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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230417, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203532

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the association of low- vs. guideline-recommended high-intensity cystoscopic surveillance with outcomes among patients with high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). MATERIALS & METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of Veterans Affairs patients diagnosed with high-risk NMIBC between 2005 and 2011 with follow-up through 2014. Patients were categorized by number of surveillance cystoscopies over two years following diagnosis: low- (1-5) vs. high-intensity (6 or more) surveillance. Propensity score adjusted regression models were used to assess the association of low-intensity cystoscopic surveillance with frequency of transurethral resections, and risk of progression to invasive disease and bladder cancer death. RESULTS: Among 1,542 patients, 520 (33.7%) underwent low-intensity cystoscopic surveillance. Patients undergoing low-intensity surveillance had fewer transurethral resections (37 vs. 99 per 100 person-years; p<0.001). Risk of death from bladder cancer did not differ significantly by low (cumulative incidence [CIn] 8.4% [95% CI 6.5-10.9) at 5 years) vs. high-intensity surveillance (CIn 9.1% [95% CI 7.4-11.2) at 5 years, p = 0.61). Low vs. high-intensity surveillance was not associated with increased risk of bladder cancer death among patients with Ta (CIn 5.7% vs. 8.2% at 5 years p = 0.24) or T1 disease at diagnosis (CIn 10.2% vs. 9.1% at 5 years, p = 0.58). Among patients with Ta disease, low-intensity surveillance was associated with decreased risk of progression to invasive disease (T1 or T2) or bladder cancer death (CIn 19.3% vs. 31.3% at 5 years, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high-risk NMIBC undergoing low- vs. high-intensity cystoscopic surveillance underwent fewer transurethral resections, but did not experience an increased risk of progression or bladder cancer death. These findings provide a strong rationale for a clinical trial to determine whether low-intensity surveillance is comparable to high-intensity surveillance for cancer control in high-risk NMIBC.

2.
Epilepsy Behav ; 104(Pt A): 106906, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006792

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cognitive impairment is one of the most common complaints for persons with epilepsy (PWE). These impairments are not only associated with seizures, but are also regularly reported as adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Previous studies have examined cognitive effects of both AED monotherapy and polytherapy, yet there is limited research on these differences with respect to both subjective and objective cognition. The current study uses data from previous research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-sponsored Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Network collaborative. We used three distinct archival datasets from the following: (1) the HOBSCOTCH efficacy trial at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center (HOB-1), (2) the multisite replication trial (HOB-2), and (3) epilepsy self-management research conducted at the NYU School of Medicine. METHODS: This retrospective analysis combined baseline data from three datasets to determine how the number of AEDs and the type of AEDs were associated with subjective (patient-reported) and objective (examiner-assessed) cognition. Subjective cognition was captured using the cognitive subscale of the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31) in all three datasets (n = 224), while objective cognition was measured using the Repeated Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in the HOB-1 dataset (n = 65) and the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) in the HOB-2 dataset (n = 91). Multivariable linear regression was utilized for our initial assessments, followed by propensity score matching to provide stronger control of covariates. Matching was based on significantly different covariates, such as education, depression, and history of prior epilepsy surgery. Nonparametric statistical tests were utilized to compare these matched subjects. RESULTS: Subjective cognitive impairment was significantly worse among individuals on polytherapy (2 + AEDs) compared with those on monotherapy (1 AED) (adjusted p  =  0.041). These findings were consistent with our propensity score matched comparison of monotherapy and polytherapy, which indicated that polytherapy was associated with worse overall subjective cognition (adjusted p = 0.01), in addition to impairments on the RBANS (Total score p = 0.05) and specific subdomains of the BTACT (Episodic Verbal Memory p < 0.01, Working Memory p < 0.01, Processing Speed p < 0.01). Interestingly, older generation AEDs were associated with better language performance than newer generation and combined generation AED therapy (RBANS Language p = 0.03). These language-specific findings remained significant after controlling for the effects of topiramate and zonisamide (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: A greater number of AEDs is significantly and negatively associated with subjective and objective cognition in PWE, and is in line with previous research. Antiepileptic drug type did not, in itself, appear to be associated with subjective cognition. Our findings suggest that ineffective AEDs should be replaced, rather than introducing additional AEDs to a treatment regimen. Further, while subjective and objective cognition assessments were both sensitive at detecting differences based on AED status, the neuropsychological objective subdomains offer additional and specific insights into how cognition is impaired with AEDs.

