Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 42
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 839, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Household contact tracing of index TB cases has been advocated as a key part of TB control for many years, but has not been widely implemented in many low-resource setting because of the current dearth of high quality evidence for effectiveness. Innovative strategies for earlier, more effective treatment are particularly important in contexts with hyper-endemic levels of HIV, where levels of TB infection remain extremely high. METHODS: We present the design of a household cluster-randomised controlled trial of interventions aimed at improving TB-free survival and reducing childhood prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among household contacts of index TB cases diagnosed in two provinces of South Africa. Households of index TB cases will be randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive either an intensified home screening and linkage for TB and HIV intervention, or enhanced standard of care. The primary outcome will compare between groups the TB-free survival of household contacts over 15 months. All participants, or their next-of-kin, will provide written informed consent to participate. DISCUSSION: Evidence from randomised trials is required to identify cost-effective approaches to TB case-finding that can be applied at scale in sub-Saharan Africa. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16006202 (01/02/2017: retrospectively registered) and NHREC4399 (11/04/2016: prospectively registered). Protocol version: 4.0 (date: 18th January 2018).


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 1: e25234, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907514

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Scale-up of HIV self-testing (HIVST) will play a key role in meeting the United Nation's 90-90-90 targets. Delayed re-reading of used HIVST devices has been used by early implementation studies to validate the performance of self-test kits and to estimate HIV positivity among self-testers. We investigated the stability of results on used devices under controlled conditions to assess its potential as a quality assurance approach for HIVST scale-up. METHODS: 444 OraQuick® HIV-1/2 rapid antibody tests were conducted using commercial plasma from two HIV-positive donors and HIV-negative plasma (high-reactive n = 148, weak-reactive n = 148 and non-reactive n = 148) and incubated them for six months under four conditions (combinations of high and low temperatures and humidity). Devices were re-read daily for one week, weekly for one subsequent month and then once a month by independent readers unaware of the previous results. We used multistage transition models to investigate rates of change in device results, and between storage conditions. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: There was a high incidence of device instability. Forty-three (29%) of 148 initially non-reactive results became false weak-reactive results. These changes were observed across all incubation conditions, the earliest on Day 4 (n = 9 kits). No initially HIV-reactive results changed to a non-reactive result. There were no significant associations between storage conditions and hazard of results transition. We observed substantial statistical agreement between independent re-readers over time (agreement range: 0.74 to 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: Delayed re-reading of used OraQuick® HIV-1/2 rapid antibody tests is not currently a valid methodological approach to quality assurance and monitoring as we observed a high incidence (29%) of true non-reactive tests changing to false weak-reactive and therefore its use may overestimate true HIV positivity.

4.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 21, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A sizeable fraction of tuberculosis (TB) cases go undiagnosed. By analysing data from enhanced demographic, microbiological and geospatial surveillance of TB registrations, we aimed to identify modifiable predictors of inequitable access to diagnosis and care. METHODS: Governmental community health workers (CHW) enumerated all households in 315 catchment areas during October-December 2015. From January 2015, government TB Officers routinely implemented enhanced TB surveillance at all public and private TB treatment registration centres within Blantyre (18 clinics in total). This included collection from registering TB patients of demographic and clinical characteristics, a single sputum sample for TB microscopy and culture, and geolocation of place of residence using an electronic satellite map application. We estimated catchment area annual TB case notification rates (CNRs), stratified by microbiological status. To identify population and area-level factors predictive of CHW catchment area TB case notification rates, we constructed Bayesian spatially autocorrelated regression models with Poisson response distributions. Worldpop data were used to estimate poverty. RESULTS: In total, the 315 CHW catchment areas comprised 753,489 people (range 162 to 13,066 people/catchment area). Between 2015 and 2017, 6077 TB cases (61% male; 99% HIV tested; 67% HIV positive; 55% culture confirmed) were geolocated, with 3723 (61%) resident within a CHW catchment area. In adjusted models, greater distance to the nearest TB registration clinic was negatively correlated with TB CNRs, which halved for every 3.2-fold (95% CI 2.24-5.21) increase in distance. Poverty, which increased with distance from clinics, was negatively correlated with TB CNRs; a 23% increase (95% CI 17-34%) in the mean percentage of the population living on less than US$2 per day corresponded to a halving of the TB case notification rates. CONCLUSIONS: Using enhanced surveillance of TB cases in Blantyre, we show an ecological relationship consistent with an 'inverse care law' whereby poorer neighbourhoods and those furthest from TB clinics have lower relative CNRs. If confirmed as low case detection, then pro-poor strategies to facilitate equitable access to TB diagnosis and treatment are required.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino
5.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 61, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542662

