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1.
Vaccine ; 37(36): 5466-5473, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was recently shown to be effective against PCV13-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia (CAPSpn) in healthy adults aged ≥65 years, prompting many countries to re-assess adult immunization. In Canada, the potential benefits of adult PCV13 immunization were unclear given anticipated herd immunity from PCV13 childhood immunization introduced since 2010. This study describes the serotype distribution and clinical outcomes of Canadian adults aged ≥16 years, who were hospitalized with CAPSpn and IPD from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: Active surveillance for CAP and IPD was performed in adult hospitals across five Canadian provinces. IPD was identified when Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from sterile sites. Bacteremic and non-bacteremic CAPSpn were identified using blood culture, and sputum culture or PCV13-specific urine antigen detection (UADPCV13), respectively. Serotype was assigned using Quellung reaction, PCR, or UADPCV13. RESULTS: Of 6687 CAP cases where a test was performed, S. pneumoniae positivity decreased from 15.9% in 2011 to 8.8% in 2014, but increased to 12.9% in 2015. CAPSpn attributed to PCV13 serotypes followed a similar trend, dropping from 8.3% in 2010 to 4.6% in 2014, but increasing to 6.3% in 2015. The decline was primarily attributed to serotypes 7F and 19A, and the proportional increase to serotype 3. Similar trends were noted for bacteremic and non-bacteremic CAPSpn. Serious outcomes such as 30-day mortality, intensive care unit admission, and requirement for mechanical ventilation were prominent in CAPSpn and IPD cases, but remained unchanged over the study years. CONCLUSION: Herd immunity afforded primarily by serotypes 7F and 19A appears to be partly masked by a concomitant proportional increase of serotype 3. Despite evidence of herd immunity, these PCV13 serotypes remain persistent in Canadian adults hospitalized with CAPSpn, and represent between 5 and 10% of all CAP in this patient population.

2.
Chest ; 155(1): 69-78, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in reducing influenza-related hospitalizations among patients with COPD is not well described, and influenza vaccination uptake remains suboptimal. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a national, prospective, multicenter cohort study including patients with COPD, hospitalized with any acute respiratory illness or exacerbation between 2011 and 2015. All patients underwent nasopharyngeal swab screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for influenza. The primary outcome was an influenza-related hospitalization. We identified influenza-positive cases and negative control subjects and used multivariable logistic regression with a standard test-negative design to estimate the vaccine effectiveness for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations. RESULTS: Among 4,755 hospitalized patients with COPD, 4,198 (88.3%) patients with known vaccination status were analyzed. The adjusted analysis showed a 38% reduction in influenza-related hospitalizations in vaccinated vs unvaccinated individuals. Influenza-positive patients (n = 1,833 [38.5%]) experienced higher crude mortality (9.7% vs 7.9%; P = .047) and critical illness (17.2% vs 12.1%; P < .001) compared with influenza-negative patients. Risk factors for mortality in influenza-positive patients included age > 75 years (OR, 3.7 [95% CI, 0.4-30.3]), cardiac comorbidity (OR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.3-3.2]), residence in long-term care (OR, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.5-4.5]), and home oxygen use (OR, 2.9 [95% CI, 1.6-5.1]). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination significantly reduced influenza-related hospitalization among patients with COPD. Initiatives to increase vaccination uptake and early use of antiviral agents among patients with COPD could reduce influenza-related hospitalization and critical illness and improve health-care costs in this vulnerable population. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.govNo.:NCT01517191; URL www.clinicaltrials.gov.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(7): 1063-1071, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010773

RESUMO

Background: Immunization of pregnant women with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) provides protection against pertussis to the newborn infant. Methods: In a randomized, controlled, observer-blind, multicenter clinical trial, we measured the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap during pregnancy and the effect on the infant's immune response to primary vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months and booster vaccination at 12 months of age. A total of 273 women received either Tdap or tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine in the third trimester and provided information for the safety analysis and samples for the immunogenicity analyses; 261 infants provided serum for the immunogenicity analyses. Results: Rates of adverse events were similar in both groups. Infants of Tdap recipients had cord blood levels that were 21% higher than maternal levels for pertussis toxoid (PT), 13% higher for filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), 4% higher for pertactin (PRN), and 7% higher for fimbriae (FIM). These infants had significantly higher PT antibody levels at birth and at 2 months and significantly higher FHA, PRN, and FIM antibodies at birth and 2 and 4 months, but significantly lower PT and FHA antibody levels at 6 and 7 months and significantly lower PRN and FIM antibody levels at 7 months than infants whose mothers received Td. Differences persisted prebooster at 12 months for all antigens and postbooster 1 month later for PT, FHA, and FIM. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that Tdap during pregnancy results in higher levels of antibodies early in infancy but lower levels after the primary vaccine series. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT00553228.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 218(3): 378-387, 2018 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617814