3.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 32(1): 12-16, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric consultation services, particularly for emergencies, are limited in many parts of the United States. Telepsychiatry services are helping to bridge the gap, and are gaining acceptance and popularity. There is paucity of publications regarding comparison of turnaround time for consultations between video conferencing and traditional face-to-face psychiatric consultations in general hospital nonpsychiatric emergency departments (EDs). Our study aimed to address turnaround time and patient satisfaction. METHODS: Data regarding the turnaround time for emergency psychiatric consultations using telepsychiatry in general hospital EDs was collected retrospectively and compared with the time for face-to-face traditional consultations. A patient satisfaction survey was also conducted after the telepsychiatry consultation. Statistical analysis of the data was done after the study was completed. RESULTS: The telepsychiatry group included 206 participants and the control group had 186 participants. There was an 84% reduction in the turnaround time for telepsychiatry consults (95% confidence interval, 81% to 86%). A patient satisfaction survey showed 97% satisfaction with telepsychiatry services. Gender and age did not modify the effect of telepsychiatry on time to consult (P > .10). CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in the turnaround time and improved patient satisfaction indicate that telepsychiatry services can improve the quality of care for patients in need of emergency services.

4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(1): 132-138, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a well-established biomarker of adverse clinical outcomes, but its prognostic value for long-term survival after cardiac surgery is not well understood. Elevated levels of Gal-3 have been found to be remarkably associated with higher risk of death in both acute decompensated and chronic heart failure populations. Its prognostic value for long-term survival after cardiac surgery is not known. METHODS: A sample of patients contributing to the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group Cardiac Surgery Registry from 2004 to 2007 were enrolled in a prospective biomarker cohort (N = 1690). Preoperative Gal-3 levels were measured and categorized by quartile. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression models, adjusting for variables in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Collaboration on the Comparative Effectiveness of Revascularization Strategy probability calculator to evaluate the association between elevated Gal-3 levels and survival to 6 years. RESULTS: Preoperative Gal-3 levels ranged from 1.72 to 28.89 ng/mL (mean, 8.96 ng/mL; median, 8.06 ng/mL; interquartile range, 5.42-11.08 ng/mL). Crude survival decreased by increasing quartile. After adjustment, serum levels of Gal-3 in the highest quartile of the cohort were associated with significantly decreased survival compared with the lowest quartile (hazard ratio [HR] 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-3.54; P = .001). No decrease in survival was found for the middle quartiles (HR 1.36; 95% CI, 0.87-2.12; P = .177). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial association was found between elevated preoperative Gal-3 levels and risk of mortality after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. An assessment of the relationship between preoperative serum biomarkers and long-term survival can be used for risk stratification or estimating postsurgical prognosis.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(17): e013088, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475624

