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1.
Psychophysiology ; 57(1): e13423, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228269

RESUMO

Combat-related post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are prevalent among recently deployed veterans, making identification of biomarkers of PTSS in this population a public health priority. Given the link between threat processing neurobiology and PTSS, the threat-related late positive potential (LPP), an ERP reflective of attentional processing sensitive to emotion and its regulation, may have utility as a cost-effective biomarker. Existing PTSS/threat-related LPP findings are mixed, possibly due to variability in PTSS across samples, but this has never been explicitly tested. To address this gap, LPP amplitudes to angry, fearful, and happy emotional face stimuli were recorded among 81 combat-exposed veterans at a VA hospital. A quadratic relationship between self-reported PTSS and LPP amplitude modulation by angry faces emerged such that greater PTSS was related to a decreased LPP response to angry faces among veterans with subthreshold PTSD and an enhanced LPP response to angry faces among veterans with probable PTSD. These results suggest that prior mixed findings may be due to variability in PTSS severity. In addition, exploratory moderation analysis revealed that PTSS was positively associated with late LPP modulation for veterans reporting low cognitive reappraisal use and negatively associated with late LPP modulation for veterans reporting high cognitive reappraisal use. All results were specific to the 1,000-3,000 ms LPP time window. Thus, the functional nature of LPP modulation by direct threat cues may depend upon PTSS severity and/or related variables (e.g., cognitive reappraisal utilization).

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing research suggests that inhibitory control deficits may differentiate individuals who think about suicide from those who make a suicide attempt. However, no available research, to our knowledge, has examined whether suicidal behaviors are associated with disruptions in the ability to determine when inhibitory control is needed or the ability to engage inhibition of an inappropriate or maladaptive behavior. The current study utilized event-related potentials to investigate specific facets of inhibitory control and their associations with suicide attempt history among a heterogeneous clinical sample who reported current suicidal ideation. METHODS: Ideators with no past suicide attempts (n = 46) and those with a history of suicide attempts (n = 22) completed a complex go/no-go task. Raw waveforms and temporospatial principal components analysis were used to index conflict detection (i.e., ΔN2) and motor inhibition (i.e., ΔP3a). Behavioral performance indices were also examined. RESULTS: Suicide attempters exhibited deficits in detecting the need for inhibitory control, as indexed by a more positive ΔN2 factor, than did ideating nonattempters, even when accounting for psychiatric comorbidity and age. However, these results only emerged in the principal components analysis-derived latent factor. No differences in behavioral performance or ΔP3a amplitude emerged. CONCLUSIONS: A relative inability to detect when to inhibit a maladaptive behavior, but not the ability to engage motor inhibition to stop that behavior, may distinguish suicide ideators who make a suicide attempt from those who do not. However, future research with prospective designs are needed to determine how conflict detection deficits may contribute to the emergence or escalation of a suicidal crisis.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 257: 536-550, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Theories of suicide posit distinct etiological pathways for suicide attempts (SA) and suicidal ideation (SI) that are marked, in part, by disruptions in the ability to regulate reactions to threat/mutilation and interpersonally-relevant emotional stimuli. However, little research has specifically tested these associations. To address this gap, the present study extracted the Late Positive Potential (LPP) during an emotion regulation task to evaluate the independent associations that SA history and SI share with initial responsivity to, and regulation of, these distinct emotional contents. METHODS: A clinical sample (N = 257) were recruited based on elevations in suicide risk factors. Participants completed a picture viewing and regulation task that included threat/mutilation, reward, and neutral images from the International Affective Picture System. Immediately prior to picture onset, participants were instructed to passively view the image, increase their emotional reaction to the image, or decrease their emotional reaction to the image. RESULTS: Differential patterns of LPP amplitudes only emerged in the context of attempts to regulate emotional responses such that SA history predicted a superior ability to volitionally mitigate responses to threat/mutilation while SI was related to a worse ability to increase responses to reward. Effect sizes were in the small and small-to-medium range. LIMITATIONS: The present data were cross-sectional and included low trial counts. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings support existing theories of suicide suggesting that distinct mechanisms underlie suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Future research should seek to determine if these mechanisms may serve as a viable intervention targets.

