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1.
J Immunol ; 205(10): 2679-2693, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020148

RESUMO

Human NK cells develop in tonsils through discrete NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDIs), yet the mechanistic regulation of this process is unclear. We demonstrate that Notch activation in human tonsil-derived stage 3 (CD34-CD117+CD94-NKp80-) and 4A (CD34-CD117+/-CD94+NKp80-) NKDIs promoted non-NK innate lymphoid cell differentiation at the expense of NK cell differentiation. In contrast, stage 4B (CD34-CD117+/-CD94+NKp80+) NKDIs were NK cell lineage committed despite Notch activation. Interestingly, whereas NK cell functional maturation from stage 3 and 4A NKDIs was independent of Notch activation, the latter was required for high NKp80 expression and a stage 4B-like phenotype by the NKDI-derived NK cells. The Notch-dependent effects required simultaneous engagement with OP9 stromal cells and were also stage-specific, with NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 receptors regulating stage 3 NKDIs and NOTCH1 primarily regulating stage 4A NKDIs. These data establish stage-specific and stromal-dependent roles for Notch in regulating human NK cell developmental plasticity and maturation.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 130(10): 5272-5286, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865517

RESUMO

Human natural killer cell deficiency (NKD) arises from inborn errors of immunity that lead to impaired NK cell development, function, or both. Through the understanding of the biological perturbations in individuals with NKD, requirements for the generation of terminally mature functional innate effector cells can be elucidated. Here, we report a cause of NKD resulting from compound heterozygous mutations in minichromosomal maintenance complex member 10 (MCM10) that impaired NK cell maturation in a child with fatal susceptibility to CMV. MCM10 has not been previously associated with monogenic disease and plays a critical role in the activation and function of the eukaryotic DNA replisome. Through evaluation of patient primary fibroblasts, modeling patient mutations in fibroblast cell lines, and MCM10 knockdown in human NK cell lines, we have shown that loss of MCM10 function leads to impaired cell cycle progression and induction of DNA damage-response pathways. By modeling MCM10 deficiency in primary NK cell precursors, including patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, we further demonstrated that MCM10 is required for NK cell terminal maturation and acquisition of immunological system function. Together, these data define MCM10 as an NKD gene and provide biological insight into the requirement for the DNA replisome in human NK cell maturation and function.

3.
Blood Adv ; 4(16): 3990-4006, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841340

RESUMO

Adaptive immune responses are acknowledged to evolve from innate immunity. However, limited information exists regarding whether encounters between innate cells direct the generation of specialized T-cell subsets. We aim to understand how natural killer (NK) cells modulate cell-mediated immunity in humans. We found that human CD14+CD16- monocytes that differentiate into inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs) are shaped at the early stages of differentiation by cell-to-cell interactions with NK cells. Although a fraction of monocytes is eliminated by NK-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, the polarization of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) at the NKp30-stabilized synapses triggers a stable IFN-γ signature in surviving monocytes that persists after their differentiation into DCs. Notably, NK-cell-instructed DCs drive the priming of type 17 CD8+ T cells (Tc17) with the capacity to produce IFN-γ and interleukin-17A. Compared with healthy donors, this cellular network is impaired in patients with classical NK-cell deficiency driven by mutations in the GATA2 gene. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized connection by which Tc17-mediated immunity might be regulated by NK-cell-mediated tuning of antigen-presenting cells.

4.
Immunity ; 53(3): 672-684.e11, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750333

RESUMO

Autoinflammatory disease can result from monogenic errors of immunity. We describe a patient with early-onset multi-organ immune dysregulation resulting from a mosaic, gain-of-function mutation (S703I) in JAK1, encoding a kinase essential for signaling downstream of >25 cytokines. By custom single-cell RNA sequencing, we examine mosaicism with single-cell resolution. We find that JAK1 transcription was predominantly restricted to a single allele across different cells, introducing the concept of a mutational "transcriptotype" that differs from the genotype. Functionally, the mutation increases JAK1 activity and transactivates partnering JAKs, independent of its catalytic domain. S703I JAK1 is not only hypermorphic for cytokine signaling but also neomorphic, as it enables signaling cascades not canonically mediated by JAK1. Given these results, the patient was treated with tofacitinib, a JAK inhibitor, leading to the rapid resolution of clinical disease. These findings offer a platform for personalized medicine with the concurrent discovery of fundamental biological principles.