RESUMO

Background Limited data exist to describe factors that influence the use of different endovascular treatments for peripheral arterial disease. Therefore, we studied sex differences in the utilization of endovascular treatment modalities and their impact on arterial patency. Methods and Results We analyzed procedures from 2010 to 2016 in the Vascular Quality Initiative for arteries treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone, stenting (with/without PTA), and atherectomy (with/without PTA). We explored sex differences in treatment modality by arterial segment (iliac, femoropopliteal, and tibial) with multivariable logistic regression. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariable Cox regression to study sex differences in arterial reintervention and occlusion. In this cohort, patients (n=58 247, mean age 68 years, 41% women,) had 106 073 arteries treated (median=2 arteries, interquartile range=1-3). Half (50%) of these arteries were treated with stents, 39% with PTA alone, and 11% with atherectomy. After risk adjustment, women were less likely to undergo stenting or atherectomy (versus PTA alone) in the femoropopliteal (stent risk ratio=0.78 [0.74-0.82]; atherectomy risk ratio=0.69 [0.58-0.82]) and tibial arteries (stent risk ratio=0.70 [0.55-0.89]; atherectomy risk ratio=0.87 [0.70-1.07]). In the iliac arteries there was no sex difference in stenting, and atherectomy was rarely used (0.2%). Women underwent reintervention in the femoropopliteal arteries (hazard ratio=1.28 [1.17-1.40]) or developed an occlusion in the iliac (hazard ratio=1.42 [1.12-1.81]) and femoropopliteal arteries (hazard ratio=1.19 [1.06-1.34]) more frequently than men. Conclusions Women were less likely to undergo stenting or atherectomy and had higher rates of occlusion and reintervention, especially in the femoropopliteal arteries. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to guide optimal use of endovascular treatments for men and women.

6.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 108(6): 1776-1782, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac biomarkers soluble ST-2 (sST-2) and N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may be associated with long-term survival after cardiac surgery. This study explored the relationship between long-term survival after cardiac surgery and serum biomarker levels. METHODS: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery from 2004 to 2007 were enrolled in a prospective biomarker cohort in the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group Registry. Preoperative serum biomarker levels, postoperative serum biomarker levels, and the change in serum biomarker levels were categorized by quartile. The study used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression models adjusted for variables in the American College of Cardiology Foundation-Society of Thoracic Surgeons Collaboration on the Comparative Effectiveness of Revascularization Strategy (ASCERT) long-term survival calculator to study the association of biomarker levels with long-term survival. After Kaplan-Meier analysis, quartiles 2 and 3 were found to have similar survival and were therefore combined into 1 category. RESULTS: In the study cohort (n = 1648), median follow-up time was 8.5 years (interquartile range, 7.6-9.7 years), during which there were 227 deaths. The 10-year survival rate was 86%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated a significant (P < .001) difference across quartiles of each biomarker level measurement. After adjustment, preoperative levels, postoperative levels, and the change in biomarker levels in quartile 4 (highest serum levels or change) were significantly predictive of worse survival (hazard ratio range, 1.77-2.89; all P < .05) compared with quartile 1; however, levels of sST-2 and NT-proBNP in quartiles 2 and 3 demonstrated a nonstatistically significant trend with long-term survival. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated preoperative and postoperative levels of sST-2 or NT-proBNP and large changes in these biomarkers' levels are associated with an increased risk of worse survival after cardiac surgery. These biomarkers can be used for risk stratification or assessing postsurgical prognosis.

7.
Cardiol Young ; 29(8): 1051-1056, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between novel pre- and post-operative biomarker levels and 30-day unplanned readmission or mortality after paediatric congenital heart surgery. METHODS: Children aged 18 years or younger undergoing congenital heart surgery (n = 162) at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled in the prospective cohort. Collected novel pre- and post-operative biomarkers include soluble suppression of tumorgenicity 2, galectin-3, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. A model based on clinical variables from the Society of Thoracic Surgery database was developed and evaluated against two augmented models. RESULTS: Unplanned readmission or mortality within 30 days of cardiac surgery occurred among 21 (13%) children. The clinical model augmented with pre-operative biomarkers demonstrated a statistically significant improvement over the clinical model alone with a receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.754 (95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.86) compared to 0.617 (95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.76; p-value: 0.012). The clinical model augmented with pre- and post-operative biomarkers demonstrated a significant improvement over the clinical model alone, with a receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.802 (95% confidence interval: 0.72-0.89; p-value: 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Novel biomarkers add significant predictive value when assessing the likelihood of unplanned readmission or mortality after paediatric congenital heart surgery. Further exploration of the utility of these novel biomarkers during the pre- or post-operative period to identify early risk of mortality or readmission will aid in determining the clinical utility and application of these biomarkers into routine risk assessment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Galectina 3/sangue , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(20): 6073-6079, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243122

