Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 9 de 9
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Adv ; 7(40): eabg8329, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586847

RESUMO

Calcium-aluminum­rich inclusions (CAIs) in meteorites carry crucial information about the environmental conditions of the nascent Solar System prior to planet formation. Based on models of 50V­10Be co-production by in-situ irradiation, CAIs are considered to have formed within ~0.1 AU from the proto-Sun. Here, we present vanadium (V) and strontium (Sr) isotopic co-variations in fine- and coarse-grained CAIs and demonstrate that kinetic isotope effects during partial condensation and evaporation best explain V isotope anomalies previously attributed to solar particle irradiation. We also report initial excesses of 10Be and argue that CV CAIs possess essentially a homogeneous level of 10Be, inherited during their formation. Based on numerical modeling of 50V­10Be co-production by irradiation, we show that CAI formation during protoplanetary disk build-up likely occurred at greater heliocentric distances than previously considered, up to planet-forming regions (~1AU), where solar particle fluxes were sufficiently low to avoid substantial in-situ irradiation of CAIs.

2.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1637, 2017 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487537

RESUMO

We report on a fragment of the quasicrystal-bearing CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Khatyrka recovered from fine-grained, clay-rich sediments in the Koryak Mountains, Chukotka (Russia). We show higher melting-point silicate glass cross-cutting lower melting-point Al-Cu-Fe alloys, as well as unambiguous evidence of a reduction-oxidation reaction history between Al-Cu-Fe alloys and silicate melt. The redox reactions involve reduction of FeO and SiO2 to Fe and Fe-Si metal, and oxidation of metallic Al to Al2O3, occurring where silicate melt was in contact with Al-Cu-Fe alloys. In the reaction zone, there are metallic Fe and Fe-Si beads, aluminous spinel rinds on the Al-Cu-Fe alloys, and Al2O3 enrichment in the silicate melt surrounding the alloys. From this and other evidence, we demonstrate that Khatyrka must have experienced at least two distinct events: first, an event as early as 4.564 Ga in which the first Al-Cu-Fe alloys formed; and, second, a more recent impact-induced shock in space that led to transformations of and reactions between the alloys and the meteorite matrix. The new evidence firmly establishes that the Al-Cu-Fe alloys (including quasicrystals) formed in outer space in a complex, multi-stage process.

3.
Sci Rep ; 5: 9111, 2015 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25765857

RESUMO

We report the first occurrence of a natural quasicrystal with decagonal symmetry. The quasicrystal, with composition Al71Ni24Fe5, was discovered in the Khatyrka meteorite, a recently described CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. Icosahedrite, Al63Cu24Fe13, the first natural quasicrystal to be identified, was found in the same meteorite. The new quasicrystal was found associated with steinhardtite (Al38Ni32Fe30), Fe-poor steinhardtite (Al50Ni40Fe10), Al-bearing trevorite (NiFe2O4) and Al-bearing taenite (FeNi). Laboratory studies of decagonal Al71Ni24Fe5 have shown that it is stable over a narrow range of temperatures, 1120 K to 1200 K at standard pressure, providing support for our earlier conclusion that the Khatyrka meteorite reached heterogeneous high temperatures [1100 < T(K) ≤ 1500] and then rapidly cooled after being heated during an impact-induced shock that occurred in outer space 4.5 Gya. The occurrences of metallic Al alloyed with Cu, Ni, and Fe raises new questions regarding conditions that can be achieved in the early solar nebula.

4.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4040, 2014 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24925481

RESUMO

The discovery of a natural quasicrystal, icosahedrite (Al63Cu24Fe13), accompanied by khatyrkite (CuAl2) and cupalite (CuAl) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Khatyrka has posed a mystery as to what extraterrestrial processes led to the formation and preservation of these metal alloys. Here we present a range of evidence, including the discovery of high-pressure phases never observed before in a CV3 chondrite, indicating that an impact shock generated a heterogeneous distribution of pressures and temperatures in which some portions reached at least 5 GPa and 1,200 °C. The conditions were sufficient to melt Al-Cu-bearing minerals, which then rapidly solidified into icosahedrite and other Al-Cu metal phases. The meteorite also contains heretofore unobserved phases of iron-nickel and iron sulphide with substantial amounts of Al and Cu. The presence of these phases in Khatyrka provides further proof that the Al-Cu alloys are natural products of unusual processes that occurred in the early solar system.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(48): 19130-4, 2011 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22128323

RESUMO

Cosmochemistry is the chemical analysis of extraterrestrial materials. This term generally is taken to mean laboratory analysis, which is the cosmochemistry gold standard because of the ability for repeated analysis under highly controlled conditions using the most advanced instrumentation unhindered by limitations in power, space, or environment. Over the past 40 y, advances in technology have enabled telescopic and spacecraft instruments to provide important data that significantly complement the laboratory data. In this special edition, recent advances in the state of the art of cosmochemistry are presented, which range from instrumental analysis of meteorites to theoretical-computational and astronomical observations.