6.
Science ; 369(6500): 202-207, 2020 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647003

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency often coincides with hyperactive immune disorders such as autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, or atopy, but this coincidence is rarely understood on a molecular level. We describe five patients from four families with immunodeficiency coupled with atopy, lymphoproliferation, and cytokine overproduction harboring mutations in NCKAP1L, which encodes the hematopoietic-specific HEM1 protein. These mutations cause the loss of the HEM1 protein and the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) or disrupt binding to the WRC regulator, Arf1, thereby impairing actin polymerization, synapse formation, and immune cell migration. Diminished cortical actin networks caused by WRC loss led to uncontrolled cytokine release and immune hyperresponsiveness. HEM1 loss also blocked mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)-dependent AKT phosphorylation, T cell proliferation, and selected effector functions, leading to immunodeficiency. Thus, the evolutionarily conserved HEM1 protein simultaneously regulates filamentous actin (F-actin) and mTORC2 signaling to achieve equipoise in immune responses.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Fator 1 de Ribosilação do ADP/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Linhagem , Fosforilação , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/química , Família de Proteínas da Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/metabolismo
7.
Elife ; 92020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510326

RESUMO

Human natural killer (NK) cells are defined as CD56+CD3-. Despite its ubiquitous expression on human NK cells the role of CD56 (NCAM) in human NK cell cytotoxic function has not been defined. In non-immune cells, NCAM can induce signaling, mediate adhesion, and promote exocytosis through interactions with focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Here we demonstrate that deletion of CD56 on the NK92 cell line leads to impaired cytotoxic function. CD56-knockout (KO) cells fail to polarize during immunological synapse (IS) formation and have severely impaired exocytosis of lytic granules. Phosphorylation of the FAK family member Pyk2 at tyrosine 402 is decreased in NK92 CD56-KO cells, demonstrating a functional link between CD56 and signaling in human NK cells. Cytotoxicity, lytic granule exocytosis, and the phosphorylation of Pyk2 are rescued by the reintroduction of CD56. These data highlight a novel functional role for CD56 in stimulating exocytosis and promoting cytotoxicity in human NK cells.

8.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392635

RESUMO

Human NK cells are effectors of the innate immune system that originate from hematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow. While stromal cell lines that support NK cell development from hematopoietic precursors are often used to generate mature NK cells from lymphoid precursors in vitro, the nature of contributing factors of these stromal cells to the generation of functionally mature NK cells has been poorly described. Previous studies have shown that developing NK cells adhere to, and migrate on, developmentally supportive stroma. Here, we describe the generation of cell-derived matrices (CDMs) from a commonly used murine fetal liver stromal cell line. These CDMs are derived directly from the same EL08.1D2 stromal cell line known to support NK cell differentiation and contain ECM structural components fibronectin and collagen. We demonstrate that CDMs support NK cell adhesion and migration with similar properties as intact cells. Further, we show that CDMs support NK cell maturation from lymphoid precursors in vitro, albeit with reduced cell survival compared to intact cell-based differentiation. Together, these results describe a cell-free system that supports NK cell development and that can serve as a useful model for studying the nature of the biochemical interactions between NK cell developmental intermediates and developmentally supportive substrates.

9.
Mol Biol Cell ; 31(10): 981-991, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352896

RESUMO

Lymphocyte development is a complex and coordinated pathway originating from pluripotent stem cells during embryogenesis and continuing even as matured lymphocytes are primed and educated in adult tissue. Hematopoietic stem cells develop in a specialized niche that includes extracellular matrix and supporting stromal and endothelial cells that both maintain stem cell pluripotency and enable the generation of differentiated cells. Cues for lymphocyte development include changes in integrin-dependent cell motility and adhesion which ultimately help to determine cell fate. The capacity of lymphocytes to adhere and migrate is important for modulating these developmental signals both by regulating the cues that the cell receives from the local microenvironment as well as facilitating the localization of precursors to tissue niches throughout the body. Here we consider how changing migratory and adhesive phenotypes contribute to human natural killer (NK)- and T-cell development as they undergo development from precursors to mature, circulating cells and how our understanding of this process is informed by in vitro models of T- and NK cell generation.