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bendamustine and rituximab (BR) has been established as a superior frontline therapy over R-CHOP in the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL). Yttrium-90 Ibritumomab tiuxetan (90YIT) is an effective consolidation strategy after chemotherapy induction. This prospective, single-arm, multicenter, phase II trial evaluated the response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and tolerability of BR followed by consolidation with 90YIT in patients with untreated FL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included grade 1 to 3a FL patients aged ≥18 years, chemotherapy-naïve, and requiring treatment for stage II-IV disease. Study treatment included an initial rituximab treatment, followed by four cycles of BR. Patients were eligible for consolidation with 90YIT, 6 to 12 weeks after BR, if they obtained at least a partial response after induction had adequate count recovery and bone marrow infiltration < 25%. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were treated. Eighty-two percent had an intermediate or high-risk Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score, and 6 of 39 (15%) were grade 3a. The response rate was 94.8%, and the complete response(CR)/CR unconfirmed (CRu) rate was 77% in the intention-to-treat analysis. The conversion rate from PR to CR/Cru after 90YIT was 81%. After median follow-up of 45 months, the PFS was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: This report demonstrates that four cycles of BR followed by consolidation with 90YIT achieve high response rates that are durable. In addition, consolidation with 90YIT results in a high conversion rate of PR to CR/CRu. A short course of BR followed by 90YIT is a safe and effective regimen for frontline treatment of FL.

9.
J Bacteriol ; 201(16)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209076

RESUMO

Previous work from our group indicated an association between the gastrointestinal microbiota of infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) and airway disease in this population. Here we report that stool microbiota of infants with CF demonstrates an altered but largely unchanging within-individual bacterial diversity (alpha diversity) over the first year of life, in contrast to the infants without CF (control cohort), which showed the expected increase in alpha diversity over the first year. The beta diversity, or between-sample diversity, of these two cohorts was significantly different over the first year of life and was statistically significantly associated with airway exacerbations, confirming our earlier findings. Compared with control infants, infants with CF had reduced levels of Bacteroides, a bacterial genus associated with immune modulation, as early as 6 weeks of life, and this significant reduction of Bacteroides spp. in the cohort with CF persisted over the entire first year of life. Only two other genera were significantly different across the first year of life: Roseburia was significantly reduced and Veillonella was significantly increased. Other genera showed differences between the two cohorts but only at selected time points. In vitro studies demonstrated that exposure of the apical face of polarized intestinal cell lines to Bacteroides species supernatants significantly reduced production of interleukin 8 (IL-8), suggesting a mechanism whereby changes in the intestinal microbiota could impact inflammation in CF. This work further establishes an association between gastrointestinal microbiota, inflammation, and airway disease in infants with CF and presents a potential opportunity for therapeutic interventions beginning in early life.IMPORTANCE There is growing evidence for a link between gastrointestinal bacterial communities and airway disease progression in CF. We demonstrate that infants with CF ≤1 year of age show a distinct stool microbiota versus that of control infants of a comparable age. We detected associations between the gut microbiome and airway exacerbation events in the cohort of infants with CF, and in vitro studies provided one possible mechanism for this observation. These data clarify that current therapeutics do not establish in infants with CF a gastrointestinal microbiota like that in healthy infants, and we suggest that interventions that direct the gastrointestinal microbiota closer to a healthy state may provide systemic benefits to these patients during a critical window of immune programming that might have implications for lifelong health.