RESUMO

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus infection can cause lower respiratory tract infection in older adults comparable to influenza, but no vaccines are available. Methods: This was a randomized, observer-blinded, first-in-humans study of a novel synthetic RSV antigen based on the ectodomain of the small hydrophobic glycoprotein (SHe) of RSV subgroup A, formulated with either the lipid and oil-based vaccine platform DepoVax (DPX-RSV[A]) or alum (RSV[A]-Alum), in healthy, 50-64-year-old individuals. Two dose levels (10 or 25 µg) of SHe with each formulation were compared to placebo. A booster dose was administered on day 56. Results: There was no indication that the vaccine was unsafe. Mild pain, drowsiness, and muscles aches were the most common solicited adverse events (AEs), and the frequencies of the AEs did not increase after dose 2. Robust anti-SHe-specific immune responses were demonstrated in the DPX-RSV(A) 10-µg and 25-µg groups (geometric mean titer, approximately 10-fold and 100-fold greater than that of placebo at days 56 and 236, respectively), and responses were sustained in the DPX-RSV(A) 25-µg group at day 421. Responses to the RSV(A)-Alum vaccines were very low. Conclusions: A novel antigen from the SH protein of RSV, formulated in a lipid and oil-based vaccine platform, was highly immunogenic, with sustained antigen-specific antibody responses, and had an acceptable safety profile.