10.
Blood Adv ; 4(7): 1388-1406, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271902

RESUMO

Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood perform many functions, and classification of specific subsets has been a longstanding goal. We report single-cell RNA sequencing of NK cells, comparing gene expression in unstimulated and interleukin (IL)-2-activated cells from healthy cytomegalovirus (CMV)-negative donors. Three NK cell subsets resembled well-described populations; CD56brightCD16-, CD56dimCD16+CD57-, and CD56dimCD16+CD57+. CD56dimCD16+CD57- cells subdivided to include a population with higher chemokine mRNA and increased frequency of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor expression. Three novel human blood NK cell populations were identified: a population of type I interferon-responding NK cells that were CD56neg; a population exhibiting a cytokine-induced memory-like phenotype, including increased granzyme B mRNA in response to IL-2; and finally, a small population, with low ribosomal expression, downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation, and high levels of immediate early response genes indicative of cellular activation. Analysis of CMV+ donors established that CMV altered the proportion of NK cells in each subset, especially an increase in adaptive NK cells, as well as gene regulation within each subset. Together, these data establish an unexpected diversity in blood NK cells and provide a new framework for analyzing NK cell responses in health and disease.

11.
J Clin Invest ; 130(6): 3113-3123, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125282

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) has coevolved with humans for millennia and developed multiple mechanisms to evade host immunity. Restoring host immunity in order to improve outcomes and potentially shorten existing therapy will require identification of the full complement by which host immunity is inhibited. Perturbation of host DNA methylation is a mechanism induced by chronic infections such as HIV, HPV, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and schistosomiasis to evade host immunity. Here, we evaluated the DNA methylation status of patients with tuberculosis (TB) and their asymptomatic household contacts and found that the patients with TB have DNA hypermethylation of the IL-2/STAT5, TNF/NF-κB, and IFN-γ signaling pathways. We performed methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme-quantitative PCR (MSRE-qPCR) and observed that multiple genes of the IL-12/IFN-γ signaling pathway (IL12B, IL12RB2, TYK2, IFNGR1, JAK1, and JAK2) were hypermethylated in patients with TB. The DNA hypermethylation of these pathways was associated with decreased immune responsiveness with decreased mitogen-induced upregulation of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-6, CXCL9, CXCL10, and IL-1ß production. The DNA hypermethylation of the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway was associated with decreased IFN-γ-induced gene expression and decreased IL-12-inducible upregulation of IFN-γ. This study demonstrates that immune cells from patients with TB are characterized by DNA hypermethylation of genes critical to mycobacterial immunity resulting in decreased mycobacteria-specific and nonspecific immune responsiveness.

12.
Blood ; 135(9): 629-637, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945148

RESUMO

Natural killer cell deficiencies (NKDs) are an emerging phenotypic subtype of primary immune deficiency. NK cells provide a defense against virally infected cells using a variety of cytotoxic mechanisms, and patients who have defective NK cell development or function can present with atypical, recurrent, or severe herpesviral infections. The current pipeline for investigating NKDs involves the acquisition and clinical assessment of patients with a suspected NKD followed by subsequent in silico, in vitro, and in vivo laboratory research. Evaluation involves initially quantifying NK cells and measuring NK cell cytotoxicity and expression of certain NK cell receptors involved in NK cell development and function. Subsequent studies using genomic methods to identify the potential causative variant are conducted along with variant impact testing to make genotype-phenotype connections. Identification of novel genes contributing to the NKD phenotype can also be facilitated by applying the expanding knowledge of NK cell biology. In this review, we discuss how NKDs that affect NK cell cytotoxicity can be approached in the clinic and laboratory for the discovery of novel gene variants.