10.
Cancer ; 125(18): 3147-3154, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surveillance recommendations for patients with low-risk, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are based on limited evidence. The objective of this study was to add to the evidence by assessing outcomes after frequent versus recommended cystoscopic surveillance. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with low-risk (low-grade Ta (AJCC)) NMIBC from 2005 to 2011 with follow-up through 2014 from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Patients were classified as having undergone frequent versus recommended cystoscopic surveillance (>3 vs 1-3 cystoscopies in the first 2 years after diagnosis). By using propensity score-adjusted models, the authors estimated the impact of frequent cystoscopy on the number of transurethral resections, the number of resections without cancer in the specimen, and the risk of progression to muscle-invasive cancer or bladder cancer death. RESULTS: Among 1042 patients, 798 (77%) had more frequent cystoscopy than recommended. In adjusted analyses, the frequent cystoscopy group had twice as many transurethral resections (55 vs 26 per 100 person-years; P < .001) and more than 3 times as many resections without cancer in the specimen (5.7 vs 1.6 per 100 person-years; P < .001). Frequent cystoscopy was not associated with time to progression or bladder cancer death (3% at 5 years in both groups; P = .990). CONCLUSIONS: Frequent cystoscopy among patients with low-risk NMIBC was associated with twice as many transurethral resections and did not decrease the risk for bladder cancer progression or death, supporting current guidelines.

11.
Appetite ; 140: 134-141, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fast food (FF) advertising is a potential risk factor for FF consumption among children, yet the impact of such advertising on children's FF intake has not been assessed in a longitudinal, naturalistic study. Whether parents' FF consumption mitigates advertising effects is also unknown. METHODS: One-year, longitudinal study among 624 preschool-age children, 3-5 years old, and one parent each recruited from New Hampshire, 2014-2015. Parents completed six online surveys every eight weeks and, at each, reported the number of times their children consumed FF in the past week. Each child's advertisement exposure was determined by counting the brand-specific FF advertisements aired within the programs they viewed on children's TV networks during the study. At baseline, parents reported the frequency of their own FF consumption. Data were analyzed in 2017-2018. RESULTS: Three FF brands targeted TV advertising to children during the study: McDonald's, Wendy's and Subway. Few children were exposed to child-targeted advertising for Wendy's or Subway. Results from adjusted Poisson regression models focused on McDonald's showed a differential effect of advertisement exposure on children's McDonald's intake in the past week (any or mean intake) by parental FF consumption (P < 0.01). Specifically, McDonald's intake was consistently high among children whose parents consumed FF more frequently (≥monthly), regardless of children's advertisement exposure. However, advertisement exposure increased the risk of McDonald's intake among children nearly two-fold when parents consumed FF less frequently (

12.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214463, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longevity in the United States ranks below most other Western nations despite spending more on healthcare per capita than any other country. Across the world, mortality has been declining, but in the USA the trend toward improvement has stalled in some middle-aged demographic groups. Cross-national studies suggest that social welfare is positively associated with longevity. The United States has less government sponsored welfare, education and healthcare than almost all other Western nations, but the level of this social welfare commitment varies across the states. In this study we examined the association of state tax burden and state government expenditures with subsequent middle-aged mortality. METHODS: The primary exposure was state tax burden in 2005, defined as proportion of all state income paid to the state. We also examined the impact of state expenditures per capita in 2005 for education, healthcare, welfare, police and highways. The dependent variable was mortality during the subsequent 10 years. Death counts and population sizes by sex, age group and race strata for 2006-2015 were abstracted from CDC WONDER. Binomial logistic regression was employed based on the number of deaths and underlying population within each county-sex-age-race bin. RESULTS: State tax burden in 2005 varied from 5.8% to 12.2%. An increase of 1.0 percentage point in state tax burden was associated with a 5.8% (SE = 0.1%) reduction in mortality adjusted for sex, age and race, but was associated with a 1.1% (SE = 0.1%) reduction when further adjusting for state income and education levels. Controlling for sex, age and race each type of state expenditures was associated with decreases in middle aged mortality, notably K-12 education (reduction of 4.7%, SE = 0.1%, per 10% expenditure increase) except healthcare but all types were associated with mortality decreases further controlling for state income and education. CONCLUSION: The residents of states with higher state taxation and higher expenditures per capita have lower middle aged mortality rates.


