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1.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1182, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798515

RESUMO

Introduction: The TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA) is an international disease registry designed to provide insights into the clinical characteristics of patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). The aims of this study were to identify issues that arose during the design, execution, and publication phases of TOSCA, and to reflect on lessons learnt that may guide future registries in rare and complex diseases. Methods: A questionnaire was designed to identify the strengths, weaknesses, and issues that arose at any stage of development and implementation of the TOSCA registry. The questionnaire contained 225 questions distributed in 7 sections (identification of issues during registry planning, during the operation of the registry, during data analysis, during the publication of the results, other issues, assessment of lessons learnt, and additional comments), and was sent by e-mail to 511 people involved in the registry, including 28 members of the Scientific Advisory Board (SAB), 162 principal investigators (PIs), and 321 employees of the sponsor belonging to the medical department or that were clinical research associate (CRA). Questionnaires received within the 2 months from the initial mailing were included in the analysis. Results: A total of 53 (10.4%) questionnaires were received (64.3% for SAB members, 12.3% for PIs and 4.7% for employees of the sponsor), and the overall completeness rate for closed questions was 87.6%. The most common issues identified were the limited duration of the registry (38%) and issues related to handling of missing data (32%). In addition, 25% of the respondents commented that biases might have compromised the validity of the results. More than 80% of the respondents reported that the registry improved the knowledge on the natural history and manifestations of TSC, increased disease awareness and helped to identify relevant information for clinical research in TSC. Conclusions: This analysis shows the importance of registries as a powerful tool to increase disease awareness, to produce real-world evidence, and to generate questions for future research. However, there is a need to implement strategies to ensure patient retention and long-term sustainability of patient registries, to improve data quality, and to reduce biases.

2.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708865

RESUMO

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Patients with TSC may suffer from a wide range of clinical manifestations; however, the burden of TSC and its impact on healthcare resources needed for its management remain unknown. Besides, the use of resources might vary across countries depending on the country-specific clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to describe the use of TSC-related resources and treatment patterns within the TOSCA registry. A total of 2,214 patients with TSC from 31 countries were enrolled and had a follow-up of up to 5 years. A search was conducted to identify the variables containing both medical and non-medical resource use information within TOSCA. This search was performed both at the level of the core project as well as at the level of the research projects on epilepsy, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), and renal angiomyolipoma (rAML) taking into account the timepoints of the study, age groups, and countries. Data from the quality of life (QoL) research project were analyzed by type of visit and age at enrollment. Treatments varied greatly depending on the clinical manifestation, timepoint in the study, and age groups. GAB Aergics were the most prescribed drugs for epilepsy, and mTOR inhibitors are dramatically replacing surgery in patients with SEGA, despite current recommendations proposing both treatment options. mTOR inhibitors are also becoming common treatments in rAML and LAM patients. Forty-two out of the 143 patients (29.4%) who participated in the QoL research project reported inpatient stays over the last year. Data from non-medical resource use showed the critical impact of TSC on job status and capacity. Disability allowances were more common in children than adults (51.1% vs 38.2%). Psychological counseling, social services and social worker services were needed by <15% of the patients, regardless of age. The long-term nature, together with the variability in its clinical manifestations, makes TSC a complex and resource-demanding disease. The present study shows a comprehensive picture of the resource use implications of TSC.

3.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 6-9, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603835