Assuntos
Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Deficiência de GATA2/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/imunologia , Animais , Humanos
13.
Biophys J ; 118(3): 586-599, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952801

RESUMO

The coordination of lipid messenger signaling with cytoskeletal regulation is central to many organelle-specific regulatory processes. This coupling often depends on the function of multidomain scaffolds that orchestrate transient interactions among multiple signaling intermediates and regulatory proteins on organelles. The number of possible scaffold interaction partners and the ability for these interactions to occur at different timescales makes investigations of scaffold functions challenging. This work employs live cell imaging to probe how the multidomain scaffold IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) coordinates the activities of proteins affecting local actin polymerization, membrane processing, and phosphoinositide signaling. Using endosomes that are confined by a local actin network as a model system, we demonstrate that IQGAP1 can transition between different actin and endosomal membrane tethered states. Fast scaffold binding/disassociation transitions are shown to be driven by interactions between C-terminal scaffold domains and Rho GTPases at the membrane. Fluctuations in these binding modes are linked to negative regulation of actin polymerization. Although this control governs core elements of IQGAP1 dynamics, actin binding by the N-terminal calponin homology domain of the scaffold is shown to help the scaffold track the temporal development of endosome membrane markers, implying actin associations bolster membrane and actin coordination. Importantly, these effects are not easily distilled purely through standard (static) co-localization analyses or traditional pathway perturbations methods and were resolved by performing dynamic correlation and multiple regression analyses of IQGAP1 scaffold mutants. Using these capabilities with pharmacological inhibition, we provide evidence that membrane tethering is dependent on the activities of the lipid kinase phosphoinositide 3-kinase in addition to the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. Overall, these methods and results point to a scaffold tethering mechanism that allows IQGAP1 to help control the amplitude of phosphoinositide lipid messenger signaling by coordinating signaling intermediate activities with the development and disassembly of local actin cytoskeletal networks.

14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(1): 345-357.e9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) deficiency have impairment in T-cell homeostasis and natural killer (NK) cells which leads to autoimmunity, recurrent infections, and combined immune deficiency. OBJECTIVE: In this study we characterized the NK cell defect in STAT5b-deficient human NK cells, as well as Stat5b-/- mice. METHODS: We used multiparametric flow cytometry, functional NK cell assays, microscopy, and a Stat5b-/- mouse model to elucidate the effect of impaired and/or absent STAT5b on NK cell development and function. RESULTS: This alteration generated a nonfunctional CD56bright NK cell subset characterized by low cytokine production. The CD56dim NK cell subset had decreased expression of perforin and CD16 and a greater frequency of cells expressing markers of immature NK cells. We observed low NK cell numbers and impaired NK cell maturation, suggesting that STAT5b is involved in terminal NK cell maturation in Stat5b-/- mice. Furthermore, human STAT5b-deficient NK cells had low cytolytic capacity, and fixed-cell microscopy showed poor convergence of lytic granules. This was accompanied by decreased expression of costimulatory and activating receptors. Interestingly, granule convergence and cytolytic function were restored after IL-2 stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that in addition to the impaired terminal maturation of NK cells, human STAT5b mutation leads to impairments in early activation events in NK cell lytic synapse formation. Our data provide further insight into NK cell defects caused by STAT5b deficiency.

17.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 303, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417880

RESUMO

Nuclear factor kappa-B subunit 2 (NF-κB2/p100/p52), encoded by NFKB2 (MIM: 164012) belongs to the NF-κB family of transcription factors that play a critical role in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Heterozygous C-terminal mutations in NFKB2 have been associated with early-onset common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), central adrenal insufficiency and ectodermal dysplasia. Only two previously reported cases have documented decreased natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, and little is known about the role of NF-κB2 in NK cell maturation and function. Here we report a 13-year-old female that presented at 6 years of age with a history of early onset recurrent sinopulmonary infections, progressive hair loss, and hypogamaglobulinemia consistent with a clinical diagnosis of CVID. At 9 years of age she had cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia that responded to ganciclovir treatment. Functional NK cell testing demonstrated decreased NK cell cytotoxicity despite normal NK cell numbers, consistent with a greater susceptibility to systemic CMV infection. Research exome sequencing (ES) was performed and revealed a novel de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation in NFKB2 (c.2611C>T, p.Gln871*) that was not carried by either of her parents. The variant was Sanger sequenced and confirmed to be de novo in the patient. At age 12, she presented with a reactivation of the systemic CMV infection that was associated with severe and progressive nephrotic syndrome with histologic evidence of pedicellar effacement and negative immunofluorescence. To our knowledge, this is the third NF-κB2 deficient patient in which an abnormal NK cell function has been observed, suggesting a role for non-canonical NF-κB2 signaling in NK cell cytotoxicity. NK cell function should be assessed in patients with mutations in the non-canonical NF-κB pathway to explore the risk for systemic viral infections that may lead to severe complications and impact patient survival. Similarly NF-κB2 should be considered in patients with combined immunodeficiency who have aberrant NK cell function. Further studies are needed to characterize the role of NF-κB2 in NK cell cytotoxic function.