5.
Vaccine ; 36(16): 2166-2175, 2018 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29548608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ongoing assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is critical to inform public health policy. This study aimed to determine the VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations and other serious outcomes over three consecutive influenza seasons. METHODS: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) conducted active surveillance for influenza in adults ≥16 years (y) of age during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons in hospitals across Canada. A test-negative design was employed: cases were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for influenza; controls were PCR-negative for influenza and were matched to cases by date, admission site, and age (≥65 y or <65 y). All cases and controls had demographic and clinical characteristics (including influenza immunization status) obtained from the medical record. VE was estimated as 1-OR (odds ratio) in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated patients × 100%. The primary outcome was VE of TIV for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalization; secondary outcomes included VE of TIV for preventing influenza-related intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation, and influenza-related death. RESULTS: Overall, 3394 cases and 4560 controls were enrolled; 2078 (61.2%) cases and 2939 (64.5%) controls were ≥65 y. Overall matched, adjusted VE was 41.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 34.4-48.3%); corresponding VE in adults ≥65 y was 39.3% (95% CI: 29.4-47.8%) and 48.0% (95% CI: 37.5-56.7%) in adults <65 y, respectively. VE for preventing influenza-related ICU admission/mechanical ventilation in all ages was 54.1% (95% CI: 39.8-65.0%); in adults ≥65 y, VE for preventing influenza-related death was 74.5% (95% CI: 44.0-88.4%). CONCLUSIONS: While effectiveness of TIV to prevent serious outcomes varies year to year, we demonstrate a statistically significant and clinically important TIV VE for preventing hospitalization and other serious outcomes over three seasons. Public health messaging should highlight the overall benefit of influenza vaccines over time while acknowledging year to year variability. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01517191.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/história , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Vacinação
6.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 12(2): 232-240, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consideration of cost determinants is crucial to inform delivery of public vaccination programs. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the average total cost of laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring hospitalization in Canadians prior to, during, and 30 days following discharge. To analyze effects of patient/disease characteristics, treatment, and regional differences in costs. METHODS: Study utilized previously recorded clinical characteristics, resource use, and outcomes of laboratory-confirmed influenza patients admitted to hospitals in the Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS), Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN), from 2010/11 to 2012/13. Unit costs including hospital overheads were linked to inpatient/outpatient resource utilization before and after admissions. RESULTS: Dataset included 2943 adult admissions to 17 SOS Network hospitals and 24 Toronto Invasive Bacterial Disease Network hospitals. Mean age was 69.5 years. Average hospital stay was 10.8 days (95% CI: 10.3, 11.3), general ward stays were 9.4 days (95% CI: 9.0, 9.8), and ICU stays were 9.8 days (95% CI: 8.6, 11.1) for the 14% of patients admitted to the ICU. Average cost per case was $14 612 CAD (95% CI: $13 852, $15 372) including $133 (95% CI: $116, $150) for medical care prior to admission, $14 031 (95% CI: $13 295, $14 768) during initial hospital stay, $447 (95% CI: $271, $624) post-discharge, including readmission within 30 days. CONCLUSION: The cost of laboratory-confirmed influenza was higher than previous estimates, driven mostly by length of stay and analyzing only laboratory-confirmed influenza cases. The true per-patient cost of influenza-related hospitalization has been underestimated, and prevention programs should be evaluated in this context.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 17(1): 805, 2017 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network was established to monitor seasonal influenza complications among hospitalized Canadian adults and to assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccination against severe outcomes. Here we report age- and strain-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing severe outcomes during a season characterized by mixed outbreaks of four different influenza strains. METHODS: This prospective, multicentre, test-negative case-control study evaluated the VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in the prevention of laboratory-confirmed influenza-hospitalization in adults aged ≥16 years (all adults) and adults aged 16-64 years (younger adults). The SOS Network identified hospitalized patients with diagnoses potentially attributable to influenza during the 2011/12 influenza season. Swabs collected at admission were tested by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) or viral culture to discriminate influenza cases (positive) from controls (negative). VE was calculated as 1-odds ratio (OR) of vaccination in cases versus controls × 100. RESULTS: Overall, in all adults, the unadjusted and adjusted VEs of TIV against influenza-hospitalization were 41.8% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 26.0, 54.3), and 42.8% (95% CI: 23.8, 57.0), respectively. In younger adults (16-64 years), the unadjusted and adjusted VEs of TIV against influenza-hospitalization were 35.8% (95% CI: 4.5, 56.8) and 33.2% (95% CI: -6.7, 58.2), respectively. In the all adults group, adjusted VE against influenza A/H1N1 was 72.5% (95% CI: 30.5, 89.1), against A/H3N2 was 86.1% (95% CI: 40.1, 96.8), against B/Victoria was 40.5% (95% CI: -28.9, 72.6), and against B/Yamagata was 32.3% (95% CI: -8.3, 57.7). The adjusted estimate of early season VE (from November 1 to March 11) was 54.4% (95% CI: 29.7-70.4), which was higher than late season (from March 11 to May 25) VE estimate (VE: 29.7%, 95% CI: -5.3, 53.1). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that TIV was highly effective against A viruses and moderately effective against B viruses during a mild season characterised by co-circulation of four influenza strains in Canada. Findings underscore the need to provide VE assessment by subtype/lineage as well as the timing of vaccination (early season vs late season) to accurately evaluate vaccine performance and thus guide public health decision-making. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01517191. Registration was retrospective and the date of registration was January 17, 2012.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza B/patogenicidade , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Infect Dis ; 216(4): 405-414, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931244

