*Phys Rev Lett ; 129(18): 187701, 2022 Oct 28.*

##### RESUMO

We report enhanced interlayer tunneling with reduced linewidth at zero interlayer bias in a twist-controlled double monolayer graphene heterostructure in the quantum Hall regime, when the top (ν_{T}) and bottom (ν_{B}) layer filling factors are near ν_{T}=±1/2,±3/2 and ν_{B}=±1/2,±3/2, and the total filling factor ν=±1 or ±3. The zero-bias interlayer conductance peaks are stable against variations of layer filling factor, and signal the emergence of interlayer phase coherence. Our results highlight twist control as a key attribute in revealing interlayer coherence using tunneling.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 129(18): 187001, 2022 Oct 28.*

##### RESUMO

We present a theory of superconductivity in twisted bilayer graphene in which attraction is generated between electrons on the same honeycomb sublattice when the system is close to a sublattice polarization instability. The resulting Cooper pairs are spin-polarized valley singlets. Because the sublattice polarizability is mainly contributed by interband fluctuations, superconductivity occurs over a wide range of filling fraction. It is suppressed by (i) applying a sublattice polarizing field (generated by an aligned BN substrate) or (ii) changing moiré band filling to favor valley polarization. The enhanced intrasublattice attraction close to sublattice polarization instability is analogous to enhanced like-spin attraction in liquid ^{3}He near the melting curve and the enhanced valley-singlet repulsion close to valley-polarization instabilities is analogous to enhanced spin-singlet repulsion in metals that are close to a ferromagnetic instability. We comment on the relationship between our pseudospin paramagnon model and the rich phenomenology of superconductivity in twisted bilayer and multilayer graphene.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2207681119, 2022 Oct 18.*

##### RESUMO

In intrinsic magnetic topological insulators, Dirac surface-state gaps are prerequisites for quantum anomalous Hall and axion insulating states. Unambiguous experimental identification of these gaps has proved to be a challenge, however. Here, we use molecular beam epitaxy to grow intrinsic MnBi2Te4 thin films. Using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, we directly visualize the Dirac mass gap and its disappearance below and above the magnetic order temperature. We further reveal the interplay of Dirac mass gaps and local magnetic defects. We find that, in high defect regions, the Dirac mass gap collapses. Ab initio and coupled Dirac cone model calculations provide insight into the microscopic origin of the correlation between defect density and spatial gap variations. This work provides unambiguous identification of the Dirac mass gap in MnBi2Te4 and, by revealing the microscopic origin of its gap variation, establishes a material design principle for realizing exotic states in intrinsic magnetic topological insulators.

*Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6468, 2022 Oct 29.*

##### RESUMO

Twisted double bilayer graphene (tDBG) comprises two Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene sheets with a twist between them. Gate voltages applied to top and back gates of a tDBG device tune both the flatness and topology of the electronic bands, enabling an unusual level of experimental control. Metallic states with broken spin and valley symmetries have been observed in tDBG devices with twist angles in the range 1.2-1.3°, but the topologies and order parameters of these states have remained unclear. We report the observation of an anomalous Hall effect in the correlated metal state of tDBG, with hysteresis loops spanning hundreds of mT in out-of-plane magnetic field (Bâ¥) that demonstrate spontaneously broken time-reversal symmetry. The Bâ¥ hysteresis persists for in-plane fields up to several Tesla, suggesting valley (orbital) ferromagnetism. At the same time, the resistivity is strongly affected by even mT-scale values of in-plane magnetic field, pointing to spin-valley coupling or to a direct orbital coupling between in-plane field and the valley degree of freedom.