Assuntos
Morte , Gastos em Saúde , Longevidade , Modelos Econômicos , Governo Estadual , Impostos/economia , Coleta de Dados , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Seguridade Social , Estados Unidos
13.
J Vasc Surg ; 69(1): 104-109, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of carotid intervention is predicated on long-term survival for patients to derive a stroke prevention benefit. Randomized trials report no significant difference in survival after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) vs carotid artery stenting (CAS), whereas observational studies of "real-world" outcomes note that CEA is associated with a survival advantage. Our objective was to examine long-term mortality after CEA vs CAS using a propensity-matched cohort. METHODS: We studied all patients who underwent CEA or CAS within the Vascular Quality Initiative from 2003 to 2013 (CEA, n = 29,235; CAS, n = 4415). Long-term mortality information was obtained by linking patients in the registry to their respective Medicare claims file. We assessed the long-term rate of mortality for CEA and CAS using Kaplan-Meier estimation. We assessed the crude, adjusted, and propensity-matched (total matched pairs, n = 4261) hazard ratio (HR) of mortality for CEA vs CAS using Cox regression. RESULTS: The unadjusted Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year mortality was 14.0% for CEA and 18.3% for CAS. The crude HR of all-cause mortality for CEA vs CAS was 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-0.81), indicating that patients who underwent CEA were 25% less likely to die before those who underwent CAS. This survival advantage persisted after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities (adjusted HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69-0.82). This effect was confirmed on a propensity-matched analysis, with an HR of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.69-0.85). Finally, these findings were robust to subanalyses that stratified patients by presenting symptoms and were more pronounced in symptomatic patients (adjusted HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.61-0.79) than in asymptomatic patients (adjusted HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: During the last 15 years, patients who underwent CEA in the Vascular Quality Initiative have a long-term survival advantage over those who underwent CAS in real-world practice. Despite no difference in long-term survival in randomized trials, our observational study demonstrated a survival benefit for CEA that did not diminish with risk adjustment.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Stents , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/mortalidade , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
14.
Stat Med ; 38(6): 1013-1035, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460712

RESUMO

Hierarchical modeling is the preferred approach of modeling neighborhood effects. When both residential and workplace neighborhoods are known, a bivariate (residential-workplace) neighborhood random effect that quantifies the extent that a neighborhood's residential and workplace effects are correlated may be modeled. However, standard statistical software for hierarchical models does not easily allow correlations between the random effects of distinct clustering variables to be incorporated. To overcome this challenge, we develop a Bayesian model and an accompanying estimation procedure that allows for correlated bivariate neighborhood effects and allows individuals to reside or work in multiple neighborhoods, cross-sectional and longitudinal heterogeneity between individuals, and serial correlation between repeated observations over time. Simulation studies that vary key model parameters evaluate how well each aspect of the model is identified by the data. We apply the model to the motivating Framingham Heart Study linked food establishment data to examine whether (i) proximity to fast-food establishments is associated with body mass index, (ii) workplace neighborhood exposure associations are larger than those for residential neighborhood exposure, and (iii) residential neighborhood exposure associations correlate with workplace neighborhood exposure. Comparisons of the full model to models with restricted versions of the covariance structure illustrate the impact of including each feature of the covariance structure.