RESUMO

Background: Adults seeking diagnosis and treatment for tuberculosis (TB) and HIV in low-resource settings face considerable barriers and have high pre-treatment mortality. Efforts to improve access to prompt TB treatment have been hampered by limitations in TB diagnostics, with considerable uncertainty about how available and new tests can best be implemented. Design and methods: The PROSPECT Study is an open, three-arm pragmatic randomised study that will investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of optimised HIV and TB diagnosis and linkage to care interventions in reducing time to TB diagnosis and prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV in primary care in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants (≥ 18 years) attending a primary care clinic with TB symptoms (cough of any duration) will be randomly allocated to one of three groups: (i) standard of care; (ii) optimised HIV diagnosis and linkage; or (iii) optimised HIV and TB diagnosis and linkage. We will test two hypotheses: firstly, whether prompt linkage to HIV care should be prioritised for adults with TB symptoms; and secondly, whether an optimised TB triage testing algorithm comprised of digital chest x-ray evaluated by computer-aided diagnosis software and sputum GeneXpert MTB/Rif can outperform clinician-directed TB screening. The primary trial outcome will be time to TB treatment initiation by day 56, and secondary outcomes will include prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV, mortality, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Conclusions: The PROSPECT Study will provide urgently-needed evidence under "real-life" conditions to inform clinicians and policy makers on how best to improve TB/HIV diagnosis and treatment in Africa. Clinical trial registration: NCT03519425 (08/05/2018).

6.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 21(7): e25162, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063287

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV and tuberculosis (TB) remain leading causes of preventable death in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends HIV testing for all individuals with TB symptoms, but implementation has been suboptimal. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses to estimate HIV and TB prevalence, and short-term (two to six months) mortality, among adults with TB symptoms at community- and facility level. METHODS: We searched Embase, Global Health and MEDLINE databases, and reviewed conference abstracts for studies reporting simultaneous HIV and TB screening of adults in LMICs published between January 2003 and December 2017. Meta-analyses were performed to estimate prevalence of HIV, undiagnosed TB and mortality risk at different health system levels. RESULTS: Sixty-two studies including 260,792 symptomatic adults were identified, mostly from Africa and Asia. Median HIV prevalence was 19.2% (IQR: 8.3% to 40.4%) at community level, 55.7% (IQR: 20.9% to 71.2%) at primary care level and 80.7% (IQR: 73.8% to 84.6%) at hospital level. Median TB prevalence was 6.9% (IQR: 3.3% to 8.4%) at community, 20.5% (IQR: 11.7% to 46.4%) at primary care and 36.4% (IQR: 22.9% to 40.9%) at hospital level. Median short-term mortality was 22.6% (IQR: 15.6% to 27.7%) among inpatients, 3.1% (IQR: 1.2% to 4.2%) at primary care and 1.6% (95% CI: 0.45 to 4.13, n = 1 study) at community level. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with TB symptoms have extremely high prevalence of HIV infection, even when identified through community surveys. TB prevalence and mortality increased substantially at primary care and inpatient level respectively. Strategies to expand symptom-based TB screening combined with HIV and TB testing for all symptomatic individuals should be of the highest priority for both disease programmes in LMICs with generalized HIV epidemics. Interventions to reduce short-term mortality are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0192991, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29543818