4.
Emotion ; 19(1): 70-83, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553758

RESUMO

Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the fear of anxious arousal, is a transdiagnostic risk factor predictive of a wide variety of affective disorders. Whereas AS is widely studied via self-report, the neurophysiological correlates of AS are poorly understood. One specific issue this may help resolve is well-established gender differences in mean levels of AS. The current study evaluated late positive potential (LPP) for images designed to target AS during an emotional picture viewing paradigm. Structural equation modeling was used to examine convergent and discriminant validity for self-report AS and the LPP for AS images, considering gender as a potential moderator. Analyses were conducted in an at-risk sample of 251 community adults (M age = 35.47, SD = 15.95; 56.2% female; 53.6% meeting for a primary Axis I anxiety or related disorder). Findings indicated that the AS image LPP was significantly, uniquely associated with self-report AS, controlling for the LPP for unpleasant images, in females only. Mean levels of AS self-report as well as the AS image LPP were higher in females than in males. These findings provide initial support for the AS image LPP as a useful neurophysiological correlate of AS self-report in females. These findings also provide support for a biological cause for gender differences in AS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato
5.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 48(1): 77-88, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932812

RESUMO

Growing research links Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) with greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Much of this research has focused on the influence of the presence or severity of a single TBI while neglecting the potential cumulative effects of multiple TBIs incurred across an individual's lifetime on combat-related PTSD. The present study addressed this gap using a sample of 157 military service members and 4 civilian contractors who underwent structured TBI interviews at a military hospital in Iraq and completed the Combat Experiences Scale (CES) and Posttraumatic Checklist - Military (PCL-M). Results indicated that a greater number of lifetime TBIs were associated with greater PTSD symptoms when accounting for the presence and severity of a recent, deployment-related TBI. Additionally, a significant interaction of number of lifetime TBIs and combat exposure emerged, indicating that exposure to combat yielded greater PTSD symptoms among those with multiple lifetime TBIs compared to those with one or zero lifetime TBIs. These data suggest that incurring multiple TBIs may amplify the link between combat exposure and PTSD and underscore the need to screen for lifetime TBI history.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Hospitais Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Addict Biol ; 24(4): 717-729, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737034

RESUMO

Prevalence of cannabis use is increasing, but many regular users do not develop cannabis use disorder (CUD); thus, CUD risk identification among current users is vital for targeted intervention development. Existing data suggest that high distress intolerance (DI), an individual difference reflective of the ability to tolerate negative affect, may be linked to CUD, but no studies have tested possible neurophysiological mechanisms. Increased motivated attentional processing of cannabis and negative emotional stimuli as indexed by neurophysiology [i.e. the late positive potential (LPP)], particularly during acute stress, may contribute to CUD among high DI users. Frequent cannabis users with high (n = 61) and low DI (n = 44) viewed cannabis, negative, and matched neutral images during electroencephalography (EEG) recording before and after a laboratory stressor. Cannabis cue-elicited modulation of the 1000- to 3000-milliseconds LPP was larger in high DI users at post-stressor only, although the effect was only robust in the 1000- to 2000-milliseconds window. Further, modulation magnitude in the high DI group covaried with stress-relief craving and some CUD indices in the 400- to 1000-milliseconds and 1000- to 3000-milliseconds windows, respectively. No significant effects of DI on negative stimuli-elicited LPP modulation were found, although inverse associations with some CUD indices were observed. Finally, exploratory analyses revealed some evidence for DI moderation of the relation between subjective stressor reactivity and negative stimuli-elicited LPP modulation such that greater stressor reactivity was associated with blunted versus enhanced modulation in the high and low DI groups, respectively. Negative and cannabis stimuli-elicited LPP modulation appear to index distinct, CUD-relevant neural processes in high DI cannabis users.

7.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 32(8): 944-955, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407026