Assuntos
Química Inorgânica/métodos , Química Inorgânica/tendências , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno/química , Meteoroides , Lua , Sistema Solar/química , Alumínio/análise , Cálcio/análise , Oxigênio/análise
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(48): 19152-8, 2011 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22106251

RESUMO

Through the laboratory study of ancient solar system materials such as meteorites and comet dust, we can recognize evidence for the same star-formation processes in our own solar system as those that we can observe now through telescopes in nearby star-forming regions. High temperature grains formed in the innermost region of the solar system ended up much farther out in the solar system, not only the asteroid belt but even in the comet accretion region, suggesting a huge and efficient process of mass transport. Bi-polar outflows, turbulent diffusion, and marginal gravitational instability are the likely mechanisms for this transport. The presence of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system, especially (60)Fe, (26)Al, and (41)Ca, requires a nearby supernova shortly before our solar system was formed, suggesting that the Sun was formed in a massive star-forming region similar to Orion or Carina. Solar system formation may have been "triggered" by ionizing radiation originating from massive O and B stars at the center of an expanding HII bubble, one of which may have later provided the supernova source for the short-lived radionuclides. Alternatively, a supernova shock wave may have simultaneously triggered the collapse and injected the short-lived radionuclides. Because the Sun formed in a region where many other stars were forming more or less contemporaneously, the bi-polar outflows from all such stars enriched the local region in interstellar silicate and oxide dust. This may explain several observed anomalies in the meteorite record: a near absence of detectable (no extreme isotopic properties) presolar silicate grains and a dichotomy in the isotope record between (26)Al and nucleosynthetic (nonradiogenic) anomalies.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Astronômicos , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno/química , Sistema Solar/química , Astros Celestes/química , Radioisótopos/análise
7.
Science ; 314(5806): 1731-5, 2006 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17170294

RESUMO

We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed ( approximately 180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is consistent with the CI meteorite composition, which is thought to represent the bulk composition of the solar system, for the elements Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Ti to 60%. The elements Cu, Zn, and Ga appear enriched in this Wild 2 material, which suggests that the CI meteorites may not represent the solar system composition for these moderately volatile minor elements.

8.
Nature ; 434(7036): 998-1001, 2005 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15846340

RESUMO

Chondrules and Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are high-temperature components of meteorites that formed during transient heating events in the early Solar System. A major unresolved issue is the relative timing of CAI and chondrule formation. From the presence of chondrule fragments in an igneous CAI, it was concluded that some chondrules formed before CAIs (ref. 5). This conclusion is contrary to the presence of relict CAIs inside chondrules, as well as to the higher abundance of 26Al in CAIs; both observations indicate that CAIs pre-date chondrules by 1-3 million years (Myr). Here we report that relict chondrule material in the Allende meteorite, composed of olivine and low-calcium pyroxene, occurs in the outer portions of two CAIs and is 16O-poor (Delta17O approximately -1 per thousand to -5 per thousand). Spinel and diopside in the CAI cores are 16O-rich (Delta17O up to -20 per thousand), whereas diopside in their outer zones, as well as melilite and anorthite, are 16O-depleted (Delta17O = -8 per thousand to 2 per thousand). Both chondrule-bearing CAIs are 26Al-poor with initial 26Al/27Al ratios of (4.7 +/- 1.4) x 10(-6) and <1.2 x 10(-6). We conclude that these CAIs had chondrule material added to them during a re-melting episode approximately 2 Myr after formation of CAIs with the canonical 26Al/27Al ratio of 5 x 10(-5).

9.
Science ; 295(5557): 1051-4, 2002 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11834830

RESUMO

Carbonaceous chondrite condensate olivine grains from two distinct petrographic settings, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) accretionary rims and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), are oxygen-16 (16O) enriched at the level previously observed inside CAIs. This requires that the gas in the nebular region where these grains condensed was 16O-rich. This contrasts with an 16O-poor gas present during the formation of chondrules, suggesting that CAIs and AOAs formed in a spatially restricted region of the solar nebula containing 16O-rich gas. The 16O-rich gas composition may have resulted either from mass-independent isotopic chemistry or from evaporation of regions with enhanced dust/gas ratios, possibly in an X-wind environment near the young Sun.


Assuntos
Meteoroides , Oxigênio/análise , Sistema Solar , Alumínio/análise , Cálcio/análise , Poeira Cósmica , Evolução Química , Gases , Compostos de Ferro , Compostos de Magnésio , Minerais/análise , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Silicatos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...