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although HIV infection and its associated co-morbidities remain the commonest reason for hospitalisation in Africa, their impact on economic costs and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are not well understood. This information is essential for decision-makers to make informed choices about how to best scale-up anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programmes. This study aimed to quantify the impact of HIV infection and ART on economic outcomes in a prospective cohort of hospitalised patients with high HIV prevalence. METHODS: Sequential medical admissions to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi, between June-December 2014 were followed until discharge, with standardised classification of medical diagnosis and estimation of healthcare resources used. Primary costing studies estimated total health provider cost by medical diagnosis. Participants were interviewed to establish direct non-medical and indirect costs. Costs were adjusted to 2014 US$ and INT$. HRQoL was measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D. Multivariable analyses estimated predictors of economic outcomes. RESULTS: Of 892 eligible participants, 80.4% (647/892) were recruited and medical notes found. In total, 447/647 (69.1%) participants were HIV-positive, 339/447 (75.8%) were on ART prior to admission, and 134/647 (20.7%) died in hospital. Mean duration of admission for HIV-positive participants not on ART and HIV-positive participants on ART was 15.0 days (95%CI: 12.0-18.0) and 12.2 days (95%CI: 10.8-13.7) respectively, compared to 10.8 days (95%CI: 8.8-12.8) for HIV-negative participants. Mean total provider cost per hospital admission was US$74.78 (bootstrap 95%CI: US$25.41-US$124.15) higher for HIV-positive than HIV-negative participants. Amongst HIV-positive participants, the mean total provider cost was US$106.87 (bootstrap 95%CI: US$25.09-US$106.87) lower for those on ART than for those not on ART. The mean total direct non-medical and indirect cost per hospital admission was US$87.84. EQ-5D utility scores were lower amongst HIV-positive participants, but not significantly different between those on and not on ART. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-related hospital care poses substantial financial burdens on health systems and patients; however, per-admission costs are substantially lower for those already initiated onto ART prior to admission. These potential cost savings could offset some of the additional resources needed to provide universal access to ART.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais , Infecções por HIV , Hospitalização , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Antirretrovirais/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 66(8): 1211-1221, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136117

RESUMO

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus self-testing (HIVST) is effective, with scale-up underway in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed cost-effectiveness of adding HIVST to existing facility-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services. Both 2010 (initiate at CD4 <350 cells/µL) and 2015 (initiate all) World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for antiretroviral treatment (ART) were considered. Methods: A microsimulation model was developed to evaluate cost-effectiveness, from both health provider and societal perspectives, of an HIVST service implemented in a cluster-randomized trial (CRT; ISRCTN02004005) in Malawi. Costs and health outcomes were evaluated over a 20-year time horizon, using a discount rate of 3%. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to account for parameter uncertainty. Results: From the health provider perspective and 20-year time horizon, facility HTC using 2010 WHO ART guidelines was the least costly ($294.71 per person; 95% credible interval [CrI], 270.79-318.45) and least effective (11.64 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs] per person; 95% CrI, 11.43-11.86) strategy. Compared with this strategy, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for facility HTC using 2015 WHO ART guidelines was $226.85 (95% CrI, 198.79-284.35) per QALY gained. The strategy of facility HTC plus HIVST, using 2010 WHO ART guidelines, was extendedly dominated. The ICER for facility HTC plus HIVST, using 2015 WHO ART guidelines, was $253.90 (95% CrI, 201.71-342.02) per QALY gained compared with facility HTC and using 2015 WHO ART guidelines. Conclusions: HIVST may be cost-effective in a Malawian population with high HIV prevalence. HIVST is suited to an early HIV diagnosis and treatment strategy. Clinical Trials registration: ISRCTN02004005.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Aconselhamento , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Autocuidado , Adulto Jovem
9.
Thorax ; 73(8): 785-787, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146867

RESUMO

UK guidelines no longer recommend routine screening of household contacts of adult patients with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). From 27 March 2012 to 28 June 2016, we investigated the prevalence of active TB disease in household contacts of 1023 EPTB index cases in North West England, and compared estimates with: published new entrant migrant screening programme prevalence (~147/100 000 person-years); London-based contact screening data (700/100 000 contacts screened); and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) new entrant TB screening thresholds (TB prevalence >40/100 000 people). Active TB disease prevalence in EPTB contacts was 440/100 000 contacts screened, similar to UK new entrant screening programmes, London EPTB contact prevalence and >10 times NICE's threshold for new entrant screening. The decision to no longer recommend routine screening of EPTB contacts should be re-evaluated and cost-effectiveness analyses of screening strategies for EPTB contacts should be performed.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Migrantes
10.
PLoS Curr ; 92017 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29188131