RESUMO

The objective was to describe the frequency, mode of presentation and characteristics of epilepsy in children with congenital hemiparesis (CH). It is a etrospective, descriptive and multicenter study, based on the collection of data from the clinical records of patients from 0 to 19 years with CH secondary to perinatal infarction in different centers of the community of Catalonia. A total of 310 children were included (55% males and 45% females), from a total of 13 centers in Catalonia. Average age of onset of the crises was 2 ± 1 year. Epilepsy was present in 29.5% (n = 76), among which the most frequent vascular subtype was arterial presumed perinatal ischemic stroke (51.3%), followed by neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (18.4%), periventricular venous infarction (15.8%), neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (10.5%) and neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (3.9%). Semiology of the most frequent seizures was motor focal in 82%, followed by focal motor with secondary bilateralization in 23%, focal discognitive in 13.5%, generalized by 2% and spasms in 6.5%. The 67.3% were controlled with monotherapy and the drugs used were valproate, levetiracetam or carbamazepine. The antecedent of electrical status during sleep was identified in 3 patients, all associated with extensive lesions that included the thalamus. Of the total number of children with epilepsy, 35% began with neonatal seizu res in the first 3 days of life. The 30% of children with perinatal stroke and CH present a risk of epilepsy during childhood. Children with ischemic strock have the highest risk, so they will require a follow-up aimed at detecting prematurely the epilepsy and start a treatment.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/etiologia , Paresia/congênito , Paresia/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adolescente , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões/etiologia , Espanha , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 6-9, set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1040541

RESUMO

El objetivo fue describir la frecuencia, modo de presentación y características de la epilepsia en niños con hemiparesia congénita (HC). Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo y multicéntrico, basado en la recolección de datos de las historias clínicas de pacientes de 0 a 19 años con HC secundaria a infarto perinatal en diferentes centros de la comunidad de Cataluña. Se incluyeron 310 niños (55% varones y 45% mujeres) de un total de 13 centros de Cataluña. Edad media del debut de las crisis fue de 2 ± 1 año. Presentaron epilepsia el 29.5% (n = 76), el subtipo vascular más frecuente fue el infarto presumiblemente perinatal (51.3%), seguido del accidente isquémico arterial neonatal (18.4%), infarto hemorrágico venoso periventricular (15.8%), infarto hemorrágico neonatal (10.5%) y trombosis venosa neonatal (3.9%). La semiología de las crisis más frecuente fue la focal motora en un 82%, seguida de las focales motoras con bilateralización secundaria en el 23%, focales discognitivas en 13.5%, generalizadas 2% y espasmos 6.5%. El 67.3% se controló con monoterapia y los fármacos empleados fueron el valproato, levetiracetam o carbamacepina. Se identificó el antecedente de estatus eléctrico durante el sueño en 3 pacientes, todos asociados a lesiones extensas que incluían al tálamo. Del total con epilepsia, el 35% debutaron con convulsiones neonatales en los primeros 3 días de vida. El 30% con accidente cerebrovascular perinatal y HC presentan riesgo de padecer epilepsia durante la infancia. Aquellos con infartos isquémicos tienen el riesgo más alto, por lo que requerirán un seguimiento dirigido a detectar precozmente la epilepsia e iniciar tratamiento.


The objective was to describe the frequency, mode of presentation and characteristics of epilepsy in children with congenital hemiparesis (CH). It is a etrospective, descriptive and multicenter study, based on the collection of data from the clinical records of patients from 0 to 19 years with CH secondary to perinatal infarction in different centers of the community of Catalonia. A total of 310 children were included (55% males and 45% females), from a total of 13 centers in Catalonia. Average age of onset of the crises was 2 ± 1 year. Epilepsy was present in 29.5% (n = 76), among which the most frequent vascular subtype was arterial presumed perinatal ischemic stroke (51.3%), followed by neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (18.4%), periventricular venous infarction (15.8%), neonatal hemorrhagic stroke (10.5%) and neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (3.9%). Semiology of the most frequent seizures was motor focal in 82%, followed by focal motor with secondary bilateralization in 23%, focal discognitive in 13.5%, generalized by 2% and spasms in 6.5%. The 67.3% were controlled with monotherapy and the drugs used were valproate, levetiracetam or carbamazepine. The antecedent of electrical status during sleep was identified in 3 patients, all associated with extensive lesions that included the thalamus. Of the total number of children with epilepsy, 35% began with neonatal seizu res in the first 3 days of life. The 30% of children with perinatal stroke and CH present a risk of epilepsy during childhood. Children with ischemic strock have the highest risk, so they will require a follow-up aimed at detecting prematurely the epilepsy and start a treatment.