*Nat Nanotechnol ; 17(10): 1060-1064, 2022 Oct.*

##### RESUMO

Strong coupling between light and elementary excitations is emerging as a powerful tool to engineer the properties of solid-state systems. Spin-correlated excitations that couple strongly to optical cavities promise control over collective quantum phenomena such as magnetic phase transitions, but their suitable electronic resonances are yet to be found. Here, we report strong light-matter coupling in NiPS3, a van der Waals antiferromagnet with highly correlated electronic degrees of freedom. A previously unobserved class of polaritonic quasiparticles emerges from the strong coupling between its spin-correlated excitons and the photons inside a microcavity. Detailed spectroscopic analysis in conjunction with a microscopic theory provides unique insights into the origin and interactions of these exotic magnetically coupled excitations. Our work introduces van der Waals magnets to the field of strong light-matter physics and provides a path towards the design and control of correlated electron systems via cavity quantum electrodynamics.

*Nano Lett ; 22(19): 7841-7847, 2022 Oct 12.*

##### RESUMO

2D materials have intriguing quantum phenomena that are distinctively different from their bulk counterparts. Recently, epitaxially synthesized wafer-scale 2D metals, composed of elemental atoms, are attracting attention not only for their potential applications but also for exotic quantum effects such as superconductivity. By mapping momentum-resolved electronic states using time-resolved and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we reveal that monolayer Ag confined between bilayer graphene and SiC is a large gap (>1 eV) 2D semiconductor, consistent with ab initio GW calculations. The measured valence band dispersion matches the GW quasiparticle band structure. However, the conduction band dispersion shows an anomalously large effective mass of 2.4 m0. Possible mechanisms for this large enhancement in the "apparent mass" are discussed.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 128(21): 217202, 2022 May 27.*

##### RESUMO

Moiré materials formed in two-dimensional semiconductor heterobilayers are quantum simulators of Hubbard-like physics with unprecedented electron density and interaction strength tunability. Compared to atomic scale Hubbard-like systems, electrons or holes in moiré materials are less strongly attracted to their effective lattice sites because these are defined by finite-depth potential extrema. As a consequence, nonlocal interaction terms like interaction-assisted hopping and intersite exchange are more relevant. We theoretically demonstrate the possibility of tuning the strength of these coupling constants to favor unusual states of matter, including spin liquids, insulating ferromagnets, and superconductors.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(18): 186805, 2021 Oct 29.*

##### RESUMO

The hybridization of magnetism and superconductivity has been an intriguing playground for correlated electron systems, hosting various novel physical phenomena. Usually, localized d or f electrons are central to magnetism. In this study, by placing a PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydride) molecular monolayer on ultrathin Pb films, we built a hybrid magnetism/superconductivity (M/SC) system consisting of only sp electronic levels. The magnetic moments reside in the unpaired molecular orbital originating from interfacial charge transfers. We reported distinctive tunneling spectroscopic features of such a Kondo screened π electron impurity lattice on a superconductor in the regime of T_{K}â«Δ, suggesting the formation of a two-dimensional bound states band. Moreover, moiré superlattices with tunable twist angle and the quantum confinement in the ultrathin Pb films provide easy and flexible implementations to tune the interplay between the Kondo physics and the superconductivity, which are rarely present in M/SC hybrid systems.

*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6491, 2021 Nov 18.*

##### RESUMO

Spin-orbit torques (SOT) enable efficient electrical control of the magnetic state of ferromagnets, ferrimagnets and antiferromagnets. However, the conventional SOT has severe limitation that only in-plane spins accumulate near the surface, whether interpreted as a spin Hall effect (SHE) or as an Edelstein effect. Such a SOT is not suitable for controlling perpendicular magnetization, which would be more beneficial for realizing low-power-consumption memory devices. Here we report the observation of a giant magnetic-field-like SOT in a topological antiferromagnet Mn3Sn, whose direction and size can be tuned by changing the order parameter direction of the antiferromagnet. To understand the magnetic SHE (MSHE)- and the conventional SHE-induced SOTs on an equal footing, we formulate them as interface spin-electric-field responses and analyzed using a macroscopic symmetry analysis and a complementary microscopic quantum kinetic theory. In this framework, the large out-of-plane spin accumulation due to the MSHE has an inter-band origin and is likely to be caused by the large momentum-dependent spin splitting in Mn3Sn. Our work demonstrates the unique potential of antiferromagnetic Weyl semimetals in overcoming the limitations of conventional SOTs and in realizing low-power spintronics devices with new functionalities.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(19): 197701, 2021 Nov 05.*