RESUMO

Introduction: Outbreaks linked to cosmetic piercing are rare, but can cause significant illness. We report the investigation and management of a point-source outbreak that occurred during a Black Friday promotional event in North West England. Methods: Outbreak investigation was led by Public Health England, and included active case finding among individuals pierced at a piercing premises between 25/11/2016 (Black Friday) and 7/12/2016. Detailed epidemiological, environmental (including inspection and sampling), and microbiological investigation was undertaken. Results: During the Black Friday event (25/11/2016), 45 people were pierced (13 by a newly-appointed practitioner). Eleven cases were identified (7 microbiologically-confirmed, 2 probable, and 2 possible). All cases had clinical signs of infection around piercing sites, and five required surgical intervention, with varying degrees of post-operative disfigurement. All confirmed and probable cases had a scaffold piercing placed with a guide bar by the newly-appointed practitioner. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, indistinguishable at nine-locus variable-number tandem repeat loci, was isolated from four of the confirmed cases, and from pre- and post-flush samples from five separate water taps (three sinks) in the premises. Water samples taken after remedial plumbing work confirmed elimination of Pseudomonas contamination. Discussion: Although high levels of Pseudomonas water contamination and some poor infection control procedures were identified, infection appeared to require additional exposure to an inexperienced practitioner, and the more invasive scaffold piercing. A proactive collaborative approach between piercers and health and environmental officials is required to reduce outbreak risk, particularly when unusually large events are planned.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 881, 2017 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with TB have diverse and often challenging clinical and social needs that may hamper successful treatment outcomes. Understanding the need for additional support during treatment (enhanced case management, or ECM) is important for workforce capacity planning. North West England TB Cohort Audit (TBCA) has introduced a 4-level ECM classification system (ECM 0-3) to quantify the need for ECM in the region. This study describes the data from the first 2 years of ECM classification. METHODS: Data collected between April 2013 and July 2015 were used to analyse the proportions of patients allocated to each ECM level and the prevalence of social and clinical factors indicating need for ECM. Single variable and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between ECM level and treatment outcome. RESULTS: Of 1714 notified cases 99.8% were assigned an ECM level: 31% ECM1, 19% ECM2 and 14% ECM3. The most common factors indicating need for ECM were language barriers (20.3%) and clinical complexity (16.9%). 1342/1493 (89.9%) of drug-sensitive, non-CNS cases completed treatment within 12 months. Patients in ECM2 and 3 were less likely to complete treatment at 12 months than patients in ECM0 (adjusted OR 0.47 [95% CI 0.27-0.84] and 0.23 [0.13-0.41] respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Use of TBCA to quantify different levels of need for ECM is feasible and has demonstrated that social and clinical complexity is common in the region. Results will inform regional workforce planning and assist development of innovative methods to improve treatment outcomes in these vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Auditoria Médica , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Tuberculose/terapia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 75(3): 280-289, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28617733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The scale-up of HIV self-testing (HIVST) in Africa is recommended, but little is known about how this novel approach influences economic outcomes following subsequent antiretroviral treatment (ART) compared with established facility-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) approaches. SETTING: HIV clinics in Blantyre, Malawi. METHODS: Consecutive HIV-positive participants, diagnosed by HIVST or facility-based