5.
Front Neurol ; 10: 821, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428037

RESUMO

The onset and growth of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) typically occurs in childhood. There is minimal information on SEGA evolution in adults with TSC. Of 2,211 patients enrolled in TOSCA, 220 of the 803 adults (27.4%) ever had a SEGA. Of 186 patients with SEGA still ongoing in adulthood, 153 (82.3%) remained asymptomatic, and 33 (17.7%) were reported to ever have developed symptoms related to SEGA growth. SEGA growth since the previous scan was reported in 39 of the 186 adults (21%) with ongoing SEGA. All but one patient with growing SEGA had mutations in TSC2. Fourteen adults (2.4%) were newly diagnosed with SEGA during follow-up, and majority had mutations in TSC2. Our findings suggest that surveillance for new or growing SEGA is warranted also in adulthood, particularly in patients with mutations in TSC2.

6.
Front Neurol ; 10: 705, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333563

RESUMO

Background: This study evaluated the characteristics of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) entered into the TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA). Methods: The study was conducted at 170 sites across 31 countries. Data from patients of any age with a documented clinical visit for TSC in the 12 months preceding enrollment or those newly diagnosed with TSC were entered. Results: SEGA were reported in 554 of 2,216 patients (25%). Median age at diagnosis of SEGA was 8 years (range, <1-51), with 18.1% diagnosed after age 18 years. SEGA growth occurred in 22.7% of patients aged ≤ 18 years and in 11.6% of patients aged > 18 years. SEGA were symptomatic in 42.1% of patients. Symptoms included increased seizure frequency (15.8%), behavioural disturbance (11.9%), and regression/loss of cognitive skills (9.9%), in addition to those typically associated with increased intracranial pressure. SEGA were significantly more frequent in patients with TSC2 compared to TSC1 variants (33.7 vs. 13.2 %, p < 0.0001). Main treatment modalities included surgery (59.6%) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (49%). Conclusions: Although SEGA diagnosis and growth typically occurs during childhood, SEGA can occur and grow in both infants and adults.

7.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 23(4): 546-559, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202597

RESUMO

AIM: To comprehensively describe intellectual and executive functioning (EF) in people with dyskinetic cerebral palsy (DCP), by comparing their performance with that of: 1) age- and sex-matched typically developing controls (TDC); and 2) participants with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) matched for age, sex, term/preterm and gross motor function classification system (GMFCS). METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted by the University of Barcelona in collaboration with five institutions. Participants were people with DCP (n = 52; 24 females, median age 20.5 y: 5mo, interquartile range [IQR] = 13.75 y: 7mo; GMFCS I-V). As comparison groups, participants with SCP (n = 20; 10 females, median age = 20.5 y: 5.5mo, IQR = 13.75 y 9mo; GMFCS I-V) and TDC (n = 52; 24 females, median age = 20 y: 4mo, IQR = 12 y 7mo) were included. Intelligence and EF were assessed using common tests in all participants. RESULTS: Both CP groups had lower intelligence than TDC and performed poorer in almost all EF tasks. Intelligence was higher in DCP than SCP (z = -2.51, p = 0.01). Participants with DCP also performed significantly better in goal-setting tasks (z = 2.27, p = 0.03) and information processing (z = -2.54, p = 0.01) than those with SCP. CONCLUSION: People with DCP present lower general intellectual functioning and poorer EF across multiple domains than typically developing controls. People with DCP have higher general intellectual functioning and better EF than people with SCP when levels of motor severity are similar.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Função Executiva , Inteligência , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Adulto Jovem
8.
Brain ; 142(6): 1547-1560, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081514