RESUMO

Background: Influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults. Even so, effectiveness of influenza vaccine for older adults has been reported to be lower than for younger adults, and the impact of frailty on vaccine effectiveness (VE) and outcomes is uncertain. We aimed to study VE against influenza hospitalization in older adults, focusing on the impact of frailty. Methods: We report VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in people ≥65 years of age hospitalized during the 2011-2012 influenza season using a multicenter, prospective, test-negative case-control design. A validated frailty index (FI) was used to measure frailty. Results: Three hundred twenty cases and 564 controls (mean age, 80.6 and 78.7 years, respectively) were enrolled. Cases had higher baseline frailty than controls (P = .006). In the fully adjusted model, VE against influenza hospitalization was 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.2%-73.2%). The contribution of frailty was important; adjusting for frailty alone yielded a VE estimate of 58.7% (95% CI, 36.2%-73.2%). VE was 77.6% among nonfrail older adults and declined as frailty increased. Conclusions: Despite commonly held views that VE is poor in older adults, we found that TIV provided good protection against influenza hospitalization in older adults who were not frail, though VE diminished as frailty increased. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01517191.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Potência de Vacina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
CMAJ ; 189(24): E819-E827, 2017 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2013-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was the most widespread in history. In response, alive attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine expressing Zaire Ebolavirus glycoprotein (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP) was evaluated in humans. METHODS: In a phase 1, randomized, dose-ranging, observer-blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy adults aged 18-65 years were randomized into 4 groups of 10 to receive one of 3 vaccine doses or placebo. Follow-up visits spanned 180 days postvaccination for safety monitoring, immunogenicity testing and any rVSV virus shedding. RESULTS: Forty participants were injected with rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP vaccine (n = 30) or saline placebo (n = 10). No serious adverse events related to the vaccine or participant withdrawals were reported. Solicited adverse events during the 14-day follow-up period were mild to moderate and self-limited, with the exception of injection-site pain and headache. Viremia following vaccination was transient and no longer detectable after study day 3, with no virus shedding in saliva or urine. All vaccinated participants developed serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), as measured by Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunogenicity was comparable across all dose groups, and sustained IgG titers were detectable through to the last visit, at study day 180. INTERPRETATION: In this phase 1 study, there were no safety concerns after a single dose of rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP vaccine. IgG ELISA showed persistent high titers at 180 days postimmunization. There was a period of reactogenicity, but in general, the vaccine was well tolerated. This study provides evidence of the safety and immunogenicity of rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP vaccine and importance of its further investigation. Trial registration: Clinical-Trials.gov no., NCT02374385.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Ebola/administração & dosagem , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Canadá , Método Duplo-Cego , Ebolavirus , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Estomatite Vesicular Indiana , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
Vaccine ; 35(29): 3647-3654, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28554501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia (CAPSpn) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although childhood immunization programs have reduced the overall burden of pneumococcal disease, there is insufficient data in Canada to inform immunization policy in immunocompetent adults. This study aimed to describe clinical outcomes of pneumococcal disease in hospitalized Canadian adults, and determine the proportion of cases caused by vaccine-preventable serotypes. METHODS: Active surveillance for CAPSpn and IPD in hospitalized adults was performed in hospitals across five Canadian provinces from December 2010 to 2013. CAPSpn were identified using sputum culture, blood culture, a commercial pan-pneumococcal urine antigen detection (UAD), or a serotype-specific UAD. The serotype distribution was characterized using Quellung reaction, and PCR-based serotyping on cultured isolates, or using a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotype-specific UAD assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In total, 4769 all-cause CAP cases and 81 cases of IPD (non-CAP) were identified. Of the 4769 all-cause CAP cases, a laboratory test for S. pneumoniae was performed in 3851, identifying 14.3% as CAPSpn. Of CAP cases among whom all four diagnostic test were performed, S. pneumoniae was identified in 23.2% (144/621). CAPSpn cases increased with age and the disease burden of illness was evident in terms of requirement for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and 30-day mortality. Of serotypeable CAPSpn or IPD results, predominance for serotypes 3, 7F, 19A, and 22F was observed. The proportion of hospitalized CAP cases caused by a PCV13-type S. pneumoniae ranged between 7.0% and 14.8% among cases with at least one test for S. pneumoniae performed or in whom all four diagnostic tests were performed, respectively. Overall, vaccine-preventable pneumococcal CAP and IPD were shown to be significant causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized Canadian adults in the three years following infant PCV13 immunization programs in Canada.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/classificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Sorotipagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 12(4): 879-85, 2016 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27176822