HTC as part of a community cluster-randomized trial (ISRCTN02004005), were followed from initial assessment for ART until 1-year postinitiation. Healthcare resource use was prospectively measured, and primary costing studies undertaken to estimate total health provider costs. Participants were interviewed to establish direct nonmedical and indirect costs over the first year of ART. Costs were adjusted to 2014 US$ and INT$. Health-related quality of life was measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D at each clinic visit. Multivariable analyses estimated predictors of economic outcomes. RESULTS: Of 325 participants attending HIV clinics for assessment for ART, 265 were identified through facility-based HTC, and 60 through HIVST; 168/265 (69.2%) and 36/60 (60.0%), respectively, met national ART eligibility criteria and initiated treatment. The mean total health provider assessment costs for ART initiation were US$22.79 (SE: 0.56) and US$19.92 (SE: 0.77) for facility-based HTC and HIVST participants, respectively, and was US$2.87 (bootstrap 95% CI: US$1.01 to US$4.73) lower for the HIVST group. The mean total health provider costs for the first year of ART were US$168.65 (SE: 2.02) and US$164.66 (SE: 4.21) for facility-based HTC and HIVST participants, respectively, and comparable between the 2 groups (bootstrap 95% CI: -US$12.38 to US$4.39). EQ-5D utility scores immediately before and one year after ART initiation were comparable between the 2 groups. EQ-5D utility scores 1 year after ART initiation had increased by 0.129 (SE: 0.011) and 0.139 (SE: 0.027) for facility-based HTC and HIVST participants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Once HIV self-testers are linked into HIV services, their economic outcomes are comparable to those linking to services after facility-based HTC.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/economia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Instalações de Saúde/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMJ Open ; 7(3): e014106, 2017 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28363926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There was a large outbreak of measles in Liverpool, UK, in 2012-2013, despite measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunisation uptake rates that were higher than the national average. We estimated measles susceptibility of a cohort of children born in Liverpool between 1995 and 2012 to understand whether there was a change in susceptibility before and after the outbreak and to inform vaccination strategy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The city of Liverpool, North West UK. PARTICIPANTS: All children born in Liverpool (72 101) between 1995 and 2012 inclusive who were identified using the Child Health Information System (CHIS) and were still resident within Liverpool in 2014. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We estimated cohort age-disaggregated and neighbourhood-disaggregated measles susceptibility according to WHO thresholds before and after the outbreak for children aged 1-17 years. RESULTS: Susceptibility to measles was above WHO elimination thresholds before and after the measles outbreak in the 10+ age group. The proportion of children susceptible before and after outbreak, respectively: age 1-4 years 15.0% before and 14.9% after; age 5-9 years 9.9% before and 7.7% after; age 10+ years 8.6% before and 8.5% after. Despite an intensive MMR immunisation catch-up campaign after the 2012-2013 measles outbreak, the overall proportion of children with no MMR remains high at 6.1% (4390/72 351). Across all age groups and before and after the outbreak, measles susceptibility was clustered by neighbourhood, with deprived areas having the greatest proportion of susceptible children. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of sustained measles outbreaks remains, especially as large pools of susceptible older children will start leaving secondary education and continue to aggregate in higher education, employment and other community settings and institutions resulting in the potential for a propagated measles outbreak.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Can Med Educ J ; 8(4): e86-e91, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354201