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing techniques were recently used to show mutations in COL13A1 cause synaptic basal lamina-associated congenital myasthenic syndrome type 19. Animal studies showed COL13A1, a synaptic extracellular-matrix protein, is involved in the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular synapse that appears independent of the Agrin-LRP4-MuSK-DOK7 acetylcholine receptor clustering pathway. Here, we report the phenotypic spectrum of 16 patients from 11 kinships harbouring homozygous or heteroallelic mutations in COL13A1. Clinical presentation was mostly at birth with hypotonia and breathing and feeding difficulties often requiring ventilation and artificial feeding. Respiratory crisis related to recurrent apnoeas, sometimes triggered by chest infections, were common early in life but resolved over time. The predominant pattern of muscle weakness included bilateral ptosis (non-fatigable in adulthood), myopathic facies and marked axial weakness, especially of neck flexion, while limb muscles were less involved. Other features included facial dysmorphism, skeletal abnormalities and mild learning difficulties. All patients tested had results consistent with abnormal neuromuscular transmission. Muscle biopsies were within normal limits or showed non-specific changes. Muscle MRI and serum creatine kinase levels were normal. In keeping with COL13A1 mutations affecting both synaptic structure and presynaptic function, treatment with 3,4-diaminopyridine and salbutamol resulted in motor and respiratory function improvement. In non-treated cases, disease severity and muscle strength improved gradually over time and several adults recovered normal muscle strength in the limbs. In summary, patients with COL13A1 mutations present mostly with severe early-onset myasthenic syndrome with feeding and breathing difficulties. Axial weakness is greater than limb weakness. Disease course improves gradually over time, which could be consistent with the less prominent role of COL13A1 once the neuromuscular junction is mature. This report emphasizes the role of collagens at the human muscle endplate and should facilitate the recognition of this disorder, which can benefit from pharmacological treatment.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 40(7): 865-878, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026367

RESUMO

Mendelian diseases have shown to be an and efficient model for connecting genotypes to phenotypes and for elucidating the function of genes. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) accelerated the study of rare Mendelian diseases in families, allowing for directly pinpointing rare causal mutations in genic regions without the need for linkage analysis. However, the low diagnostic rates of 20-30% reported for multiple WES disease studies point to the need for improved variant pathogenicity classification and causal variant prioritization methods. Here, we present the exome Disease Variant Analysis (eDiVA; http://ediva.crg.eu), an automated computational framework for identification of causal genetic variants (coding/splicing single-nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions) for rare diseases using WES of families or parent-child trios. eDiVA combines next-generation sequencing data analysis, comprehensive functional annotation, and causal variant prioritization optimized for familial genetic disease studies. eDiVA features a machine learning-based variant pathogenicity predictor combining various genomic and evolutionary signatures. Clinical information, such as disease phenotype or mode of inheritance, is incorporated to improve the precision of the prioritization algorithm. Benchmarking against state-of-the-art competitors demonstrates that eDiVA consistently performed as a good or better than existing approach in terms of detection rate and precision. Moreover, we applied eDiVA to several familial disease cases to demonstrate its clinical applicability.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 721-730, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929742

RESUMO

VAMP2 encodes the vesicular SNARE protein VAMP2 (also called synaptobrevin-2). Together with its partners syntaxin-1A and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), VAMP2 mediates fusion of synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitters. VAMP2 is essential for vesicular exocytosis and activity-dependent neurotransmitter release. Here, we report five heterozygous de novo mutations in VAMP2 in unrelated individuals presenting with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by axial hypotonia (which had been present since birth), intellectual disability, and autistic features. In total, we identified two single-amino-acid deletions and three non-synonymous variants affecting conserved residues within the C terminus of the VAMP2 SNARE motif. Affected individuals carrying de novo non-synonymous variants involving the C-terminal region presented a more severe phenotype with additional neurological features, including central visual impairment, hyperkinetic movement disorder, and epilepsy or electroencephalography abnormalities. Reconstituted fusion involving a lipid-mixing assay indicated impairment in vesicle fusion as one of the possible associated disease mechanisms. The genetic synaptopathy caused by VAMP2 de novo mutations highlights the key roles of this gene in human brain development and function.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Associada à Membrana da Vesícula/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Exocitose , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fusão de Membrana , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas R-SNARE/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Associada à Membrana da Vesícula/fisiologia
11.
Epilepsia Open ; 4(1): 73-84, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868117

RESUMO

Objective: To present the baseline data of the international TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA) with emphasis on the characteristics of epilepsies associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Methods: Retrospective and prospective patients' data on all aspects of TSC were collected from multiple countries worldwide. Epilepsy variables included seizure type, age at onset, type of treatment, and treatment outcomes and association with genotype, seizures control, and intellectual disability. As for noninterventional registries, the study protocol did not specify any particular clinical instruments, laboratory investigations, or intervention. Evaluations included those required for diagnosis and management following local best practice. Results: Epilepsy was reported in 83.6% of patients (1852/2216) at baseline; 38.9% presented with infantile spasms and 67.5% with focal seizures. The mean age at diagnosis of infantile spasms was 0.4 year (median <1 year; range <1-30 years) and at diagnosis of focal seizures was 2.7 years (median 1 year; range <1-66 years). A total of 1469 patients (79.3%) were diagnosed with epilepsy <2 years. The rate of infantile spasms was higher in patients with a TSC 2 mutation than in patients with a TSC1 mutation (47.3% vs 23%). É£-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic drugs were the most common treatment modality for both infantile spasms (78.7%) and focal seizures (65.5%). Infantile spasms and focal seizures were controlled in 76.3% and 58.2% of patients, respectively. Control of seizures was associated with lower rates of intellectual disability in both groups. Significance: This registry reports the largest international cohort of patients with TSC. Findings confirmed the typical onset pattern of infantile spasms and other focal seizures in the first 2 years of life, and the high rates of infantile spasms in patients with TSC2 mutation. Our results underscored the occurrence of focal seizures at all ages, including an onset that preceded emergence of infantile spasms. Seizure control was shown to be associated with lower rates of intellectual disability but did not preclude the presence of intellectual disability.

12.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 23(3): 427-437, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-progressive genetic disorders may present with motor dysfunction resembling cerebral palsy (CP). Such patients are often characterized as CP mimics. The purpose of this work was to delineate the clinical manifestations and molecular findings of CP mimic patients, with the ultimate goal to offer specific disease-modifying therapy and genetic counseling. METHODS: Retrospective study of 47 patients diagnosed with CP and no acquired etiology. Chart review of clinical, neuroradiological, biochemical and molecular data was performed. RESULTS: 31,91% of patients manifested with features resembling dyskinetic CP, 19,14% spastic CP, 10,63% ataxic CP and 38,30% mixed CP. In 23 patients molecular diagnosis was reached and included 5 hereditary spastic paraplegia genes (SPG) in spastic CP mimics; HPRT1, TH, QDPR, DDC in dystonic CP mimics; ADCY5 and NIKX2-1 in choreic CP mimics; CANA1A in ataxic CP mimics; and SPG, PDHA1, NIKX2-1, AT, SLC2A1 and SPR in mixed CP mimics. In 14 patients, the etiological diagnosis led to specific treatment. CONCLUSIONS: CP mimics show a number of features that differ from classic CP and can be used as diagnostic clues, including presence of mixed motor features, minor dysmorphic features, oculogyric movements, multiple features of autonomic dysfunction, and acquired microcephaly. A more stringent use of the concept of CP focused on acquired lesions during the perinatal and infancy periods, and excluding disorders that could be of genetic origin, could contribute to a purer use of the term. Identification of a specific genetic cause for CP mimics may in certain cases lead to etiologic treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Motores/diagnóstico , Transtornos Motores/genética , Transtornos Motores/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
13.
J Neurol ; 266(5): 1107-1112, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767057

RESUMO

Collagen XIII is a non-fibrillar transmembrane collagen which has been long recognized for its critical role in synaptic maturation of the neuromuscular junction. More recently, biallelic COL13A1 loss-of-function mutations were identified in three patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS), a rare inherited condition with defective neuromuscular transmission, causing abnormal fatigability and fluctuating muscle weakness and often successfully treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Here we report six additional CMS patients from three unrelated families with previously unreported homozygous COL13A1 loss-of-function mutations (p.Tyr216*, p.Glu543fs and p.Thr629fs). The phenotype of our cases was similar to the previously reported patients including respiratory distress and severe dysphagia at birth that often resolved or improved in the first days or weeks of life. All individuals had prominent eyelid ptosis with only minor ophthalmoparesis as well as generalized muscle weakness, predominantly affecting facial, bulbar, respiratory and axial muscles. Response to acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment was generally negative while salbutamol proved beneficial. Our data further support the causality of COL13A1 variants for CMS and suggest that this type of CMS might be clinically homogenous and requires alternative pharmacological therapy.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo XIII/genética , Mutação/genética , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/genética , Criança , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/patologia , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Receptor trkA/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cephalalgia ; 39(1): 91-99, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of headache and its relationship with comorbidities and lifestyle in a teenage population. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Data was collected from students aged 12-18 years from six different schools in Catalonia, Spain. They completed an anonymous questionnaire with demographic, lifestyle, medical data, presence of recurrent headaches and its features, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. We defined probable migraine if headache presented ≥ 3 ICHD-3 beta criteria for migraine. An analysis was performed to evaluate headache characteristics and compare lifestyles between those with or without headache. RESULTS: 1619 out of 1873 students completed the survey (response rate 86.4%). From these, 30.5% suffered from recurrent headache and 11.3% had migraine features; 32.9% of adolescents with headache had at least one episode per week and 44.1% showed some degree of headache-related disability measured by the PedMIDAS scale. In a univariate analysis, headache was significantly more frequent in girls (35.1% vs. 25.5%, p < 0.001), teenagers with poor sleeping habits (36.6% vs. 27.6%, p < 0.001), lower physical activity ( p = 0.002), those who did not have breakfast (37.3 vs. 28.4%, p = 0.001), smokers (10.5% vs. 4.9%, p < 0.001) and caffeine overusers (30.9% vs. 24.7%, p = 0.009). Comorbidities significantly associated with headache were: allergies (38.8% vs. 29.3%, p = 0.007), other chronic pain disorders (44.7% vs. 27.6% p < 0.001), mental health problems (53.2% vs. 29.0%, p < 0.001) and worse SDQ scores ( p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Headache is a common health problem among adolescents which impacts their quality of life. Headache is associated with presence of "unhealthy lifestyle" and other medical comorbidities. Educational initiatives should be started.

16.
J Med Genet ; 56(4): 236-245, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464053

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Phosphomannomutase-2 deficiency (PMM2-CDG) is associated with a recognisable facial pattern. There are no early severity predictors for this disorder and no phenotype-genotype correlation. We performed a detailed dysmorphology evaluation to describe facial gestalt and its changes over time, to train digital recognition facial analysis tools and to identify early severity predictors. METHODS: Paediatric PMM2-CDG patients were evaluated and compared with controls. A computer-assisted recognition tool was trained. Through the evaluation of dysmorphic features (DFs), a simple categorisation was created and correlated with clinical and neurological scores, and neuroimaging. RESULTS: Dysmorphology analysis of 31 patients (4-19 years of age) identified eight major DFs (strabismus, upslanted eyes, long fingers, lipodystrophy, wide mouth, inverted nipples, long philtrum and joint laxity) with predictive value using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curveanalysis (p<0.001). Dysmorphology categorisation using lipodystrophy and inverted nipples was employed to divide patients into three groups that are correlated with global clinical and neurological scores, and neuroimaging (p=0.005, 0.003 and 0.002, respectively). After Face2Gene training, PMM2-CDG patients were correctly identified at different ages. CONCLUSIONS: PMM2-CDG patients' DFs are consistent and inform about clinical severity when no clear phenotype-genotype correlation is known. We propose a classification of DFs into major and minor with diagnostic risk implications. At present, Face2Gene is useful to suggest PMM2-CDG. Regarding the prognostic value of DFs, we elaborated a simple severity dysmorphology categorisation with predictive value, and we identified five major DFs associated with clinical severity. Both dysmorphology and digital analysis may help physicians to diagnose PMM2-CDG sooner.

17.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 34(3): 502-508, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29697822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal angiomyolipoma occurs at a high frequency in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and is associated with potentially life-threatening complications. Despite this frequency and severity, there are no large population-based cohort studies. Here we present baseline and follow-up data of the international TuberOus SClerosis registry to increase disease Awareness (TOSCA) with an aim to provide detailed clinical characteristics of renal angiomyolipoma among patients with TSC. METHODS: Patients of any age with a documented clinic visit for TSC within 12 months or who were newly diagnosed with TSC before participation in the registry were eligible. Data specific to renal angiomyolipoma included physical tumour characteristics (multiple, bilateral, lesion size and growing lesions), clinical signs and symptoms, and management. The effects of age, gender and genotype on the prevalence of renal angiomyolipoma were also evaluated. RESULTS: Renal angiomyolipoma was reported in 51.8% of patients at baseline, with higher frequency in female patients (57.8% versus 42.2%). The median age at diagnosis was 12 years. Prevalence of angiomyolipoma was higher in patients with TSC2 compared with TSC1 mutations (59.2% versus 33.3%, P < 0.01). Of the 1031 patients with angiomyolipoma at baseline, multiple lesions were reported in 88.4% and bilateral in 83.9% of patients, while the size of angiomyolipoma was >3 cm in 34.3% of patients. Most patients were asymptomatic (82%). Frequently reported angiomyolipoma-related symptoms included bleeding, pain, elevated blood pressure and impaired renal function. Embolization and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors were the two most common treatment modalities. CONCLUSIONS: The TOSCA registry highlights the burden of renal angiomyolipoma in patients with TSC and shows that renal manifestations are initially asymptomatic and are influenced by gender and genotype. Furthermore, the occurrence of significant problems from angiomyolipoma in a minority of younger patients suggests that surveillance should begin in infancy or at initial diagnosis.


Assuntos
Angiomiolipoma/etiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Esclerose Tuberosa/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Angiomiolipoma/diagnóstico , Angiomiolipoma/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Epilepsia ; 60(1): 139-148, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying KCNQ2 encephalopathy by examining the electrophysiologic properties of mutant Kv7.2 channels in different multimeric configurations. METHODS: We analyzed the genotype-phenotype relationship in 4 patients with KCNQ2 encephalopathy and performed electrophysiologic analysis of M-currents mediated by homomeric Kv7.2 or heteromeric Kv7.2/Kv7.3 channels. RESULTS: Negligible or no current was recorded in cells expressing homomeric E130K, W270R, or G281R de novo mutants, and it was reduced by more than 90% for the L243F maternally inherited mutant. The E130K and G281R mutants presented a marked dominant-negative behavior, whereas the current density was partially reduced (L243F) or not affected (W270R) when coexpressed with wild-type Kv7.2 subunits. In contrast, the extent of Kv7.3 "rescue," which yields negligible currents on its own, followed the sequence E130K > L243F > W270R, whereas no rescue was observed with the G281R mutant. No significant effects on current density were observed when subunits were expressed in a 0.5:0.5:1.0 (Kv7.2:mutant:Kv7.3) DNA ratio to mimic the genetic balance. There was an increase in sensitivity to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 ) depletion for W270R/Kv7.3, but no substantial differences were observed when the mutated subunits were coexpressed with Kv7.2 or both Kv7.2 and Kv7.3. SIGNIFICANCE: There was a marked disparity of the impact of these mutations on Kv7.2 function, which varied on association with Kv7.2 or Kv7.3 subunits. Current density of homomeric channels was the most reliable property relating Kv7.2 function to encephalopathy, but other factors are required to explain the milder phenotype for some individuals carrying the maternally inherited L243F mutation. We hypothesize that the role of homomeric Kv7.2 channels for fine-tuning neuronal connections during development is critical for the severity of the KCNQ2 encephalopathy.

19.
Neuropediatrics ; 49(6): 408-413, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304743

RESUMO

Phosphomannomutase deficiency (PMM2-CDG) causes a cerebellar syndrome that has been evaluated using the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). However, no particular dysarthria tests have been used. Speech ICARS subscore subjectively assesses fluency and clarity of speech with two items. Repetition of syllables, traditionally used for characterization of ataxic speech, was validated in early-onset ataxia conditions. We assess the validity of the PATA test (SCA Functional Index [SCAFI]) in PMM2-CDG patients.PATA rates from 20 patients were compared with a control population were and correlated with ICARS and neuroimaging.There was a difference between the PATA rate in patients and controls. PATA rate increased with age in controls. In patients, the improvement of PATA rate with age was not significant. In patients, the PATA rate was negatively correlated with the total ICARS score and the Speech ICARS subscore. Regarding neuroimaging, midsaggital vermis relative diameter was positively correlated with PATA results. These last differences were also significant when the results are corrected by age.PATA rate provides an easy measure for a quantitative assessment of dysarthria that may help clinicians to monitor patients' evolution in a regular consultation. It could also be used in PMM2-CDG clinical trials implementing ICARS speech subscore information.


Assuntos
Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/complicações , Disartria/diagnóstico , Fosfotransferases (Fosfomutases)/deficiência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Doenças Cerebelares/etiologia , Criança , Disartria/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 157, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most evidence for TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TAND) to date have come from small studies and case reports, and very little is known about TAND in adults. We explored baseline TAND data from the large-scale international TOSCA natural history study to compare childhood and adult patterns, describe age-based patterns, and explore genotype-TAND correlations. RESULTS: The study enrolled 2216 eligible participants with TSC from 170 sites across 31 countries at the data cut-off for the third interim analysis (data cut-off date: September 30, 2015). The most common behavioural problems (reported in > 10% of participants) were overactivity, sleep difficulties, impulsivity, anxiety, mood swings, severe aggression, depressed mood, self-injury, and obsessions. Psychiatric disorders included autism spectrum disorder (ASD, 21.1%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, 19.1%), anxiety disorder (9.7%), and depressive disorder (6.1%). Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were available for 885 participants. Of these, 44.4% had normal IQ, while mild, moderate, severe, and profound degrees of intellectual disability (ID) were observed in 28.1, 15.1, 9.3, and 3.1%, respectively. Academic difficulties were identified in 58.6% of participants, and neuropsychological deficits (performance <5th percentile) in 55.7%. Significantly higher rates of overactivity and impulsivity were observed in children and higher rates of anxiety, depressed mood, mood swings, obsessions, psychosis and hallucinations were observed in adults. Genotype-TAND correlations showed a higher frequency of self-injury, ASD, academic difficulties and neuropsychological deficits in TSC2. Those with no mutations identified (NMI) showed a mixed pattern of TAND manifestations. Children and those with TSC2 had significantly higher rates of intellectual disability, suggesting that age and genotype comparisons should be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasize the magnitude of TAND in TSC and the importance of evaluating for neuropsychiatric comorbidity in all children and adults with TSC, across TSC1 and TSC2 genotypes, as well as in those with no mutations identified. However, the high rates of unreported or missing TAND data in this study underline the fact that, even in expert centres, TAND remains underdiagnosed and potentially undertreated.


Assuntos
Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Esclerose Tuberosa/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Proteína 2 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Adulto Jovem
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