.0008; OCT vs. angiography-alone cohort), with no difference in matched OCT and IVUS cohorts (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.61 to 1.38; p = 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: In this large observational study, OCT-guided PCI was associated with improved procedural outcomes, in-hospital events, and long-term survival compared with standard angiography-guided PCI.

15.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017633

RESUMO

Aortic paravalvular leakage (PVL) is a recognised complication of surgically replaced valves which is often treated using vascular plugs. Whilst transcatheter valve-in-valve therapy has been increasingly used for failed surgical bioprostheses, it is not considered as a treatment option for aortic PVL. However, the newer design of transcatheter aortic valves has a fabric skirt to create a more effective seal around the annulus. To our best knowledge, for the first time, we report successful adoption of the valve-in-valve therapy for the treatment of PVL in surgical bioprsthetic aortic valves such that the fabric skirt is placed immediately below the regurgitant orifice resulting in significant reduction in the PVL.

16.
Coron Artery Dis ; 29(7): 557-563, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusions (CTO) are commonly encountered in patients undergoing coronary angiography; however, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is infrequently performed owing to technical difficulty, the perceived risk of complications and a lack of randomized data. The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency and outcomes of CTO-PCI procedures in a large contemporary cohort of successive patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We undertook an observational cohort study of 48 234 patients with stable angina of which 5496 (11.4%) procedures were performed for CTOs between 2005 and 2015 at nine tertiary cardiac centres across London, UK. Outcome was assessed by in-hospital major adverse cardiac events and all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 4.8 years (interquartile range: 2.2-6.4 years). RESULTS: Over time, there was an increase in the proportion of elective PCI procedures performed for CTOs, but no increase in the absolute number. Overall success rates increased over time (74.3% in 2005 to 81.5% in 2015; P=0.0003) despite an increase in case complexity (previous myocardial infarction, diabetes, renal failure, previous coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral vascular disease and left ventricular impairment) that correlated with procedural advancements. Successful CTO PCI was associated with lower mortality [9.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 8.1-11.6 vs. 15.3%, 95% CI: 13.7-20.6, P<0.0001] that persisted after multivariate cox analysis (hazard ratio: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.25-0.62) and propensity matching (hazard ratio=0.36, 95% CI: 0.18-0.73, P=0.0005). CONCLUSION: Successful procedures were associated with lower mortality suggesting that the greater uptake of CTO PCI may improve clinical outcomes in a wider population than are currently being offered therapy.