RESUMO

Cannabis use is prevalent but only a minority of regular users develop cannabis use disorder (CUD); thus, CUD risk identification among current cannabis users is vital for targeted intervention development. Existing data suggest that high distress intolerance (DI), an individual difference reflective of the ability to withstand negative affect, is linked to CUD, possibly via stress-elicited impairment of response inhibition but this has never been explicitly tested. Frequent cannabis users with high and low DI completed a go/no-go task during EEG recording before and after a laboratory stressor. Relations between DI, cannabis use-related problems, and behavioral as well as neurophysiological markers of response inhibition functioning were assessed. DI significantly moderated the effect of the stressor on the conflict-monitoring but not evaluative phase of response inhibition as measured by N2 and P3a amplitude, respectively. Unexpectedly, cannabis users with high DI demonstrated stressor-elicited enhancement rather than impairment of conflict-monitoring neural activity, which was related to faster reaction time (RT) and decreased past-month cannabis problems. Enhanced inhibition-related modulation of P3a amplitude was generally associated with increased cannabis problems regardless of acute stress. Results did not provide support for stress-elicited impairment in cognitive control as a mechanism linking high DI and CUD, though some support was found for the relevance of inhibition-related neural activity to CUD. Stress-elicited enhancement of conflict-monitoring neural activity during response inhibition may reflect an adaptive neural response among cannabis users with high DI that protects against CUD in this at-risk group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychiatry ; 81(1): 71-84, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High anxiety sensitivity (AS) and poor attention control (AC) are established risk factors for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), but little is known about the combined influence of these variables. Consistent with dual-systems models suggesting facets of executive function (e.g., AC) will modulate the effects of other risk factors (e.g., AS), the current study evaluated the singular and interactive effects of these variables on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHOD: In Study 1, latent variable modeling was used to examine the unique and interactive effects of AS and AC on PTSS, controlling for trauma history, sex, and age, in a sample of trauma-exposed community adults (N = 670). In Study 2, latent variable modeling was used to replicate these effects in a sample of trauma-exposed treatment-seeking adults (N = 207). RESULTS: Findings from both studies demonstrated a significant and negative interaction between AS and AC predicting PTSS when controlling for trauma history, sex, and age. Moreover, results revealed that AS more strongly predicts PTSS among those with poor AC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that impaired AC, one facet of executive function, may potentiate the effects of AS on PTSS, and increasing levels of AS may enhance the effects of AC on PTSS. Results are discussed within the context of a dual-systems model of PTSS.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Atenção , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Características de Residência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 127(1): 12-29, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369665

RESUMO

Distress intolerance (DI), a trait-like individual difference reflective of the inability to endure aversive affective states, is relevant to multiple forms of psychopathology, but its relations to theoretically relevant neurobiological systems have received little attention. Altered cognitive control-related neurobiology has been theorized to underlie individual differences in DI, but little empirical work has been conducted. To test this hypothesis, baseline data from a large community sample with elevated high levels of emotional psychopathology and comorbidity was utilized (N = 256). Participants completed a complex go/no-go task while EEG was recorded, and P2, N2, and P3 amplitudes were measured. Based upon prior findings on the relations between these components and response inhibition, a core cognitive control function, we hypothesized that DI would predict reduced no-go N2 and P3 amplitude while controlling for current anxious/depressive symptom severity (i.e., negative affect). Peak amplitudes from the raw data and principal components analysis were used to quantify amplitude of ERP components. Partially consistent with predictions, high DI was independently associated with reduced no-go N2 peak amplitude in the raw ERP data, and was significantly related to a frontal positivity factor in the N2 time window across no-go and go trials. Contrary to predictions, no relations between DI and the P3 were found. Overall, results support the theorized relevance of cognitive control-linked neurobiology to individual differences in tolerance of distress over and above distress severity itself, and suggest specific relations between DI and alterations in early controlled attention/conflict-monitoring but not response inhibition or response inhibition-related sequelae. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva , Personalidade , Desempenho Psicomotor , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
11.
Body Image ; 23: 50-60, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28826046

RESUMO

Distress tolerance (DT) is a transdiagnostic construct linked to multiple psychiatric disorders. We conducted three studies using different methods to investigate the relationship between DT and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Study 1 found a significant relationship between low DT and more severe BDD symptoms in an adult community sample (N=81). In Study 2, we found a similar relationship between lower DT and greater BDD symptoms in a student sample (N=192). Furthermore, we found a unique relationship between greater BDD symptoms and lower self-reported tolerance of anger and sadness mood induction tasks. Greater BDD symptoms were not significantly associated with lower self-reported tolerance of a fear mood induction task. In Study 3, a clinical sample of individuals with BDD (N=40) reported lower DT than a sample of healthy controls (N=36). Findings suggest that low DT is a broad vulnerability factor related to BDD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychiatry Res ; 252: 242-246, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28285252

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is both prevalent and potentially disabling. Extant literature has demonstrated women to report greater post-concussive symptoms (PCS) compared to men, highlighting the necessity of investigations into malleable, gender-linked risk factors for PCS that hold promise for reducing this gender disparity. Anxiety Sensitivity (AS) and Distress Tolerance (DT) are gender-linked risk factors that may be related to PCS. Despite a breadth of research supporting elevated AS and reduced DT in women, no study to date has investigated whether AS and DT mediate gender differences in PCS. The current sample was composed of 59 participants selected from a larger study based on their report of a past TBI. Findings indicated that AS, but not DT, significantly mediated gender differences in PCS. The present results suggest that AS is a cognitive risk factor that can partially account for the gender disparity in the expression of PCS. AS may influence an individual's interpretation of PCS as dangerous, thereby amplifying the perception of PCS severity. This suggests that efforts to reduce the burden of TBI may benefit from targeting AS in prevention and treatment paradigms, especially among women.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Pós-Concussão/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biol Psychol ; 123: 83-93, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27916689