15.
Am J Prev Med ; 56(2): e35-e43, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573338

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Child-directed TV advertising is believed to influence children's diets, yet prospective studies in naturalistic settings are absent. This study examined if child-directed TV advertisement exposure for ten brands of high-sugar breakfast cereals was associated with children's intake of those brands prospectively. METHODS: Observational study of 624 preschool-age children and their parents conducted in New Hampshire, 2014-2015. Over 1 year, parents completed a baseline and six online follow-up surveys, one every 8 weeks. Children's exposure to high-sugar breakfast cereal TV advertisements was based on the network-specific TV programs children watched in the 7 days prior to each follow-up assessment, and parents reported children's intake of each advertised high-sugar breakfast cereal brand during that same 7-day period. Data were analyzed in 2017-2018. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted Poisson regression model accounting for repeated measures and brand-specific effects, children with high-sugar breakfast cereal advertisement exposure in the past 7 days (i.e., recent exposure; RR=1.34, 95% CI=1.04, 1.72), at any assessment in the past (RR=1.23, 95% CI=1.06, 1.42), or recent and past exposure (RR=1.37, 95% CI=1.15, 1.63) combined had an increased risk of brand-specific high-sugar breakfast cereal intake. Absolute risk difference of children's high-sugar breakfast cereal intake because of high-sugar breakfast cereal TV advertisement exposure varied by brand. CONCLUSIONS: This naturalistic study demonstrates that child-directed high-sugar breakfast cereal TV advertising was prospectively associated with brand-specific high-sugar breakfast cereal intake among preschoolers. Findings indicate that child-directed advertising influences begin earlier and last longer than previously demonstrated, highlighting limitations of current industry guidelines regarding the marketing of high-sugar foods to children under age 6 years.

16.
J Clin Neurosci ; 60: 12-16, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergent disposition of acute stroke patients remains an issue of debate. We investigated whether a hub-and-spoke model was associated with worse stroke outcomes when compared to care exclusively in comprehensive centers. METHODS: We performed a cohort study of all acute ischemic stroke patients who were hospitalized in endovascular-capable facilities, and were registered in the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database from 2009 to 2015. We examined the association of transfer status (transfer to endovascular capable hospitals versus initial treatment in these facilities) with inpatient case-fatality, discharge to a facility, and length of stay (LOS). An instrumental variable analysis was used to control for unmeasured confounding and simulate a randomized trial. RESULTS: During the study period, 128,122 acute stroke patients met inclusion criteria. Instrumental variable analysis demonstrated that patients transferred to endovascular-capable hospitals did not have higher case-fatality (Adjusted difference, 4.4%; 95% CI, -0.1% to 9.0%), rate discharge to a facility (Adjusted difference, -2.3%; 95% CI, -5.2% to 0.6%), or longer LOS (Adjusted difference, 4.2; 95% CI, -2.2 to 10.1) in comparison to patients presenting for initial treatment in these facilities. The same associations were present when restricting the cohort to patients receiving intravenous tissue plasminogen (IV-tPA) and to patients receiving mechanical thrombectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Using a comprehensive all-payer cohort of acute ischemic stroke patients in New York State we demonstrated that patients treated in a hub-and-spoke model were not associated with worse outcomes than patients receiving care exclusively in comprehensive institutions. This needs to be taken into consideration when considering acute emergency services in this setting.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Hospitais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York
17.
Biomarkers ; 24(3): 268-276, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30512977

RESUMO

Objectives: Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) biomarker is an emerging predictor of adverse clinical outcomes, but its prognostic value for in-hospital mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is not well understood. This study measured the association between operative sST2 levels and in-hospital mortality after CABG. Methods: A prospective cohort of 1560 CABG patients were analyzed from the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group Biomarker Study. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality after CABG surgery (n = 32). Results: After risk adjustment, patients in the third tercile of pre-, post- and pre-to-postoperative sST2 values experienced significantly greater odds of in-hospital death compared to patients in the first tercile of sST2 values. The addition of both postoperative and pre-to-postoperative sST2 biomarker significantly improved ability to predict in-hospital mortality status following CABG surgery, compared to using the EuroSCORE II mortality model alone, (c-statistic: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.75, 0.92], p value 0.0213) and (c-statistic: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.75, 0.92], p value 0.0215), respectively. Conclusion: sST2 values are associated with in-hospital mortality after CABG surgery and postoperative and pre-to-post operative sST2 values improve prediction. Our findings suggest that sST2 can be used as a biomarker to identify adult patients at greatest risk of in-hospital death after CABG surgery.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/genética , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Extra Corpor Technol ; 51(4): 201-209, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915403