17.
Heart ; 104(19): 1621-1628, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Performing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) without general anaesthesia (GA) has been increasingly adopted. We sought to study the impact of GA and non-GA approaches on procedural outcome and 30-day and 1-year mortality in transfemoral TAVI. METHODS: The UK TAVI registry holds information for every TAVI procedure in the UK. We analysed the data for patients implanted during 2013-2014 using either an Edwards Sapien or a Medtronic CoreValve prosthesis. Propensity score-matching analysis was performed to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS: 2243 patients were studied (aged 81.4±7.5 years, 1195 males). 1816 (81%) underwent TAVI with GA and 427 (19%) without GA. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) was used in 92.3% of GA and 12.4% of non-GA cases (p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the rate of successful valve deployment (GA 97.2% vs non-GA 95.7%, p=0.104) and in the incidence of more than mild aortic regurgitation (AR) at the end of the procedure (GA 5.6% vs non-GA 7.0%, p=0.295). However, procedure time was longer (131±60 vs 121±60mins, p=0.002) and length of stay was greater (8.0±13.5 vs 5.7±5.5 days, p<0.001) for GA cases. 30-day and 1-year mortality rates did not differ between the GA and non-GA cases. After propensity matching, these results remained unchanged. A second propensity analysis (adjusted for mode of anaesthesia) did not show an association between use of TOE and rate of successful valve deployment or frequency of significant AR. Neither was TOE associated with a longer procedural time or greater length of stay. CONCLUSION: Procedure outcome, and 30-day and 1-year mortality are not influenced by mode of anaesthesia. However, GA is associated with longer procedure duration and greater length of stay.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 253: 55-60, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The decision-making process of patients with angiographically-intermediate coronary lesions (ICL) is clinically challenging and may benefit from adjunctive invasive techniques. Fractional-flow-reserve (FFR) represents the gold standard to evaluate ICL but frequency-domain optical-coherence-tomography (OCT) is a novel, promising, high resolution coronary imaging technique, which allows physiopathologic assessment of coronary plaque. We investigated the possible relation between OCT and FFR in selected ICL patients. METHODS: Stable or unstable patients with ICL who underwent both FFR and OCT assessment at two large tertiary centers were retrospectively enrolled. FFR was performed according to standard methodology. OCT images were (on blind to clinical and FFR results) analyzed to assess minimal lumen area (MLA), percentage area stenosis (AS), thrombus and plaque ulceration. RESULTS: Forty patients were identified (62±10years, 93% symptomatic, 35% acute presentation, 93% left-anterior-descending artery ICL). Percentage diameter stenosis at quantitative coronary angiography was 40±12% and FFR was 0.85±0.07. MLA (p=0.009), AS (p<0.001) and plaque ulceration (p=0.02) were significantly associated with FFR values. An integrated assessment of AS (≥ or <70%), MLA (≥ or <2.5mm2) and presence or absence of thrombus and plaque ulceration was found to have the potential to accurately (sensitivity 91%, specificity 93%) predict FFR results. CONCLUSION: In patients with ICL, a combination of different OCT parameters may help predict FFR results. These findings suggest that only a comprehensive assessment of lesion features by OCT can allow an accurate prediction of lesion severity assessed by FFR.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose Coronária/fisiopatologia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/normas
19.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 7(1): 16-27, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. We aimed to assess the current trends in cardiogenic shock management, looking specifically at the incidence, use of intra-aortic balloon pump therapy and outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: We undertook an observational cohort study of 21,210 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients treated between 2005-2015 at the eight Heart Attack Centres in London, UK. Patients' details were recorded at the time of the procedure into local databases using the British Cardiac Intervention Society percutaneous coronary intervention dataset. There were 1890 patients who presented with cardiogenic shock. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at a median follow-up of 4.1 years (interquartile range: 2.2-5.8 years). Increasing rates of cardiogenic shock were seen over the course of the study with consistently high mortality rates of 45-70%. A total of 685 patients underwent intra-aortic balloon pump insertion during primary percutaneous coronary intervention for cardiogenic shock with decreasing rates over time. Those patients undergoing intra-aortic balloon pump therapy were younger, more likely to have poor left ventricular function and less likely to have had previous percutaneous coronary intervention compared to the control group. Procedural success rates were similar (86.0% vs 87.1%, p=0.292) although crude, in-hospital major adverse cardiac event rates were higher (43.8% vs 33.7%, p<0.0001) in patients undergoing intra-aortic balloon pump therapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated significantly higher mortality rates in patients receiving intra-aortic balloon pump therapy (50.9% intra-aortic balloon pump vs 39.9% control, p<0.0001) during the follow-up period. After multivariate Cox analysis (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.62-1.89) and the use of propensity matching (hazard ratio: 1.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-1.45) intra-aortic balloon pump therapy was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Cardiogenic shock treated by percutaneous coronary intervention is increasing in incidence and remains a condition associated with high mortality and limited treatment options. Intra-aortic balloon pump therapy was not associated with a long-term survival benefit in this cohort and may be associated with increased early morbidity.


Assuntos
Balão Intra-Aórtico/métodos , Choque Cardiogênico/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cardiol J ; 25(1): 14-23, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) becomes more straightforward, a larger proportion of patients will be well enough to be discharged early. This study sought to charac-terise the clinical features that allowed patients to be discharged early after TAVI and to evaluate the safety of an early discharge policy. METHODS: All patients undergoing TAVI at the above cited center from August 2007 to March 2015 were included in this study. Baseline characteristics, in-hospital outcomes, re-admissions and mortality were compared. RESULTS: Three hundred thirty-seven TAVIs were performed during the study period, and 18 died in-hospital (18/337, 5.3%). Of the remaining patients, 56 were discharged within 3 days of the index procedure ('early discharge group' 56/319, 17.5%). There was no difference between the early discharge and late discharge group in terms of Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 (VARC-2) criteria out-comes, all-cause re-admission rates and the need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Mortality at 1 year was better among the early discharge group (3.6% vs. 15.6%, p = 0.014); a reflection of baseline clinical differences. CONCLUSION: Early discharge of clinically selected TAVI patients is safe and appropriate. Lower logistic EuroSCORE, smaller delta creatinine and not developing any complications are factors associated with early discharge. (Cardiol J 2018; 25, 1: 14-23).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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