##### RESUMO

The discovery of magic angle twisted bilayer graphene has unveiled a rich variety of superconducting, magnetic, and topologically nontrivial phases. Here, we show that the zero-field states at odd integer filling factors in h-BN nonaligned devices are consistent with symmetry broken Chern insulators, as is evidenced by the observation of the anomalous Hall effect near moiré cell filling factor ν=+1. The corresponding Chern insulator has a Chern number C=±1 and a relatively high Curie temperature of T_{c}≈4.5 K. In a perpendicular magnetic field above B>0.5 T we observe a transition of the ν=+1 Chern insulator from Chern number C=±1 to C=3, characterized by a quantized Hall plateau with R_{yx}=h/3e^{2}. These observations demonstrate that interaction-induced symmetry breaking leads to zero-field ground states that include almost degenerate and closely competing Chern insulators, and that states with larger Chern numbers couple most strongly to the B field. In addition, the device reveals strong superconducting phases with critical temperatures of up to T_{c}≈3.5 K. By providing the first demonstration of a system that allows gate-induced transitions between magnetic and superconducting phases, our observations mark a major milestone in the creation of a new generation of quantum electronics.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(16): 166801, 2021 Oct 15.*

##### RESUMO

We explain the strong interlayer drag resistance observed at low temperatures in bilayer electron-hole systems in terms of an interplay between local electron-hole-pair condensation and disorder-induced carrier density variations. Smooth disorder drives the condensate into a granulated phase in which interlayer coherence is established only in well-separated and disconnected regions, or grains, within which the densities of electrons and holes accidentally match. The drag resistance is then dominated by Andreev-like scattering of charge carriers between layers at the grains that transfers momentum between layers. We show that this scenario can account for the observed dependence of the drag resistivity on temperature and, on average, charge imbalance between layers.

*Nature ; 598(7882): 585-589, 2021 10.*

##### RESUMO

Excitonic insulators (EIs) arise from the formation of bound electron-hole pairs (excitons)1,2 in semiconductors and provide a solid-state platform for quantum many-boson physics3-8. Strong exciton-exciton repulsion is expected to stabilize condensed superfluid and crystalline phases by suppressing both density and phase fluctuations8-11. Although spectroscopic signatures of EIs have been reported6,12-14, conclusive evidence for strongly correlated EI states has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate a strongly correlated two-dimensional (2D) EI ground state formed in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductor double layers. A quasi-equilibrium spatially indirect exciton fluid is created when the bias voltage applied between the two electrically isolated TMD layers is tuned to a range that populates bound electron-hole pairs, but not free electrons or holes15-17. Capacitance measurements show that the fluid is exciton-compressible but charge-incompressible-direct thermodynamic evidence of the EI. The fluid is also strongly correlated with a dimensionless exciton coupling constant exceeding 10. We construct an exciton phase diagram that reveals both the Mott transition and interaction-stabilized quasi-condensation. Our experiment paves the path for realizing exotic quantum phases of excitons8, as well as multi-terminal exciton circuitry for applications18-20.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(30)2021 Jul 27.*

##### RESUMO

Moiré superlattices in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures provide an efficient way to engineer electron band properties. The recent discovery of exotic quantum phases and their interplay in twisted bilayer graphene (tBLG) has made this moiré system one of the most renowned condensed matter platforms. So far studies of tBLG have been mostly focused on the lowest two flat moiré bands at the first magic angle Î¸m1 â¼ 1.1°, leaving high-order moiré bands and magic angles largely unexplored. Here we report an observation of multiple well-isolated flat moiré bands in tBLG close to the second magic angle Î¸m2 â¼ 0.5°, which cannot be explained without considering electron-election interactions. With high magnetic field magnetotransport measurements we further reveal an energetically unbound Hofstadter butterfly spectrum in which continuously extended quantized Landau level gaps cross all trivial band gaps. The connected Hofstadter butterfly strongly evidences the topologically nontrivial textures of the multiple moiré bands. Overall, our work provides a perspective for understanding the quantum phases in tBLG and the fractal Hofstadter spectra of multiple topological bands.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 126(11): 117203, 2021 Mar 19.*