RESUMO

Background: Ethics education is a required component of pediatric residency training. Limited instructional time requires educators to identify and prioritize learning needs. This is the first study to identify pediatric residents' ethics learning needs using a multisource (360 degree) assessment. We hypothesized that pediatricians or allied health care professionals would identify unperceived ethics learning needs. Methods: Pediatric residents, pediatricians, respiratory therapists (RTs), and registered nurses (RNs) working at a university children's hospital rated the importance of twelve ethics themes as learning needs for trainees using a Likert-type scale. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences between the groups, followed by post-hoc testing. Results: Response rates were 65%, 70%, 57%, and 47% for residents, pediatricians, RTs, and RNs, respectively. Themes were categorized into three priority groupings based on mean importance ratings. Where significant differences existed between residents and other respondent groups, pediatric residents rated the theme as being more important. Conclusion: This study provides an interprofessional assessment of pediatric residents' perceived ethics learning needs. High priority ethics topics were identified, allowing for targeted teaching. Pediatricians and allied HCPs did not rate any ethics themes higher than residents. Medical educators may consider using methods inspired by multisource feedback for program evaluation.

16.
PLoS Med ; 13(9): e1002119, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27598345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) case notification rates are usually higher in men than in women, but notification data are insufficient to measure sex differences in disease burden. This review set out to systematically investigate whether sex ratios in case notifications reflect differences in disease prevalence and to identify gaps in access to and/or utilisation of diagnostic services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In accordance with the published protocol (CRD42015022163), TB prevalence surveys in nationally representative and sub-national adult populations (age ≥ 15 y) in low- and middle-income countries published between 1 January 1993 and 15 March 2016 were identified through searches of PubMed, Embase, Global Health, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; review of abstracts; and correspondence with the World Health Organization. Random-effects meta-analyses examined male-to-female (M:F) ratios in TB prevalence and prevalence-to-notification (P:N) ratios for smear-positive TB. Meta-regression was done to identify factors associated with higher M:F ratios in prevalence and higher P:N ratios. Eighty-three publications describing 88 surveys with over 3.1 million participants in 28 countries were identified (36 surveys in Africa, three in the Americas, four in the Eastern Mediterranean, 28 in South-East Asia and 17 in the Western Pacific). Fifty-six surveys reported in 53 publications were included in quantitative analyses. Overall random-effects weighted M:F prevalence ratios were 2.21 (95% CI 1.92-2.54; 56 surveys) for bacteriologically positive TB and 2.51 (95% CI 2.07-3.04; 40 surveys) for smear-positive TB. M:F prevalence ratios were highest in South-East Asia and in surveys that did not require self-report of signs/symptoms in initial screening procedures. The summary random-effects weighted M:F ratio for P:N ratios was 1.55 (95% CI 1.25-1.91; 34 surveys). We intended to stratify the analyses by age, HIV status, and rural or urban setting; however, few studies reported such data. CONCLUSIONS: TB prevalence is significantly higher among men than women in low- and middle-income countries, with strong evidence that men are disadvantaged in seeking and/or accessing TB care in many settings. Global strategies and national TB programmes should recognise men as an underserved high-risk group and improve men's access to diagnostic and screening services to reduce the overall burden of TB more effectively and ensure gender equity in TB care.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Notificação de Doenças , Carga Global da Doença , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Razão de Masculinidade , Tuberculose/microbiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0158107, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27336161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of storing commonly used rapid diagnostic tests above manufacturer-recommended temperature (at 37°C), and the accuracy of delayed reading of oral fluid kits with relevance to HIV self-testing programmes. DESIGN: A quality assurance study of OraQuick (OraSure), Determine HIV 1/2™ (Alere) and Uni-Gold™ (Recombigen®). METHODS: Consecutive adults (≥18y) attending Ndirande Health Centre in urban Blantyre, Malawi in January to April 2012 underwent HIV testing with two of each of the three rapid diagnostic test kits stored for 28 days at either 18°C (optimally-stored) or at 37°C (pre-incubated). Used OraQuick test kits were stored in a laboratory for delayed day 1 and subsequent monthly re-reading was undertaken for one year. RESULTS: Of 378 individuals who underwent parallel testing, 5 (1.3%) were dropped from the final analysis due to discordant or missing reference standard results (optimally-stored Determine and Uni-Gold). Compared to the diagnostic reference standard, OraQuick had a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% CI: 93.6-99.6). There were 7 false negative results among all test kits stored at 37°C and three false negatives among optimally stored kits. Excellent agreement between pre-incubated tests and optimally-stored tests with Kappa values of 1.00 for Determine and Uni-Gold; and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.00) for OraQuick were observed. There was high visual stability on re-reading of OraQuick, with only 1/375 pre-incubated and 1/371 optimally-stored OraQuick kits changing from the initial result over 12 months. CONCLUSION: Erroneous results observed during HIV testing in low income settings are likely to be due to factors other than suboptimal storage conditions. Re-reading returned OraQuick kits may offer a convenient and accurate quality assurance approach, including in HIV self-testing programmes.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV/genética , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Saliva/virologia , Adulto , Feminino , HIV/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fluxo de Trabalho