RESUMO

Cardiac surgery results in a multifactorial systemic inflammatory response with inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 and 6 (IL-10 and IL-6), shown to have potential in the prediction of adverse outcomes including readmission or mortality. This study sought to measure the association between IL-6 and IL-10 levels and 1-year hospital readmission or mortality following cardiac surgery. Plasma biomarkers IL-6 and IL-10 were measured in 1,047 patients discharged alive after isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery from eight medical centers participating in the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group between 2004 and 2007. Readmission status and mortality were ascertained using Medicare, state all-payer claims, and the National Death Index. We evaluated the association between preoperative and postoperative cytokines and 1-year readmission or mortality using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox's proportional hazards modeling, adjusting for covariates used in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons 30-day readmission model. The median follow-up time was 1 year. After adjustment, patients in the highest tertile of postoperative IL-6 values had a significantly increased risk of readmission or death within 1 year (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.03-1.85), and an increased risk of death within 1 year of discharge (HR: 4.88; 95% CI: 1.26-18.85) compared with patients in the lowest tertile. However, postoperative IL-10 levels, although increasing through tertiles, were not found to be significantly associated independently with 1-year readmission or mortality (HR: 1.25; 95% CI: .93-1.69). Pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 may be postoperative markers of cardiac injury, and IL-6, specifically, shows promise in predicting readmission and mortality following cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Readmissão do Paciente , Citocinas , Feminino , Humanos , Medicare , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
19.
Adv Health Care Manag ; 182019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077656

RESUMO

Failure to rescue events, or events involving preventable deaths from complications, are a significant contributor to inpatient mortality. While many interventions have been designed and implemented over several decades, this patient safety issue remains at the forefront of concern for most hospitals. In the first part of this study, the development and implementation of one type of highly studied and widely adopted rescue intervention, algorithm-based patient assessment tools, is examined. The analysis summarizes how a lack of systems-oriented approaches in the design and implementation of these tools has resulted in suboptimal understanding of patient risk of mortality and complications and the early recognition of patient deterioration. The gaps identified impact several critical aspects of excellent patient care, including information-sharing across care settings, support for the development of shared mental models within care teams, and access to timely and accurate patient information. This chapter describes the use of several system-oriented design and implementation activities to establish design objectives, model clinical processes and workflows, and create an extensible information system model to maximize the benefits of patient state and risk assessment tools in the inpatient setting. A prototype based on the product of the design activities is discussed along with system-level considerations for implementation. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness and impact of applying systems design principles and practices to real-world clinical applications.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Segurança do Paciente , Análise de Sistemas , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência ao Paciente
20.
Lung Cancer ; 126: 89-96, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the association between statin exposure and mortality in lung cancer patients belonging to different categories of histological subtype. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 19,974 individuals with incident lung cancer between 2007 and 2011 was identified using the SEER-Medicare linked database. Statin exposure both pre- and post-diagnosis was analyzed to identify a possible association with cancer-specific mortality in patients stratified by histological subtype. Intention-to-treat analyses and time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) corresponding to statin exposure both pre- and post-diagnosis, respectively. RESULTS: Overall baseline statin exposure was associated with a decrease in mortality risk for squamous-cell carcinoma patients (HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.82-0.96) and adenocarcinoma patients (HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.82-0.94), but not among those with small-cell lung cancer. Post-diagnostic statin exposure was associated with prolonged survival in squamous-cell carcinoma patients (HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.59-0.79) and adenocarcinoma patients (HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89) in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: There is consistent evidence indicating that baseline or post-diagnostic exposure to simvastatin and atorvastatin is associated with extended survival in non-small-cell lung cancer subtypes. These results warrant further randomized clinical trials to evaluate subtype-specific effects of certain statins in patient cohorts with characteristics similar to those examined in this study.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Programa de SEER/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos
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