RESUMO

Low resting heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with a broad array of negative psychosocial outcomes. Recent theoretical explications of HRV suggest it is an autonomic marker of emotion regulation capacity, but limited research has examined its relationship with emotional information processing indices. The present study utilized eye-tracking methodology to test HRV's theorized role as a marker of emotion regulation capacity in a non-clinical sample. Attentional biases towards threatening, dysphoric, and positive emotional information as well as affective modulation of pupil size were assessed before and after a stress induction. Low resting HRV marginally predicted larger increases in attentional bias towards positive emotional stimuli from pre to post-stress induction and significantly predicted decreased pupil dilation to positive stimuli after the stress induction only; exploratory analyses suggested that this pattern might reflect an unsuccessful attempt at anxious mood repair. HRV was unrelated to negative emotional information processing. Findings are consistent with existing theories of HRV's psychological significance and suggest a specific association with altered positive emotional processing under acute stress.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Autocontrole , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Behav Res Ther ; 90: 96-110, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28013055

RESUMO

Cognitive theories of anxiety psychopathology cite biased attention towards threat as a central vulnerability and maintaining factor. However, many studies have found threat bias indices to have poor reliability and have failed to observe the theorized relationship between threat bias and anxiety symptoms; this may be due to the non-unitary nature of threat bias and the influence of state-level variables on its expression. Accumulating data suggests that state anxious mood is important for the robust expression of threat bias and for relations to emerge between threat bias and symptoms, though this possibility has not been experimentally tested. Eye-tracking was used to assess multiple forms of threat bias (i.e., early vigilance, sustained attention, facilitated engagement, delayed disengagement) thought to be related to anxiety. A non-clinical sample (N = 165) was recruited to test the hypothesis that biased attention towards threat, but not dysphoric or positive emotional stimuli, during an anxious mood induction, but not at a pre-stress baseline, would prospectively predict greater worry symptoms on days in which more naturalistic stressors occurred. Results revealed the hypothesized moderation effect for sustained attention towards threat after the mood induction but not at baseline, though sustained attention towards dysphoric stimuli also moderated the effect of stressors on worry. Worry-relevant sustained attention towards negative emotional stimuli may be a partially mood-context dependent phenomenon.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Ansiedade/complicações , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Fala/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Affect Disord ; 206: 125-132, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27472414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distress intolerance (DI) is conceptualized as an individual difference reflective of the ability to tolerate aversive psychological states. Although high DI has demonstrated cross-sectional associations with multiple forms of psychopathology, few studies have tested key facets of its theoretical conceptualization. Specifically, little research has been conducted on DI's theorized role as an incrementally valid prospective moderator of the relationship between daily stressful events and affective symptoms reflective of preoccupation with aversive internal (e.g., depression, worry) rather than external stimuli (e.g., social anxiety). METHOD: A non-clinical sample (N = 147; 77% female; M age = 19.32) in which high DI individuals were oversampled was recruited. Participants completed baseline measures of DI and trait negative affect followed by six diary entries over a two-week period in which participants reported on daily stressors, negative affect, worry, depressive, and social anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Hierarchical linear models revealed that DI positively predicted depressive and worry, but not social anxiety symptoms, independent of daily stressors and negative affect. Further, a significant interaction effect was found such that the positive association between daily stressor(s) occurrence and daily worry was significant at high, but not low DI, and a similar trend-level interaction effect was observed for depressive symptoms. The interaction for social anxiety symptoms was non-significant LIMITATIONS: Utilization of a non-clinical sample precludes generalization of results to clinical samples. Only self-reported DI was assessed, limiting conclusions to perceived as opposed to behaviorally-indexed DI. CONCLUSIONS: Results largely supported DI's theoretical conceptualization as an incrementally valid moderator of stress responding with relevance to particular affective symptoms.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Afeto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fobia Social/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Affect Disord ; 203: 9-13, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests an important relationship between interpretation bias, hostility and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Extant literature has yet to examine hostile interpretation bias in clinically depressed samples; the current studies sought to fill this gap. METHOD: Study 1 participants included undergraduates who met criteria for MDD (n=36) or no anxiety or mood diagnosis (n=35). Each participant completed a structured clinical interview along with measures of depression, hostile interpretation bias, and trait hostility. In Study 2, a sample of treatment-seeking individuals with elevated trait anger completed measures of depression, hostile interpretation bias, and trait anger. RESULTS: Study 1 demonstrated that, relative to the non-depressed group, individuals with depression displayed greater hostile interpretation bias but comparable levels of trait hostility. In Study 2, greater hostile interpretation bias was associated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was independent of co-occurring trait anger. LIMITATIONS: The correlational nature of these studies precludes interpretation of causal relationships between constructs. Additionally, replication of these results should be sought in a larger, more diverse sample. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings suggest hostile interpretation bias may play a unique role in depression and could be a treatable feature of interpersonal mechanisms maintaining MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Hostilidade , Preconceito/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Testes Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 77(4): e444-50, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27137428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research on the progression from substance use to dependence typically relies on lifetime retrospective reports of dependence among ever users. We sought to evaluate probability and correlates of dependence among recent (past-year) weekly users of alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and cocaine through cross-sectional and prospective analyses. METHODS: Data on substance use (assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV) and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed in 2 waves (Wave 1, N = 43,093; Wave 2, N = 34,653) through the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. RESULTS: Conditional risk of dependence varied by frequency of substance use, although it was relatively stable for nicotine use. Among weekly past-year substance users at Wave 1, rates of dependence when rates of past-year dependence at Wave 1 were combined with new cases of dependence reported at Wave 2 were 15.6% for alcohol, 25.0% for cannabis, and 67.3% for nicotine. For past-year weekly users of cocaine at Wave 1, 49.9% met criteria for past-year dependence. Multiple demographic characteristics and past-year psychiatric disorders were correlated with past-year dependence, even among daily users. Men were generally more likely than women to be dependent on alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine, although women were more likely to be dependent on nicotine. Prospective analyses indicated that depressive disorders at Wave 1 predicted subsequent development of alcohol dependence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.65; P < .05). Further, 33.5% of weekly tobacco smokers who were nondependent at Wave 1 developed dependence later on. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings highlight the importance of frequency of use when determining the addictiveness of substances and suggest that certain demographic variables and psychiatric disorders are associated with substance dependence even among regular substance users.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/diagnóstico , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.) , Probabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estatística como Assunto , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 238: 74-80, 2016 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27086214