18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3106, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308374

RESUMO

Immune responses need to be controlled tightly to prevent autoimmune diseases, yet underlying molecular mechanisms remain partially understood. Here, we identify biallelic mutations in three patients from two unrelated families in differentially expressed in FDCP6 homolog (DEF6) as the molecular cause of an inborn error of immunity with systemic autoimmunity. Patient T cells exhibit impaired regulation of CTLA-4 surface trafficking associated with reduced functional CTLA-4 availability, which is replicated in DEF6-knockout Jurkat cells. Mechanistically, we identify the small GTPase RAB11 as an interactor of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor DEF6, and find disrupted binding of mutant DEF6 to RAB11 as well as reduced RAB11+CTLA-4+ vesicles in DEF6-mutated cells. One of the patients has been treated with CTLA-4-Ig and achieved sustained remission. Collectively, we uncover DEF6 as player in immune homeostasis ensuring availability of the checkpoint protein CTLA-4 at T-cell surface, identifying a potential target for autoimmune and/or cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/genética , Antígeno B7-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/imunologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
19.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(8): 2025-2033, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648453

RESUMO

Germline mutations in GATA2 are associated with a complex immunodeficiency and cancer predisposition syndrome. Somatic GATA2mut in myeloid malignancies may impart a similar phenotype. We reviewed adult patients with a diagnosis of GATA2mut hematological malignancy who were referred to our HHMC for genetic testing, and identified to have somatic GATA2mut. Nine patients with a median age of 63 years were included. Six patients (66.7%) were males. Atypical CML and acute myeloid leukemia were the most common initial presentation. The median overall VAF was 47.14%. Monocytopenia was pronounced when the GATA2mut involved the C-terminal ZFD. GATA2 N-terminal ZFD mutations tend to be co-mutated with biCEBPAmut. Unlike germline GATA2 mutations, monocytopenia associated with somatic GATA2 mutations often resolved at remission. We concluded that similar to germline GATA2 mutations, a subset of somatic GATA2 mutations can impart a germline phenotype.

20.
Mol Immunol ; 115: 64-75, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054012

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cell lines, including YTS, NK92, NK3.3, and NKL, represent excellent models for the study of human natural killer cells. While phenotypic and functional differences between these cell lines have been reported, a multi-parametric study, encompassing genomic, phenotypic, and functional assays, has not been performed. Here, using a combination of techniques including microarray and copy number analyses, flow cytometry, and functional assays, we provide in-depth genetic, functional, and phenotypic comparison of YTS, NK92, NK3.3, and NKL cell lines. Specifically, we found that while the cell lines shared similarities in enrichment of growth and survival pathways, they had differential expression of 557 genes, including genes related to NK cell development, survival, and function. In addition, we provide genetic and phenotypic analyses that demonstrate distinct developmental origins of NK92, YTS, and NKL cell lines. Specifically, NK92 has a phenotype associated with the CD56bright NK cell subset, while both YTS and NKL appear more CD56dim-like. Finally, by classifying cell lines based on their lytic potential, we identified genes differentially expressed between NK cell lines with high and low lytic function. Taken together, these data provide the first comprehensive genetic, phenotypic, and functional analyses of these commonly used NK cell lines and provides deeper understanding into their origins and function. This will ultimately improve their use as models for human NK cell biology.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Antígeno CD56/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos
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