RESUMO

Immunization with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy is recommended in a number of countries to prevent newborn deaths from whooping cough. In some jurisdictions, vaccine uptake during pregnancy is low. We undertook a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of pregnant women who had been approached to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine during pregnancy. A total of 346 women completed the survey. Knowledge about pertussis and pertussis vaccine was generally low; the mean number of correct answers was 10.65 out of 19 questions. Attitudes toward maternal immunization were generally favorable; 51.7%-94.7% of women had positive responses to 10 attitudinal statements. Substantial uncertainty was shown in responses to a number of the attitudinal statements related to vaccination during pregnancy; 22.3%-45.7% neither agreed nor disagreed with the statements. Importantly, 89% of women reported that they would get immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy if their physician recommended it. We conclude that a national recommendation to be immunized with pertussis vaccine during pregnancy supported by their physicians' recommendation would be well received by Canadian women.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/efeitos adversos , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Imunização/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Difteria/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização/efeitos adversos , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tétano/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Vaccine ; 34(5): 687-695, 2016 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26458809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Canada, rotavirus vaccine is recommended for all infants, but not all provinces/territories have publicly funded programs. We compared public and healthcare provider (HCP) knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in a province with a public health nurse-delivered, publicly funded rotavirus vaccination program to a province with a publicly funded, physician-delivered program. A third province with no vaccination program acted as a control. DESIGN: Information about knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of parents whose children were eligible for the universal program and healthcare providers responsible for administering the vaccine were collected through the use of two validated surveys distributed in public health clinics, physicians' offices, and via e-mail. Early and postvaccine-program survey results were compared. RESULTS: A total of 722 early implementation and 709 postimplementation parent surveys and 180 early and 141 postimplementation HCP surveys were analyzed. HCP and public attitudes toward rotavirus vaccination were generally positive and didn't change over time. More parents postprogram were aware of the NACI recommendation and the vaccination program and reported that their healthcare provider discussed rotavirus infection and vaccine with them. Prior to the program across all sites, more physicians than nurses were aware of the national recommendation regarding rotavirus vaccine. In the postprogram survey, however, more nurses were aware of the national recommendation and their provincial universal rotavirus vaccination program. Nurses had higher knowledge scores than physicians in the postprogram survey (p<0.001). Parents of young infants were also more knowledgeable about rotavirus and rotavirus vaccine in the two areas where universal programs were in place (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a universal rotavirus vaccination program was associated with an increase in knowledge and more positive attitudes toward rotavirus vaccine amongst parents of eligible infants. Nurses involved in a public health-delivered vaccination program were more knowledgeable and had more positive attitudes toward the vaccine than physicians in a jurisdiction where vaccine was physician-delivered.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Imunização , Enfermeiras de Saúde Pública/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Novo Brunswick , Nova Escócia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Ilha do Príncipe Eduardo , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 10(12): 3629-41, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25668670