18.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0156099, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27284683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A discordant immune response (DIR) is a failure to satisfactorily increase CD4 counts on ART despite successful virological control. Literature on the clinical effects of DIR has not been systematically evaluated. We aimed to summarise the risk of mortality, AIDS and serious non-AIDS events associated with DIR with a systematic review. METHODS: The protocol is registered with the Centre for Review Dissemination, University of York (registration number CRD42014010821). Included studies investigated the effect of DIR on mortality, AIDS, or serious non-AIDS events in cohort studies or cohorts contained in arms of randomised controlled trials for adults aged 16 years or older. DIR was classified as a suboptimal CD4 count (as defined by the study) despite virological suppression following at least 6 months of ART. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to December 2015. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias in cohort studies. Two authors applied inclusion criteria and one author extracted data. Risk ratios were calculated for each clinical outcome reported. RESULTS: Of 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 14 different definitions of DIR were used. Risk ratios for mortality in patients with and without DIR ranged between 1.00 (95% CI 0.26 to 3.92) and 4.29 (95% CI 1.96 to 9.38) with the majority of studies reporting a 2 to 3 fold increase in risk. CONCLUSIONS: DIR is associated with a marked increase in mortality in most studies but definitions vary widely. We propose a standardised definition to aid the development of management options for DIR.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0155101, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current tuberculosis diagnostics lack sensitivity, and are expensive. Highly accurate, rapid and cheaper diagnostic tests are required for point of care use in low resource settings with high HIV prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sensitivity and specificity, and cost of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for tuberculosis diagnosis in adults with chronic cough compared to Xpert® MTB/RIF, fluorescence smear microscopy. METHODS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, consecutive adults at a primary care clinic were screened for cough, offered HIV testing and assessed for tuberculosis using LAMP, Xpert® MTB/RIF and fluorescence smear microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity (with culture as reference standard), and costs were estimated. RESULTS: Of 273 adults recruited, 44.3% (121/273) were HIV-positive and 19.4% (53/273) had bacteriogically confirmed tuberculosis. The sensitivity of LAMP compared to culture was 65.0% (95% CI: 48.3% to 79.4%) with 100% (95% CI: 98.0% to 100%) specificity. The sensitivity of Xpert® MTB/RIF (77.5%, 95% CI: 61.5% to 89.2%) was similar to that of LAMP, p = 0.132. The sensitivity of concentrated fluorescence smear microscopy with routine double reading (87.5%, 95% CI: 73.2% to 95.8%) was higher than that of LAMP, p = 0.020. All three tests had high specificity. The lowest cost per test of LAMP was at batch size of 14 samples (US$ 9.98); this was lower than Xpert® MTB/RIF (US$ 13.38) but higher than fluorescence smear microscopy (US$ 0.65). CONCLUSION: The sensitivity of LAMP was similar to Xpert® MTB/RIF but lower than fluorescence smear microscopy; all three tests had high specificity. These findings support the Malawi policy that recommends a combination of fluorescence smear microscopy and Xpert® MTB/RIF prioritised for people living with HIV, already found to be smear-negative, or being considered for retreatment of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Tosse/complicações , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/economia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/economia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose/economia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Med ; 14: 34, 2016 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26891969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) has been found to be highly effective, but no cost analysis has been undertaken to guide the design of affordable and scalable implementation strategies. METHODS: Consecutive HIV self-testers and facility-based testers were recruited from participants in a community cluster-randomised trial ( ISRCTN02004005 ) investigating the impact of offering HIVST in addition to facility-based HIV testing and counselling (HTC). Primary costing studies were undertaken of the HIVST service and of health facilities providing HTC to the trial population. Costs were adjusted to 2014 US$ and INT$. Recruited participants were asked about direct non-medical and indirect costs associated with accessing either modality of HIV testing, and additionally their health-related quality of life was measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D. RESULTS: A total of 1,241 participants underwent either HIVST (n = 775) or facility-based HTC (n = 446). The mean societal cost per participant tested through HIVST (US$9.23; 95 % CI: US$9.14-US$9.32) was lower than through facility-based HTC (US$11.84; 95 % CI: US$10.81-12.86). Although the mean health provider cost per participant tested through HIVST (US$8.78) was comparable to facility-based HTC (range: US$7.53-US$10.57), the associated mean direct non-medical and indirect cost was lower (US$2.93; 95 % CI: US$1.90-US$3.96). The mean health provider cost per HIV positive participant identified through HIVST was higher (US$97.50) than for health facilities (range: US$25.18-US$76.14), as was the mean cost per HIV positive individual assessed for anti-retroviral treatment (ART) eligibility and the mean cost per HIV positive individual initiated onto ART. In comparison to the facility-testing group, the adjusted mean EQ-5D utility score was 0.046 (95 % CI: 0.022-0.070) higher in the HIVST group. CONCLUSIONS: HIVST reduces the economic burden on clients, but is a costlier strategy for the health provider aiming to identify HIV positive individuals for treatment. The provider cost of HIVST could be substantially lower under less restrictive distribution models, or if costs of oral fluid HIV test kits become comparable to finger-prick kits used in health facilities.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/economia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Instalações de Saúde/economia , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV/economia , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/terapia , HIV-1/imunologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Sorológicos/economia , Testes Sorológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrão de Cuidado/economia , Padrão de Cuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA