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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105270, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487976

RESUMO

Developmental studies have shown that infants exploit ordinal information to extract and generalize repetition-based rules from a sequence of items. Within the visual modality, this ability is constrained by the spatial layout within which items are delivered given that a left-to-right orientation boosts infants' rule learning, whereas a right-to-left orientation hinders this ability. Infants' rule learning operates across different domains and can also be transferred across modalities when learning is triggered by speech. However, no studies have investigated whether the transfer of rule learning occurs across different domains when language is not involved. Using a visual habituation procedure, we tested 7-month-old infants' ability to extract rule-like patterns from numerical sequences and generalize them to non-numerical sequences of visual shapes and whether this ability is affected by the spatial orientation. Infants were first habituated to left-to-right or right-to-left oriented numerical sequences instantiating an ABB rule and were then tested with the familiar rule instantiated across sequences of single geometrical shapes and a novel (ABA) rule. Results showed a transfer of learning from number to visual shapes for left-to-right oriented sequences but not for right-to-left oriented ones (Experiment 1) even when the direction of the numerical change (increasing vs. decreasing) within the habituation sequences violated a small-left/large-right number-space association (Experiment 2). These results provide the first demonstration that visual rule learning mechanisms in infancy operate at a high level of abstraction and confirm earlier findings that left-to-right oriented directional cues facilitate infants' representation of order.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fala , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Percepção Espacial
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 215: 105326, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883319

RESUMO

Adults present a large number of asymmetries in visuospatial behavior that are known to be supported by functional brain lateralization. Although there is evidence of lateralization for motor behavior and language processing in infancy, no study has explored visuospatial attention biases in the early stages of development. In this study, we tested for the presence of a leftward visuospatial bias (i.e., pseudoneglect) in 4- and 5-month-old infants using an adapted version of the line bisection task. Infants were trained to identify the center of a horizontal line (Experiment 1) while their eye gazes were monitored using a remote eye-tracking procedure to measure their potential gazing error. Infants exhibited a robust pseudoneglect, gazing leftward with respect to the veridical midpoint of the horizontal line. To investigate whether infants' pseudoneglect generalizes to any given object or is dependent on the horizontal dimension, in Experiment 2 we assessed infants' gaze deployment in vertically oriented lines. No leftward bias was found, suggesting that early visuospatial attention biases in infancy are constrained by the orientation of the visual plane in which the information is organized. The interplay between biological and cultural factors that might contribute to the early establishment of the observed leftward bias in the allocation of visuospatial attention is discussed.

3.
Soc Neurosci ; : 1-16, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469270

RESUMO

Discriminating facial cues to trustworthiness is a fundamental social skill whose developmental origins are still debated. Prior investigations used computer-generated faces, which might fail to reflect infants' face processing expertise. Here, Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in Caucasian adults (N = 20, 7 males, M age = 25.25 years) and 6-month-old infants (N = 21, 10 males) in response to variations in trustworthiness intensity expressed by morphed images of realistic female faces associated with explicit trustworthiness judgments (Study 1). Preferential looking behavior in response to the same faces was also investigated in infants (N = 27, 11 males) (Study 2). ERP results showed that both age groups distinguished subtle stimulus differences, and that interindividual variability in neural sensitivity to these differences were associated with infants' temperament. No signs of stimulus differentiation emerged from infants' looking behavior. These findings contribute to the understanding of the developmental origins of human sensitivity to social cues from faces by extending prior evidence to more ecological stimuli and by unraveling the mediating role of temperament.

4.
Child Dev ; 92(5): 2142-2152, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028788

RESUMO

Infant research is providing accumulating evidence that number-space mappings appear early in development. Here, a Posner cueing paradigm was used to investigate the neural mechanisms underpinning the attentional bias induced by nonsymbolic numerical cues in 9-month-old infants (N = 32). Event-related potentials and saccadic reaction time were measured to the onset of a peripheral target flashing right after the offset of a centered small or large numerical cue, with the location of the target being either congruent or incongruent with the number's relative position on a left-to-right oriented representational continuum. Results indicated that the cueing effect induced by numbers on infants' orienting of eye gaze brings about sensory facilitation in processing visual information at the cued location.


Assuntos
Atenção , Fixação Ocular , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Lactente , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação
5.
Infancy ; 26(3): 442-454, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709450

RESUMO

Rule learning (RL) refers to infants' ability to extract high-order, repetition-based rules from a sequence of elements and to generalize them to new items. RL has been demonstrated in both the auditory and the visual modality, but no studies have investigated infants' transfer of learning across these two modalities, a process that is fundamental for the development of many complex cognitive skills. Using a visual habituation procedure within a cross-modal RL task, we tested 7-month-old infants' transfer of learning both from speech to vision (auditory-visual-AV-condition) and from vision to speech (visual-auditory-VA-condition). Results showed a transfer of learning in the AV condition, but only for those infants who were able to efficiently extract the rule during the learning (habituation) phase. In contrast, in the VA condition infants provided no evidence of RL. Overall, this study indicates that 7-month-old infants can transfers high-order rules across modalities with an advantage for transferring from speech to vision, and that this ability is constrained by infants' individual differences in the way they process the to-be-learned rules.

6.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(12): 4621-4631, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582879

RESUMO

Statistical learning refers to the ability to extract the statistical relations embedded in a sequence, and it plays a crucial role in the development of communicative and social skills that are impacted in the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Here, we investigated the relationship between infants' SL ability and autistic traits in their parents. Using a visual habituation task, we tested infant offspring of adults (non-diagnosed) who show high (HAT infants) versus low (LAT infants) autistic traits. Results demonstrated that LAT infants learned the statistical structure embedded in a visual sequence, while HAT infants failed. Moreover, infants' SL ability was related to autistic traits in their parents, further suggesting that early dysfunctions in SL might contribute to variabilities in ASD symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Comunicação , Humanos , Pais , Habilidades Sociais
7.
Neuroscience ; 464: 59-66, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659338

RESUMO

The human tactile system is known to discriminate different types of touches, one of these termed 'affective touch', is mainly mediated by slow conducting tactile afferents (CT fibres), which are preferentially activated by slow and gentle strokes. Human infants experience self-generated tactile stimulation during prenatal life, and they receive a large amount of affectionate touches by their caregivers from birth. This early and extended experience with tactile stimulation may likely make infants particularly sensitive to affective touch, and increasing evidence shows that this may indeed be the case. However, infants commonly experience affective touch in the context of social interactions with familiar adults (e.g., while looking at their caregiver), and recent evidence suggests that this helps them assigning affiliative and communicative meaning to the touch they are perceiving. Here we investigated the presence of visual-tactile interactions in 4-5-month-old infants' physiological (i.e., skin conductance) and behavioural (i.e., visual looking times) responses to visual and tactile stimulation of affective/social nature when the sources of both stimulation are not familiar to the infant. To explore whether the modulation of physiological arousal elicited by the socially-relevant bimodal stimulation is specific to infants or extends into adulthood, we also tested a group of adults. Infants (N = 25) and adults (N = 25) were stimulated on their forearm through slow stroking (i.e. affective touch) or tapping (i.e. non-affective touch) during the observation of dynamic images of socially-relevant (i.e., an unfamiliar face) and non-socially-relevant (i.e., a house) stimuli. We found that the simultaneous presentation of socially-relevant visual-tactile stimuli significantly decreased infants' - but not the adults' - electrodermal response, suggesting that infants easily integrate low-level properties of affective touch with socially salient visual information, and that social experience may tune and change sensitivity to affective touch across the life-span.


Assuntos
Percepção do Tato , Adulto , Comunicação , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Humanos , Lactente , Estimulação Luminosa , Estimulação Física , Prazer
8.
Front Psychol ; 11: 281, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32158415

RESUMO

The ability to learn and generalize abstract rules from sensory input - i.e., Rule Learning (RL) - is seen as pivotal to language development, and specifically to the acquisition of the grammatical structure of language. Although many studies have shown that RL in infancy is operating across different perceptual domains, including vision, no studies have directly investigated the link between infants' visual RL and later language acquisition. Here, we conducted a longitudinal study to investigate whether 7-month-olds' ability to detect visual structural regularities predicts linguistic outcome at 2 years of age. At 7 months, infants were tested for their ability to extract and generalize ABB and ABA structures from sequences of visual shapes, and at 24 months their lexical and grammatical skills were assessed using the MacArthur-Bates CDI. Regression analyses showed that infants' visual RL abilities selectively predicted early grammatical abilities, but not lexical abilities. These results may provide the first evidence that RL mechanisms are involved in language acquisition, and suggest that RL abilities may act as an early neurocognitive marker for language impairments.

9.
Cognition ; 195: 104091, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739006

RESUMO

The ability to discriminate the ordinal information embedded in magnitude-based sequences has been shown in 4-month-old infants, both for numerical and size-based sequences. At this early age, however, this ability is confined to increasing sequences, with infants failing to extract and represent decreasing order. Here we investigate whether the ability to represent order extends to duration-based sequences in 4-month-old infants, and whether it also shows the asymmetry signature previously observed for number and size. Infants were tested in an order discrimination task in which they were habituated to either increasing or decreasing variations in temporal duration, and were then tested with novel sequences composed of new temporal items whose durations varied following the familiar and the novel orders in alternation. Across three experiments, we manipulated the duration of the single temporal items and therefore of the whole sequences, which resulted in imposing more or less constraints on infants' working memory, or general processing capacities. Results showed that infants failed at discriminating the ordinal direction in temporal sequences when the sequences had an overall long duration (Experiment 1), but succeeded when the duration of the sequences was shortened (Experiments 2 and 3). Moreover, there was no sign of the asymmetry signature previously reported for number and size, as successful discrimination was present for infants habituated to both increasing and decreasing sequences. These results suggest that sensitivity to temporal order is present very early in development, and that its functional properties are not shared with other magnitude dimensions, such as size and number.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Habituação Psicofisiológica/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
10.
Child Dev ; 91(5): 1529-1547, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769004

RESUMO

The ability to discriminate social signals from faces is a fundamental component of human social interactions whose developmental origins are still debated. In this study, 5-year-old (N = 29) and 7-year-old children (N = 31) and adults (N = 34) made perceptual similarity and trustworthiness judgments on a set of female faces varying in level of expressed trustworthiness. All groups represented perceived similarity of the faces as a function of trustworthiness intensity, but such representation becomes more fine-grained with development. Moreover, 5-year-olds' accuracy in choosing the more trustworthy face in a pair varied as a function of children's score at the Test of Emotion Comprehension, suggesting that the ability to perform face-to-trait inferences is related to the development of emotional understanding.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Julgamento/fisiologia , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Habilidades Sociais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Dev Psychobiol ; 61(6): 843-858, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032893

RESUMO

Research investigating the early development of emotional processing has focused mainly on infants' perception of static facial emotional expressions, likely restricting the amount and type of information available to infants. In particular, the question of whether dynamic information in emotional facial expressions modulates infants' neural responses has been rarely investigated. The present study aimed to fill this gap by recording 7-month-olds' event-related potentials to static (Study 1) and dynamic (Study 2) happy, angry, and neutral faces. In Study 1, happy faces evoked a faster right-lateralized negative central (Nc) component compared to angry faces. In Study 2, both happy and angry faces elicited a larger right-lateralized Nc compared to neutral faces. Irrespective of stimulus dynamicity, a larger P400 to angry faces was associated with higher scores on the Negative Affect temperamental dimension. Overall, results suggest that 7-month-olds are sensitive to facial dynamics, which might play a role in shaping the neural processing of facial emotional expressions. Results also suggest that the amount of attentional resources infants allocate to angry expressions is associated to their temperamental traits. These findings represent a promising avenue for future studies exploring the neurobiological processes involved in perceiving emotional expressions using dynamic stimuli.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
12.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(2): 224-236, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589353

RESUMO

One of the most important sources of social information is the human face, on whose appearance we easily form social judgments: Adults tend to attribute a certain personality to a stranger based on minimal facial cues, and after a short exposure time. Previous studies shed light on the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying the ability to discriminate facial properties conveying social signals, but the underlying processes supporting individual differences remain poorly understood. In the current study, we explored whether differences in sensitivity to facial cues to trustworthiness and in representing such cues in a multidimensional space are associated with individual variability in social attitude, as measured by the extraversion/introversion dimension. Participants performed a task where they assessed the similarity between faces that varied in the level of trustworthiness, and multidimensional scaling analyses were performed to describe perceptual similarity in a multidimensional representational space. Extraversion scores impacted RTs, but not accuracy or face representation, making less extraverted individuals slower in detecting similarity of faces based on physical cues to trustworthiness. These findings are discussed from an ontogenetic perspective, where reduced social motivation might constrain perceptual attunement to social cues from faces, without affecting the structuring of the face representational space. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Individualidade , Percepção Social , Confiança , Adulto , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Introversão Psicológica , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Dev Psychobiol ; 60(4): 395-406, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528119

RESUMO

During the first year of life face discrimination abilities narrow toward adult human faces of the most frequently encountered ethnic group/s. Earlier studies showed that perceptual learning under laboratory-training protocols can modulate this narrowing process. Here we investigated whether natural experience acquired in everyday settings with an older sibling's face can shape the trajectory of perceptual narrowing towards adult faces. Using an infant-controlled habituation procedure we measured discrimination of adult (Experiment 1) and child faces (Experiment 2) in 3- and 9- month-old infants with and without a child sibling. Discrimination of adult faces was observed for infants at both ages, although accompanied by posthabituation preferences in opposite directions, whereas at both ages the discrimination of child faces critically depended on sibling experience. These results provide the first evidence that natural experience acquired with siblings affects the tuning properties of infant face representation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Irmãos , Feminino , Habituação Psicofisiológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
14.
Dev Sci ; 21(1)2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27921339

RESUMO

Recent data showed that, in Caucasian infants, perceptual narrowing occurs for own-race adult faces between 3 and 9 months of age, possibly as a consequence of the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals of the same race of the caregiver. The neural correlates of this developmental process remain unexplored, and it is currently unknown whether perceptual tuning towards adult faces can be extended to other cultures. To this end, in the current study we tested the ability of 3- and 9-month-old Japanese infants to discriminate among adult and infant Asian faces in a visual familiarization task (Experiment 1), and compared 9-month-olds' cerebral hemodynamic responses to adult and infant faces as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) (Experiment 2). Results showed that 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces, whereas 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiment 1). Moreover, adult faces, but not infant faces, induced significant increases in hemodynamic responses in the right temporal areas of 9-month-old infants. Overall, our data suggest that perceptual narrowing towards adult faces is a cross-cultural phenomenon occurring between 3 and 9 months of age, and translates by 9 months of age into a right-hemispheric specialization in the processing of adult faces.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Face , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Masculino , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
15.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 161: 161-177, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527749

RESUMO

There has been compelling evidence favoring the idea that human adults similarly represent number and time along a horizontal mental number line (MNL) and mental time line (MTL), respectively. Yet, analogies drawn between the MNL and MTL have been challenged by recent studies suggesting that adults' representations of number and time arise from different spatial frames of reference; whereas the MNL relies on both hand-centered and object-centered coordinates, the MTL appears to be exclusively anchored on object-centered coordinates. To directly test this possibility, here we explored the extent to which visual feedback and proprioceptive feedback affect children's performance in a Number Comparison task (Experiment 1) and a Time Comparison task (Experiment 2), in which participants needed to associate a lateralized key with numerical and temporal words, respectively. Children (5- and 6-year-olds) performed the task with their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline (i.e., manipulation of proprioceptive feedback) and with either visual control over their hands allowed or precluded under blindfolds (i.e., manipulation of visual feedback). Results showed that children were facilitated in associating smaller/larger numbers with the left/right side of the external space, but only when hands were uncrossed and visual feedback was available. On the contrary, blindfolding and crossing their hands over the midline did not affect spatial time mapping, with 6-year-olds showing facilitation in associating words referring to the past/future with the left/right side of the external space irrespective of visual and proprioceptive feedback. This same effect was also present in 5-year-olds despite their difficulty in performing the Time Comparison task. Together, these findings show, for the first time, that-just like adults-young children (a) map temporal events onto space in a rightward direction as they do for numbers and (b) anchor their spatial representation of time and numbers to different spatial frames of reference.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2437, 2017 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28550288