##### RESUMO

Motivated by recent nonlocal transport studies of quantum-Hall-magnet (QHM) states formed in monolayer graphene's N=0 Landau level, we study the scattering of QHM magnons by gate-controlled junctions between states with different integer filling factors ν. For the ν=1|-1|1 geometry we find that magnons are weakly scattered by electric potential variation in the junction region, and that the scattering is chiral when the junction lacks a mirror symmetry. For the ν=1|0|1 geometry, we find that kinematic constraints completely block magnon transmission if the incident angle exceeds a critical value. Our results explain the suppressed nonlocal-voltage signals observed in the ν=1|0|1 case. We use our theory to propose that valley waves generated at ν=-1|1 junctions and magnons can be used in combination to probe the spin or valley flavor structure of QHM states at integer and fractional filling factors.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 Mar 09.*

##### RESUMO

The valence band maxima of most group VI transition metal dichalcogenide thin films remain at the Γ point all of the way from bulk to bilayer. In this paper, we develop a continuum theory of the moiré minibands that are formed in the valence bands of Γ-valley homobilayers by a small relative twist. Our effective theory is benchmarked against large-scale ab initio electronic structure calculations that account for lattice relaxation. As a consequence of an emergent [Formula: see text] symmetry, we find that low-energy Γ-valley moiré holes differ qualitatively from their K-valley counterparts addressed previously; in energetic order, the first three bands realize 1) a single-orbital model on a honeycomb lattice, 2) a two-orbital model on a honeycomb lattice, and 3) a single-orbital model on a kagome lattice.

*Nat Mater ; 20(8): 1100-1105, 2021 Aug.*

##### RESUMO

In moiré crystals formed by stacking van der Waals materials, surprisingly diverse correlated electronic phases and optical properties can be realized by a subtle change in the twist angle. Here, we discover that phonon spectra are also renormalized in MoS2 twisted bilayers, adding an insight to moiré physics. Over a range of small twist angles, the phonon spectra evolve rapidly owing to ultra-strong coupling between different phonon modes and atomic reconstructions of the moiré pattern. We develop a low-energy continuum model for phonons that overcomes the outstanding challenge of calculating the properties of large moiré supercells and successfully captures the essential experimental observations. Remarkably, simple optical spectroscopy experiments can provide information on strain and lattice distortions in moiré crystals with nanometre-size supercells. The model promotes a comprehensive and unified understanding of the structural, optical and electronic properties of moiré superlattices.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 126(5): 056801, 2021 Feb 05.*

##### RESUMO

Graphene multilayers with flat moiré minibands can exhibit the quantized anomalous Hall effect due to the combined influence of spontaneous valley polarization and topologically nontrivial valley-projected bands. The sign of the Hall effect in these Chern insulators can be reversed either by applying an external magnetic field, or by driving a transport current through the system. We propose a current-driven mechanism whereby reversal occurs along lines in the (current I, magnetic-field B) control parameter space with slope dI/dB=(e/h)MA_{M}(1-Î³^{2})/Î³, where M is the magnetization, A_{M} is the moiré unit cell area, and Î³<1 is the ratio of the chemical potential difference between valleys along a domain wall to the electrical bias eV.

*Nano Lett ; 21(5): 1948-1954, 2021 Mar 10.*

##### RESUMO

We predict that layer antiferromagnetic bilayers formed from van der Waals (vdW) materials with weak interlayer versus intralayer exchange coupling have strong magnetoelectric response that can be detected in dual-gated devices where internal displacement fields and carrier densities can be varied independently. We illustrate this strong temperature-dependent magnetoelectric response in bilayer CrI3 at charge neutrality by calculating the gate voltage-dependent total magnetization through Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field solutions of the anisotropic Heisenberg model informed from density functional theory and experimental data and present a simple model for electrical control of magnetism by electrostatic doping.