RESUMO

Suicide constitutes a significant public health burden as global suicide rates continue to increase. Thus, it is crucial to identify malleable suicide risk factors to develop prevention protocols. Anxiety sensitivity, or a fear of anxiety-related sensations, is a potential malleable risk factor for the development of suicidal ideation. The Depression-Distress Amplification Model (DDAM) posits that the anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC) subfactor interacts with depressive symptoms to amplify the effects of depression and lead to suicidal ideation. The current study tested the DDAM across the two most widely-replicated factors of depressive symptoms (cognitive and affective/somatic) in comparison to a risk factor mediation model where ASCC are related to suicidal ideation via depressive symptoms. Participants included 295 clinical outpatients from a community clinic. The interaction between ASCC and depressive symptoms in the prediction of suicidal ideation was not significant for either cognitive or affective/somatic symptoms of depression. However, results revealed a significant indirect effect of ASCC through cognitive symptoms of depression in the prediction of suicidal ideation. These cross sectional findings are not consistent with the DDAM. Rather, the relationship may be better conceptualized with a model in which ASCC is related to suicidal ideation via cognitive symptoms of depression.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Cognição , Modelos Psicológicos , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cognit Ther Res ; 40(1): 80-91, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26957678

RESUMO

Generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder are defined by chronic intrusive thoughts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive (attentional control) and motivational (negative urgency) mechanisms potentially underlying worry and obsessions. Participants (N = 526) completed an online questionnaire battery consisting of self-report measures of worry, OCD symptoms, attentional control (AC), negative urgency (NU), and trait negative affect. After controlling for trait negative affect, self-reported AC was negatively related to worry, repugnant obsessions, and ordering symptoms. Greater NU was associated with increased worry and repugnant obsessions. Further, self-reported AC and NU interacted such that greater NU was associated with greater worry at high but not low levels of AC. AC and NU were independently associated with repugnant obsessions. Perceived executive functioning impairments may confer risk for intrusive thoughts, particularly worries, whereas distress-driven impulsivity may contribute to the involuntary, ego-dystonic features of intrusions.

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