RESUMO

A wealth of studies show that human adults map ordered information onto a directional spatial continuum. We asked whether mapping ordinal information into a directional space constitutes an early predisposition, already functional prior to the acquisition of symbolic knowledge and language. While it is known that preverbal infants represent numerical order along a left-to-right spatial continuum, no studies have investigated yet whether infants, like adults, organize any kind of ordinal information onto a directional space. We investigated whether 7-month-olds' ability to learn high-order rule-like patterns from visual sequences of geometric shapes was affected by the spatial orientation of the sequences (left-to-right vs. right-to-left). Results showed that infants readily learn rule-like patterns when visual sequences were presented from left to right, but not when presented from right to left. This result provides evidence that spatial orientation critically determines preverbal infants' ability to perceive and learn ordered information in visual sequences, opening to the idea that a left-to-right spatially organized mental representation of ordered dimensions might be rooted in biologically-determined constraints on human brain development.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Viés , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória
17.
Infancy ; 22(3): 389-402, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158356

RESUMO

The development of the ability to recognize the whole human body shape has long been investigated in infants, while less is known about their ability to recognize the shape of single body parts, and in particular their biomechanical constraints. This study aimed to explore whether 9- and 12-month-old infants have knowledge of a hand-grasping movement (i.e., pincer grip), being able to recognize violations of the hand's anatomical constraints during the observation of that movement. Using a preferential looking paradigm, we showed that 12-month-olds discriminate between biomechanically possible and impossible pincer grips, preferring the former over the latter (Experiment 1). This capacity begins to emerge by 9 months of age, modulated by infants' own sensorimotor experience with pincer grip (Experiment 2). Our findings indicate that the ability to visually discriminate between pincer grasps differing in their biomechanical properties develops between 9 and 12 months of age, and that experience with self-produced hand movements might help infants in building a representation of the hand that encompasses knowledge of the physical constraints of this body part.

18.
Cognition ; 158: 177-188, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835788

RESUMO

Ordinality is a fundamental aspect of numerical cognition. However, preverbal infants' ability to represent numerical order is poorly understood. In the present study we extended the evidence provided by Macchi Cassia, Picozzi, Girelli, and de Hevia (2012), showing that 4-month-old infants detect ordinal relationships within size-based sequences, to numerical sequences. In three experiments, we showed that at 4months of age infants fail to represent increasing and decreasing numerical order when numerosities differ by a 1:2 ratio (Experiment 1), but they succeed when numerosities differ by a 1:3 ratio (Experiments 2 and 3). Critically, infants showed the same behavioral signature (i.e., asymmetry) described by Macchi Cassia et al. for discrimination of ordinal changes in area: they succeed at detecting increasing but not decreasing order (Experiments 2 and 3). These results support the idea of a common (or at least parallel) development of ordinal representation for the two quantitative dimensions of size and number. Moreover, the finding that the asymmetry signature, previously reported for size-based sequences, extends to numerosity, points to the existence of a common constraint in ordinal magnitude processing in the first months of life. The present findings are discussed in the context of possible evolutionary and developmental sources of the ordinal asymmetry, as well as their implication for other related cognitive abilities.


Assuntos
Cognição , Conceitos Matemáticos , Psicologia da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
20.
Psychol Res ; 80(3): 360-7, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26898647

RESUMO

Recent evidence has shown that, like adults and children, 9-month-old infants manifest an operational momentum (OM) effect during non-symbolic arithmetic, whereby they overestimate the outcomes to addition problems, and underestimate the outcomes to subtraction problems. Here we provide the first evidence that OM occurs for transformations of non-numerical magnitudes (i.e., spatial extent) during ordering operations. Twelve-month-old infants were tested in an ordinal task in which they detected and represented ascension or descension in physical size, and then responded to ordinal sequences that exhibited greater or lesser sizes. Infants displayed longer looking time to the size change whose direction violated the operational momentum experienced during habituation (i.e., the smaller sequence in the ascension condition and the larger sequence in the descension condition). The presence of momentum for ordering size during infancy suggests that continuous quantities are represented spatially during the first year of life.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
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