RESUMO

This survey study compared pre- and post-pandemic knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and intended behaviors of pregnant women regarding influenza vaccination (seasonal and/or pandemic) during pregnancy in order to determine key factors influencing their decision to adhere to influenza vaccine recommendations. Only 36% of 662 pre-pandemic respondents knew that influenza was more severe in pregnant women, compared to 62% of the 159 post-pandemic respondents. Of the pre-pandemic respondents, 41% agreed or strongly agreed that that it was safer to wait until after the first 3 months to receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, whereas 23% of the post-pandemic cohort agreed or strongly agreed; 32% of pre-pandemic participants compared to 11% of post-pandemic respondents felt it was best to avoid all vaccines while pregnant. Despite 61% of the pre-pandemic cohort stating that they would have the vaccine while pregnant if their doctor recommended it and 54% citing their doctor/nurse as their primary source of vaccine information, only 20% said their doctor discussed influenza vaccination during their pregnancy, compared to 77% of the post-pandemic respondents who reported having this conversation. Women whose doctors discussed influenza vaccine during pregnancy had higher overall knowledge scores (P<0.0001; P=0.005) and were more likely to believe the vaccine is safe in all stages of pregnancy (P<0.0001; P=0.001) than those whose doctors did not discuss influenza vaccination. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic experience appeared to change attitudes and behaviours of health care providers and their pregnant patients toward influenza vaccination.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez
14.
Vaccine ; 30(36): 5445-8, 2012 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22704926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that two doses of an investigational hepatitis B vaccine consisting of hepatitis B surface antigen combined with an immunostimulatory phosphorothioate oligodeoxyribonucleotide adjuvant (HBV-ISS) given 8 weeks apart provides seroprotection sooner than 3 doses of a licensed hepatitis B vaccine over 24 weeks. A more rapid schedule with a 4-week interval could provide earlier protection and potentially greater compliance. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind study, healthy adults received two doses of HBV-ISS at 0 and 4 or 0 and 8 weeks; saline placebo was given at week 8 for the 0-4 schedule and at week 4 for the 0-8 schedule). Adverse events were collected after each dose. Antibodies were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 32 weeks. RESULTS: Participants were randomized to the 0-4 (n=18) or 0-8 (n=23) weeks schedule. Rates of adverse events were similar in the two groups after the HBV-ISS injections regardless of the schedule, but more frequent than after the placebo injections. By 4 weeks post-dose-2, 94.1% of 0-4 and 100% of 0-8 recipients had protective antibody levels; geometric mean concentrations were 244 mIU/mL and 3217 mIU/mL respectively. By 32 weeks, the difference in antibody concentration had decreased (GMC 439 mIU/mL vs. 863 mIU/mL, respectively; p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: A 0-4 weeks, two-dose regimen of HBV-ISS was well-tolerated and induced an antibody response that was similar to a 0-8 weeks schedule.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/química , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/química , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/imunologia , Oligonucleotídeos Fosforotioatos/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Vaccine ; 30(23): 3389-94, 2012 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22469860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concern arose in 2010 that reactogenicity, particularly febrile seizures, to influenza A/H1N1-containing 2010-2011 trivalent seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) could occur in young children who had been previously immunized and/or infected with the pandemic strain. We conducted a pre-season study of 2010-2011 TIV safety and immunogenicity in children 12-59 months of age to inform public health decision making. METHODS: Children immunized with 1 or 2 doses of the pandemic vaccine, with or without the 2009-10 TIV, received 1 or 2 doses of 2010-11 TIV in an observational, multicentre Canadian study. Standard safety monitoring was enhanced by a telephone call at ~24 h post-TIV when adverse events were expected to peak. Summary safety reports were rapidly reported to public health before the launch of public programs. TIV immunogenicity was assessed day 0, and 21 days after final vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01180621. RESULTS: Among 207 children, a general adverse event was reported by 60.9% of children post-dose one and by 58.3% post-dose two. Only severe fever (>38.5°C) was more common in two-dose compared to one dose recipients (16.7%, n=4 v. 1.0%, n=2). At baseline 99.0% of participants had A/H1N1 hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) titers ≥10, and 85.5% had a protective titer of ≥40 (95% CI 80.0, 90.0). Baseline geometric mean titers (GMT) were higher in recipients of a 2-dose schedule of pandemic vaccine compared to one-dose recipients: 153.1 (95% CI 126.2, 185.7) v. 78.8 ((58.1, 106.8, p<0.001). At 21 days, all regulatory criteria for influenza vaccine immunogenicity were exceeded for A/H1N1 and H3N2, but responses to the B antigen were poor. No correlations between reactogenicity and either baseline high influenza titers or serologic response to revaccination were evident. CONCLUSIONS: Infants and toddlers who received AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 2009 vaccine up to 11 months earlier retained high titers in the subsequent season but re-exposure to A/H1N1 2009 antigen in TIV resulted in no unusual adverse effects and 100% were sero-protected for A/H1N1 after receipt of the 2010-11 TIV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Canadá , Pré-Escolar , Combinação de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Polissorbatos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Esqualeno/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
16.
HIV Clin Trials ; 13(1): 23-32, 2012 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22306585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More severe influenza disease and poor vaccine immunogenicity in HIV-infected patients necessitate improved immunization strategies to maximize vaccine efficacy. METHODS: A phase III, randomized trial was conducted at 4 Canadian sites. Two dosing strategies (standard dose vs standard dose plus booster on day 21) were assessed in HIV patients aged 20 to 59 years during the H1N1(2009) pandemic. A single antigen, inactivated split adjuvanted (AS03(A)) influenza vaccine (Arepanrix) was utilized. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titres were assessed at days 21 and 42 and at month 6. RESULTS: 150 participants received at least one injection. Baseline parameters were similar between groups: 83% male, 85% on HAART, median CD4 = 519 cells/mm(3), 84% with HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL. At day 21, seroprotection (HAI ≥1:40) was achieved in 80% (95% CI, 70-89) of participants. Seroconversion occurred in 74% (63-85). Seroprotection and seroconversion were further improved in those randomized to booster dosing: day 42, 94% (85-98) versus 73% (60-83) (P < .01) and 86% (75-93) versus 66% (5-77) (P = .01). Seroprotec-tion was retained in 40% (28-54) of recipients at month 6 with trends toward greater retention of immunity in booster recipients. CONCLUSION: High-level immunogenicity was achieved with a single dose of this adjuvanted vaccine. Immunogenicity was further improved with booster dosing. Use of this adjuvanted vaccine and booster represent an important approach to increasing immunogenicity in this vaccine hypo-responsive population.


Assuntos
Imunização Secundária , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Pandemias , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Vaccine ; 28(10): 2169-73, 2010 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20056190

RESUMO

Healthcare workers' (HCWs) knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding pertussis immunization were assessed and compared to the rate of vaccine uptake. A questionnaire was distributed to employees at a paediatric and maternity tertiary care centre. Respondents were then offered a dose of the tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) at a free vaccine clinic. In total, 529 out of 3051 (17%) employees completed the survey and 61 received the Tdap vaccine. Although 76% of participants were willing to be immunized, only 15% presented to the clinic. There is a widespread acceptance of pertussis immunization among paediatric HCWs. Stated intentions may be poorly predictive of behaviour. Education and institutional or public funding may improve vaccine uptake.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Vacina contra Coqueluche/imunologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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